Environmentalism

environmentalenvironmentalistEcologismenvironmental awarenessenvironmentenvironmentalistsenvironmental activistenvironmental preservationgreenenvironmental protection
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.wikipedia
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Green politics

greengreen movementGreens
While environmentalism focuses more on the environmental and nature-related aspects of green ideology and politics, ecology combines the ideology of social ecology and environmentalism.
Green politics, or ecopolitics, is a political ideology that aims to foster an ecologically sustainable society rooted in environmentalism, nonviolence, social justice and grassroots democracy.

Anti-environmentalism

anti-environmentalistanti-environmentalanti-environment
Environmentalism is opposed by anti-environmentalism, which says that the Earth is less fragile than some environmentalists maintain, and portrays environmentalism as overreacting to the human contribution to climate change or opposing human advancement.
Various groups in society have sought to counter the effects of environmental ideology and movements, to redirect and diminish public concern about the environment, to attack left-leaning environmentalists, and to persuade politicians against increased environmental regulation.

Ecology

ecologicalecologistecologically
For this reason, concepts such as a land ethic, environmental ethics, biodiversity, ecology, and the biophilia hypothesis figure predominantly.

Environmentalist

environmentalistsenvironmentalenvironmental activist
An environmentalist is a person who may speak out about our natural environment and the sustainable management of its resources through changes in public policy or individual behaviour.
An environmentalist is engaged in or believes in the philosophy of environmentalism.

Environmental impact assessment

environmental assessmentenvironmental impact studyenvironmental impact
Their works covered a number of subjects related to pollution, such as air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination, municipal solid waste mishandling, and environmental impact assessments of certain localities.
Environmental impact assessments commenced in the 1960s, as part of increasing environmental awareness.

Land ethic

A Land EthicLeopold's land ethic
For this reason, concepts such as a land ethic, environmental ethics, biodiversity, ecology, and the biophilia hypothesis figure predominantly.
Conservation became the preferred term for the more anthropocentric model of resource management, while the writing of Leopold and his inspiration, John Muir, led to the development of environmentalism.

Pollution

pollutedenvironmental pollutionpollution control
Environmentalism advocates the preservation, restoration and/or improvement of the natural environment and critical earth system elements or processes such as the climate, and may be referred to as a movement to control pollution or protect plant and animal diversity.
Growing evidence of local and global pollution and an increasingly informed public over time have given rise to environmentalism and the environmental movement, which generally seek to limit human impact on the environment.

Conservation movement

conservationistconservationconservationists
Peter Kropotkin wrote about ecology in economics, agricultural science, conservation, ethology, criminology, urban planning, geography, geology and biology.
Chiefly in the United States, conservation is seen as differing from environmentalism in that it aims to preserve natural resources expressly for their continued sustainable use by humans.

Henry David Thoreau

ThoreauHenry ThoreauHenry D. Thoreau
The movement in the United States began in the late 19th century, out of concerns for protecting the natural resources of the West, with individuals such as John Muir and Henry David Thoreau making key philosophical contributions.
Among his lasting contributions are his writings on natural history and philosophy, in which he anticipated the methods and findings of ecology and environmental history, two sources of modern-day environmentalism.

David Brower

David R. BrowerDavid BowerMr. David R. Brower
David Brower, Ansel Adams and Nancy Newhall created the Sierra Club Exhibit Format Series, which helped raise public environmental awareness and brought a rapidly increasing flood of new members to the Sierra Club and to the environmental movement in general.
David Ross Brower (July 1, 1912 – November 5, 2000) was a prominent environmentalist and the founder of many environmental organizations, including the John Muir Institute for Environmental Studies, Friends of the Earth (1969), Earth Island Institute (1982), North Cascades Conservation Council, and Fate of the Earth Conferences.

Wallace Stegner

Stegner, WallaceWallace Earle StegnerStegner
"This Is Dinosaur" edited by Wallace Stegner with photographs by Martin Litton and Philip Hyde prevented the building of dams within Dinosaur National Monument by becoming part of a new kind of activism called environmentalism that combined the conservationist ideals of Thoreau, Leopold and Muir with hard-hitting advertising, lobbying, book distribution, letter writing campaigns, and more.
Wallace Earle Stegner (February 18, 1909 – April 13, 1993) was an American novelist, short story writer, environmentalist, and historian, often called "The Dean of Western Writers".

Greenpeace

Greenpeace InternationalGreenpeace CanadaGreenpeace UK
New pressure groups formed, notably Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth (US), as well as notable local organisations such as the Wyoming Outdoor Council, which was founded in 1967.
Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over 39 countries and an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Ideology

ideologicalideologiespolitical ideology
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.
Political ideologies are concerned with many different aspects of a society, including (for example): the economy, education, health care, labor law, criminal law, the justice system, the provision of social security and social welfare, trade, the environment, minors, immigration, race, use of the military, patriotism, and established religion.

DDT

dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethaneClofenotane1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane
The book cataloged the environmental impacts of the indiscriminate spraying of DDT in the US and questioned the logic of releasing large amounts of chemicals into the environment without fully understanding their effects on human health and ecology.
Its publication was a seminal event for the environmental movement and resulted in a large public outcry that eventually led, in 1972, to a ban on DDT's agricultural use in the United States.

Counterculture of the 1960s

counterculture1960s counterculturecountercultural
In the 1970s, the environmental movement gained rapid speed around the world as a productive outgrowth of the counterculture movement.
Environmentalism grew from a greater understanding of the ongoing damage caused by industrialization, resultant pollution, and the misguided use of chemicals such as pesticides in well-meaning efforts to improve the quality of life for the rapidly growing population.

Tree sitting

tree sitstree-sittreesitting
Tree sitting is a form of activism in which the protester sits in a tree in an attempt to stop the removal of a tree or to impede the demolition of an area with the longest and most famous tree-sitter being Julia Butterfly Hill, who spent 738 days in a California Redwood, saving a three-acre tract of forest.
Tree sitting is a form of environmentalist civil disobedience in which a protester sits in a tree, usually on a small platform built for the purpose, to protect it from being cut down (speculating that loggers will not endanger human lives by cutting an occupied tree).

Deep Green Resistance

Deep Green
This became an important part of the Deep Green ideology.
Deep Green Resistance (DGR) is a radical environmental movement that views mainstream environmental activism as being largely ineffective.

Royal Society for the Protection of Birds

RSPBRSPB ScotlandRoyal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB)
His advocacy for legislation to protect animals from hunting during the mating season led to the formation of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds and influenced the passage of the Sea Birds Preservation Act in 1869 as the first nature protection law in the world.
Today, the RSPB works with both the civil service and the Government to advise Government policies on conservation and environmentalism.

Deep ecology

deep ecologistsdeep ecologistdeep ecological
These individuals lived outside normal society and started to take on some of the more radical environmental theories such as deep ecology.
Deep ecology and environmentalism hold that the science of ecology shows that ecosystems can absorb only limited change by humans or other dissonant influences.

Environmental protection

environmental conservationenvironment protectionprotection
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.

Natural Resources Defense Council

NRDCNatural Resources Defense Council (NRDC)OnEarth
Some US environmental organisations, among them the Natural Resources Defense Council and the Environmental Defense Fund, specialise in bringing lawsuits (a tactic seen as particularly useful in that country).
The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is a United States-based 501(c)(3) non-profit international environmental advocacy group, with its headquarters in New York City and offices in Washington, D.C., San Francisco, Los Angeles, New Delhi, Chicago, Bozeman, and Beijing.

Industrialisation

industrializationindustrializedindustrialised
Systematic efforts on behalf of the environment only began in the late 19th century; it grew out of the amenity movement in Britain in the 1870s, which was a reaction to industrialisation, the growth of cities, and worsening air and water pollution.
Environmentalism and Green politics may represent more visceral reactions to industrial growth.

Environmental justice

environmentalenvironmental justice movementecological justice
Because of these divisions, the environmental movement can be categorized into these primary focuses: environmental science, environmental activism, environmental advocacy, and environmental justice.
When environmentalism first became popular during the early 20th century, the focus was wilderness protection and wildlife preservation.

Global Day of Action

Global Day of Action on Climate Change
Environmentalism initiatives begun to use it in 2005 in connection with Global Climate Campaign.

Biodiversity

diversitybiological diversitybiodiverse
For this reason, concepts such as a land ethic, environmental ethics, biodiversity, ecology, and the biophilia hypothesis figure predominantly.
Zoos play a major role in creating awareness about the need to conserve nature.