Epidemiology

epidemiologistepidemiologicalepidemiologistsepidemiologicepidemiological studiesepidemiological researchClinical Epidemiologyepidemiologicallyepidemiological studyepidemiologic studies
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where), patterns and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.wikipedia
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Risk factor

risk factorsdeterminantsacute health hazard
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where), patterns and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations. It is a cornerstone of public health, and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare.
In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.

Public health

Community MedicinehealthSchool of Public Health
It is a cornerstone of public health, and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare.
For example, epidemiology, biostatistics and management of health services are all relevant.

Disease surveillance

surveillancecheckingdisease surveillance tool
Major areas of epidemiological study include disease causation, transmission, outbreak investigation, disease surveillance, environmental epidemiology, forensic epidemiology, occupational epidemiology, screening, biomonitoring, and comparisons of treatment effects such as in clinical trials.
Disease surveillance is an epidemiological practice by which the spread of disease is monitored in order to establish patterns of progression.

Environmental epidemiology

environmentalenvironmental epidemiologist
Major areas of epidemiological study include disease causation, transmission, outbreak investigation, disease surveillance, environmental epidemiology, forensic epidemiology, occupational epidemiology, screening, biomonitoring, and comparisons of treatment effects such as in clinical trials.
Environmental epidemiology is a branch of epidemiology concerned with determining how environmental exposures impact human health.

Outbreak

outbreaksdisease outbreakdisease outbreaks
Major areas of epidemiological study include disease causation, transmission, outbreak investigation, disease surveillance, environmental epidemiology, forensic epidemiology, occupational epidemiology, screening, biomonitoring, and comparisons of treatment effects such as in clinical trials.
In epidemiology, an outbreak is a sudden increase in occurrences of a disease in a particular time and place.

Occupational epidemiology

Major areas of epidemiological study include disease causation, transmission, outbreak investigation, disease surveillance, environmental epidemiology, forensic epidemiology, occupational epidemiology, screening, biomonitoring, and comparisons of treatment effects such as in clinical trials.
Occupational epidemiology is a subdiscipline of epidemiology that focuses on investigations of workers and the workplace.

Forensic epidemiology

Epidemiology
Major areas of epidemiological study include disease causation, transmission, outbreak investigation, disease surveillance, environmental epidemiology, forensic epidemiology, occupational epidemiology, screening, biomonitoring, and comparisons of treatment effects such as in clinical trials.
The discipline of forensic epidemiology (FE) is a hybrid of principles and practices common to both forensic medicine and epidemiology.

Evidence-based practice

evidence-based practicesevidence-basedevidence based practice
It is a cornerstone of public health, and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare.
One of the earliest proponents of EBP was Archie Cochrane, an epidemiologist who authored the book Effectiveness and Efficiency: Random Reflections on Health Services in 1972.

Transmission (medicine)

transmissiondisease transmissiontransmissible disease
Major areas of epidemiological study include disease causation, transmission, outbreak investigation, disease surveillance, environmental epidemiology, forensic epidemiology, occupational epidemiology, screening, biomonitoring, and comparisons of treatment effects such as in clinical trials.
The route of transmission is important to epidemiologists because patterns of contact vary between different populations and different groups of populations depending on socio-economic, cultural and other features.

Endemic (epidemiology)

endemicendemic diseasecommon
He coined the terms endemic (for diseases usually found in some places but not in others) and epidemic (for diseases that are seen at some times but not others).
In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic (from Greek ἐν en "in, within" and δῆμος demos "people") in a population when that infection is constantly maintained at a baseline level in a geographic area without external inputs.

Syndemic

directly relatedsyndemism
Epidemiologists also study the interaction of diseases in a population, a condition known as a syndemic.
Syndemics develop under health disparity, caused by poverty, stress, or structural violence and are studied by epidemiologists and medical anthropologists concerned with public health, community health and the effects of social conditions on health.

John Snow

Dr John SnowDr. John SnowJohn Snow (physician)
John Snow is famous for his investigations into the causes of the 19th century cholera epidemics, and is also known as the father of (modern) epidemiology.
He is considered one of the founders of modern epidemiology, in part because of his work in tracing the source of a cholera outbreak in Soho, London, in 1854.

Medicine

medicalmedical scienceclinical medicine
The Greek physician Hippocrates, known as the father of medicine, sought a logic to sickness; he is the first person known to have examined the relationships between the occurrence of disease and environmental influences.

Janet Lane-Claypon

Janet Elizabeth Lane-Claypon
In the early 20th century, mathematical methods were introduced into epidemiology by Ronald Ross, Janet Lane-Claypon, Anderson Gray McKendrick, and others.
She was one of the founders of the science of epidemiology, pioneering the use of cohort studies and case-control studies.

Richard Doll

Sir Richard DollWilliam Richard Shaboe DollW. Richard S. Doll
Another breakthrough was the 1954 publication of the results of a British Doctors Study, led by Richard Doll and Austin Bradford Hill, which lent very strong statistical support to the link between tobacco smoking and lung cancer.
Sir William Richard Shaboe Doll (28 October 1912 – 24 July 2005) was a British physician who became an epidemiologist in the mid-20th century and made important contributions to that discipline.

Austin Bradford Hill

Bradford HillHill, Austin BradfordSir Austin Bradford Hill
Another breakthrough was the 1954 publication of the results of a British Doctors Study, led by Richard Doll and Austin Bradford Hill, which lent very strong statistical support to the link between tobacco smoking and lung cancer.
Sir Austin Bradford Hill (8 July 1897 – 18 April 1991) was an English epidemiologist and statistician, pioneered the randomized clinical trial and, together with Richard Doll, demonstrated the connection between cigarette smoking and lung cancer.

Life table

mortality tablelife tablesactuarial tables
In it, he analysed the mortality rolls in London before the Great Plague, presented one of the first life tables, and reported time trends for many diseases, new and old.
Life tables are also used extensively in biology and epidemiology.

John Graunt

Graunt, JohnGrauntCapt. John Graunt
John Graunt, a haberdasher and amateur statistician, published Natural and Political Observations ... upon the Bills of Mortality in 1662.
Graunt is also considered as one of the first experts in epidemiology, since his famous book was concerned mostly with public health statistics.

Molecular epidemiology

Epidemiology research to examine the relationship between these biomarkers analyzed at the molecular level, and disease was broadly named "molecular epidemiology".
Molecular epidemiology is a branch of epidemiology and medical science that focuses on the contribution of potential genetic and environmental risk factors, identified at the molecular level, to the etiology, distribution and prevention of disease within families and across populations.

Anderson Gray McKendrick

A. G. McKendrickAnderson Gray M'KendrickMcKendrick, Anderson Gray
In the early 20th century, mathematical methods were introduced into epidemiology by Ronald Ross, Janet Lane-Claypon, Anderson Gray McKendrick, and others.
Lt Col Anderson Gray McKendrick DSc FRSE (8 September 1876 – 30 May 1943) was a Scottish military physician and epidemiologist pioneered the use of mathematical methods in epidemiology.

Molecular pathological epidemiology

molecular pathological epidemiologist
To resolve these issues and advance population health science in the era of molecular precision medicine, "molecular pathology" and "epidemiology" was integrated to create a new interdisciplinary field of "molecular pathological epidemiology" (MPE), defined as "epidemiology of molecular pathology and heterogeneity of disease".
Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE, also molecular pathologic epidemiology) is a discipline combining epidemiology and pathology.

Clinical trial

clinical trialsclinical studiesclinical study
Major areas of epidemiological study include disease causation, transmission, outbreak investigation, disease surveillance, environmental epidemiology, forensic epidemiology, occupational epidemiology, screening, biomonitoring, and comparisons of treatment effects such as in clinical trials.
Types of observational studies in epidemiology, such as the cohort study and the case-control study, provide less compelling evidence than the randomized controlled trial.

Exposome

Conceptually, each individual has a unique disease process different from any other individual ("the unique disease principle"), considering uniqueness of the exposome (a totality of endogenous and exogenous / environmental exposures) and its unique influence on molecular pathologic process in each individual.

British Doctors Study

British Doctors' StudyEpidemiology of smokingpublished a major study
Another breakthrough was the 1954 publication of the results of a British Doctors Study, led by Richard Doll and Austin Bradford Hill, which lent very strong statistical support to the link between tobacco smoking and lung cancer.
The study, when it was published in 1956, heralded a new type of scientific research, showed the relevance of epidemiology and medical statistics in questions of public health, and vitally linked tobacco smoking to a number of serious diseases.

Recall bias

recall
Case-control studies are usually faster and more cost effective than cohort studies, but are sensitive to bias (such as recall bias and selection bias).
In epidemiological research, recall bias is a systematic error caused by differences in the accuracy or completeness of the recollections retrieved ("recalled") by study participants regarding events or experiences from the past.