Epicurus

EpicureanEpicurean paradoxEpicurean doctrineEpicurean ethicsEpicurean trilemmaEpicureansEpicurus' principle of multiple explanationsEpicurus' trilemmaEpikurEpikuros
Epicurus (341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and sage who founded a highly influential school of philosophy now called Epicureanism.wikipedia
461 Related Articles

Epicureanism

EpicureanEpicureansEpicurean philosophy
Epicurus (341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and sage who founded a highly influential school of philosophy now called Epicureanism.
Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC.

Samos

Samos IslandSamianSamians
He was born on the Greek island of Samos to Athenian parents.
Samos is the birthplace of the Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras, after whom the Pythagorean theorem is named, the philosopher Epicurus, and the astronomer Aristarchus of Samos, the first known individual to propose that the Earth revolves around the sun.

Ataraxia

detachmentequanimity
For Epicurus, the purpose of philosophy was to attain the happy, tranquil life, characterized by ataraxia—peace and freedom from fear—and aponia—the absence of pain—and by living a self-sufficient life surrounded by friends.
Ataraxia (ἀταραξία, literally, "unperturbedness", generally translated as "imperturbability", "equanimity", or "tranquillity") is a Greek term first used in Ancient Greek philosophy by Pyrrho and subsequently Epicurus and the Stoics for a lucid state of robust equanimity characterized by ongoing freedom from distress and worry.

Ancient Greek philosophy

Greek philosophyGreek philosophersGreek philosopher
Epicurus (341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and sage who founded a highly influential school of philosophy now called Epicureanism.
He has been claimed as an influence on Eleatic philosophy, although that is disputed, and a precursor to Epicurus, a representative of a total break between science and religion.

Clinamen

atomic "swerve
Epicurus deviated from Democritus in his teaching of atomic "swerve", which holds that atoms may deviate from their expected course, thus permitting humans to possess free will in an otherwise deterministic universe.
Clinamen (plural clinamina, derived from clīnāre, to incline) is the Latin name Lucretius gave to the unpredictable swerve of atoms, in order to defend the atomistic doctrine of Epicurus.

Sage (philosophy)

sagesagesSage (Sophos)
Epicurus (341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and sage who founded a highly influential school of philosophy now called Epicureanism.
Epicurus believed that one would achieve ataraxia by intense study and examination of Nature.

Diogenes Laërtius

Diogenes LaertiusDiogenesDiog. Laërtius
Most knowledge of his teachings comes from later authors, particularly the Roman poet Lucretius, the biographer Diogenes Laërtius, the statesman Cicero, and the philosophers Philodemus and Sextus Empiricus.
He passionately defends Epicurus in Book 10, which is of high quality and contains three long letters attributed to Epicurus explaining Epicurean doctrines.

Idomeneus of Lampsacus

IdomeneusIdomenus
The primary members were Hermarchus, the financier Idomeneus, Leonteus and his wife Themista, the satirist Colotes, the mathematician Polyaenus of Lampsacus, and Metrodorus of Lampsacus, the most famous popularizer of Epicureanism. Possible insights into Epicurus's death may be offered by the extremely brief Epistle to Idomeneus, included by Diogenes Laërtius in Book X of his Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers.
Idomeneus of Lampsacus (Ἰδομενεύς Λαμψακηνός; c. 325 – c. 270 BC) was a friend and disciple of Epicurus.

Hermarchus

Hermarchus the Epicurean
The primary members were Hermarchus, the financier Idomeneus, Leonteus and his wife Themista, the satirist Colotes, the mathematician Polyaenus of Lampsacus, and Metrodorus of Lampsacus, the most famous popularizer of Epicureanism.
He was the disciple and successor of Epicurus as head of the school.

Atomism

atomistsatomistatomistic
Like Democritus, Epicurus taught that the universe is infinite and eternal and that all matter is made up of extremely tiny, invisible particles known as atoms.
Epicurus (341–270 BCE) studied atomism with Nausiphanes who had been a student of Democritus.

Nikidion

His school was the first of the ancient Greek philosophical schools to admit women as a rule rather than an exception, and the biography of Epicurus by Diogenes Laërtius lists female students such as Leontion and Nikidion.
Nikidion ("Little Victory") was a female student of Epicurus and a hetaira (courtesan).

Polyaenus of Lampsacus

Polyaenus
The primary members were Hermarchus, the financier Idomeneus, Leonteus and his wife Themista, the satirist Colotes, the mathematician Polyaenus of Lampsacus, and Metrodorus of Lampsacus, the most famous popularizer of Epicureanism.
Polyaenus of Lampsacus (, Polyainos Lampsakēnos; c. 340 – c. 285 BCE), also spelled Polyenus, was an ancient Greek mathematician and a friend of Epicurus.

Colotes

Colotes of Lampsacus Colotes of Lampsacus
The primary members were Hermarchus, the financier Idomeneus, Leonteus and his wife Themista, the satirist Colotes, the mathematician Polyaenus of Lampsacus, and Metrodorus of Lampsacus, the most famous popularizer of Epicureanism.
Colotes of Lampsacus (Κολώτης Λαμψακηνός, Kolōtēs Lampsakēnos; c. 320 – after 268 BC) was a pupil of Epicurus, and one of the most famous of his disciples.

Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers

Lives of Eminent PhilosophersLives of the Eminent PhilosophersLives
Possible insights into Epicurus's death may be offered by the extremely brief Epistle to Idomeneus, included by Diogenes Laërtius in Book X of his Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers.
The biographies of the former begin with Anaximander, and end with Clitomachus, Theophrastus and Chrysippus; the latter begins with Pythagoras, and ends with Epicurus.

Lucretius

Titus Lucretius CarusLucretianLucreti
Most knowledge of his teachings comes from later authors, particularly the Roman poet Lucretius, the biographer Diogenes Laërtius, the statesman Cicero, and the philosophers Philodemus and Sextus Empiricus.
While Epicurus left open the possibility for free will by arguing for the uncertainty of the paths of atoms, Lucretius viewed the soul or mind as emerging from arrangements of distinct particles.

Colophon (city)

ColophonKolophonDeğirmendere
After the death of Alexander the Great, Perdiccas expelled the Athenian settlers on Samos to Colophon, on the coast of what is now Turkey.
After the death of Alexander the Great, Perdiccas expelled the Athenian settlers on Samos to Colophon, including the family of Epicurus, who joined them there after completing his military service.

Aponia

absence of bodily pain
For Epicurus, the purpose of philosophy was to attain the happy, tranquil life, characterized by ataraxia—peace and freedom from fear—and aponia—the absence of pain—and by living a self-sufficient life surrounded by friends.
For Epicurus, aponia was one of the static (katastematic) pleasures, that is, a pleasure one has when there is no want or pain to be removed.

Leonteus of Lampsacus

Leonteus
The primary members were Hermarchus, the financier Idomeneus, Leonteus and his wife Themista, the satirist Colotes, the mathematician Polyaenus of Lampsacus, and Metrodorus of Lampsacus, the most famous popularizer of Epicureanism.
Leonteus of Lampsacus was a pupil of Epicurus early in the 3rd century BCE.

Metrodorus of Lampsacus (the younger)

MetrodorusMetrodorus of Lampsacus
The primary members were Hermarchus, the financier Idomeneus, Leonteus and his wife Themista, the satirist Colotes, the mathematician Polyaenus of Lampsacus, and Metrodorus of Lampsacus, the most famous popularizer of Epicureanism.
Together with his brother Timocrates of Lampsacus he joined the school Epicurus had set up in their home town.

Leontion

Leontium
His school was the first of the ancient Greek philosophical schools to admit women as a rule rather than an exception, and the biography of Epicurus by Diogenes Laërtius lists female students such as Leontion and Nikidion.
Leontion was a pupil of Epicurus and his philosophy.

Problem of evil

the problem of evilevidential problem of evilevidential argument from evil
The Epicurean paradox or riddle of Epicurus or Epicurus' trilemma is a version of the problem of evil.
Or as the first known presentation by the Greek philosopher Epicurus puts it: "Is God willing to prevent evil, but not able? Then he is not omnipotent. Is he able, but not willing? Then he is malevolent. Is he both able and willing? Then from whence comes evil?"

Pierre Gassendi

GassendiGassendi, PierreGASSENDI, PETER
His teachings gradually became more widely known in the fifteenth century with the rediscovery of important texts, but his ideas did not become acceptable until the seventeenth century, when the French Catholic priest Pierre Gassendi revived a modified version of them, which was promoted by other writers, including Walter Charleton and Robert Boyle.
The first two comprise entirely his Syntagma philosophicum; the third contains his critical writings on Epicurus, Aristotle, Descartes, Robert Fludd and Herbert of Cherbury, with some occasional pieces on certain problems of physics; the fourth, his Institutio astronomica, and his Commentarii de rebus celestibus; the fifth, his commentary on the tenth book of Diogenes Laërtius, the biographies of Epicurus, Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, Tycho Brahe, Nicolaus Copernicus, Georg von Peuerbach, and Regiomontanus, with some tracts on the value of ancient money, on the Roman calendar, and on the theory of music, with an appended large and prolix piece entitled Notitia ecclesiae Diniensis; the sixth volume contains his correspondence.

Atom

atomsatomic structureatomic
Like Democritus before him, Epicurus taught that all matter is entirely made of extremely tiny particles called "atoms" (atomos, meaning "indivisible").
Democritus's atomism was refined and elaborated by the later philosopher Epicurus (341–270 BC).

Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium

Letters to LuciliusMoral EpistlesEpistles
An inscription on the gate to The Garden is recorded by Seneca the Younger in epistle XXI of Epistulae morales ad Lucilium: "Stranger, here you will do well to tarry; here our highest good is pleasure."
Seneca refers to Cicero's letters to Atticus and the letters of Epicurus, and he was probably familiar with the letters of Plato and the epistles of Horace.

Trilemma

Trilemma russiense
Lactantius attributes this trilemma to Epicurus in De Ira Dei, 13, 20-21:
One of the earliest uses of the trilemma formulation is that of the Greek philosopher Epicurus, rejecting the idea of an omnipotent and omnibenevolent god (as summarised by David Hume):