Epileptic seizure

seizureseizuresepileptic seizuresepileptic fitconvulsionsconvulsive fitfitsfitbrain seizureepileptic
A seizure, formally known as an epileptic seizure, is a period of symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.wikipedia
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Alcohol withdrawal syndrome

alcohol withdrawalwithdrawalalcohol
Provoked seizures are due to a temporary event such as low blood sugar, alcohol withdrawal, low blood sodium, fever, brain infection, or concussion.
More severe symptoms may include seizures, seeing or hearing things that others do not, and delirium tremens (DTs).

Status epilepticus

super-refractory status epilepticusnonconvulsive status epilepticusprolonged seizures
Any seizure lasting longer than 5 minutes should be treated as status epilepticus.
Status epilepticus (SE) is a single epileptic seizure lasting more than five minutes or two or more seizures within a five-minute period without the person returning to normal between them.

Anticonvulsant

anticonvulsantsantiepilepticantiepileptic drugs
A first seizure generally does not require long term treatment with anti-seizure medications unless a specific problem is found on electroencephalogram (EEG) or brain imaging.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.

Aura (symptom)

auramigraine auramigraine with aura
Focal seizures are often preceded by certain experiences, known as an aura.
An aura is a perceptual disturbance experienced by some with migraines or seizures.

Neural oscillation

brain wavesbrainwavebrain wave
A seizure, formally known as an epileptic seizure, is a period of symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Neural oscillations also play an important role in many neurological disorders, such as excessive synchronization during seizure activity in epilepsy or tremor in patients with Parkinson's disease.

Sleep deprivation

deprived of sleepsleep deprivedlack of sleep
Unprovoked seizures may be triggered by stress or sleep deprivation.

Convulsion

convulsionsconvulsiveconvulsing
The most common type of seizure is convulsive (60%).
Because epileptic seizures typically include convulsions, the term convulsion is sometimes used as a synonym for seizure.

Febrile seizure

febrile seizuresFebrile convulsionsfebrile
A number of conditions are associated with seizures but are not epilepsy including: most febrile seizures and those that occur around an acute infection, stroke, or toxicity.
A febrile seizure, also known as a fever fit or febrile convulsion, is a seizure associated with a high body temperature but without any serious underlying health issue.

Generalized epilepsy

generalized seizuregeneralized seizuresgeneralized
Two-thirds of these begin as focal seizures and become generalized while one third begin as generalized seizures.
Generalized seizures, as opposed to focal seizures, are a type of seizure that impairs consciousness and distorts the electrical activity of the whole or a larger portion of the brain (which can be seen, for example, on electroencephalography, EEG).

Neonatal seizure

neonatal seizuresSeizures in babies
A neonatal seizure is a seizure in a baby younger than 4 weeks old.

Pre-eclampsia

preeclampsiatoxemiatoxemia of pregnancy
If left untreated, it may result in seizures at which point it is known as eclampsia.

Hypoglycemia

low blood sugarhypoglycaemiahypoglycemic
Provoked seizures are due to a temporary event such as low blood sugar, alcohol withdrawal, low blood sodium, fever, brain infection, or concussion. A number of disorders including: low blood sugar, low blood sodium, hyperosmolar nonketotic hyperglycemia, high blood sodium, low blood calcium and high blood urea levels may cause seizures.
This may result in a variety of symptoms including clumsiness, trouble talking, confusion, loss of consciousness, seizures or death.

Syncope (medicine)

syncopefaintingfainted
Conditions that look like epileptic seizures but are not include fainting, nonepileptic psychogenic event, and tremor.
Other causes of similar symptoms that should be considered include seizure, stroke, concussion, low blood oxygen, low blood sugar, drug intoxication and some psychiatric disorders among others.

Hyponatremia

Hyponatraemialow blood sodiumlow blood sodium levels
Provoked seizures are due to a temporary event such as low blood sugar, alcohol withdrawal, low blood sodium, fever, brain infection, or concussion. A number of disorders including: low blood sugar, low blood sodium, hyperosmolar nonketotic hyperglycemia, high blood sodium, low blood calcium and high blood urea levels may cause seizures.
Severe symptoms include confusion, seizures, and coma.

Unconsciousness

unconsciousloss of consciousnessnarcosis
Outward effects vary from uncontrolled shaking movements involving much of the body with loss of consciousness (tonic-clonic seizure), to shaking movements involving only part of the body with variable levels of consciousness (focal seizure), to a subtle momentary loss of awareness (absence seizure).
Hence epileptic seizures, neurological dysfunctions and sleepwalking may be considered acceptable excusing conditions because the loss of control is not foreseeable, but falling asleep (especially while driving or during any other safety-critical activity), may not be because natural sleep rarely overcomes an ordinary person without warning.

Porphyria

porphyriasAcute porphyriamadness
As may hepatic encephalopathy and the genetic disorder porphyria.
Complications may include paralysis, low blood sodium levels, and seizures.

Uremia

uraemiauremicuremic toxin
A number of disorders including: low blood sugar, low blood sodium, hyperosmolar nonketotic hyperglycemia, high blood sodium, low blood calcium and high blood urea levels may cause seizures.

Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state

nonketotic hyperosmolar comahyperosmolar hyperglycemic statesHyperosmolar nonketotic coma
A number of disorders including: low blood sugar, low blood sodium, hyperosmolar nonketotic hyperglycemia, high blood sodium, low blood calcium and high blood urea levels may cause seizures.
Complications may include seizures, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, mesenteric artery occlusion, or rhabdomyolysis.

Hepatic encephalopathy

hepatic comaencephalopathyhepatic
As may hepatic encephalopathy and the genetic disorder porphyria.
Coma and seizures represent the most advanced stage; cerebral oedema (swelling of the brain tissue) leads to death.

Hypocalcaemia

hypocalcemialow blood calciumcalcium deficiency
A number of disorders including: low blood sugar, low blood sodium, hyperosmolar nonketotic hyperglycemia, high blood sodium, low blood calcium and high blood urea levels may cause seizures.
Otherwise symptoms may include numbness, muscle spasms, seizures, confusion, or cardiac arrest.

Malaria

cerebral malariamalarial fevermalarial
This may be due to increased risks of traffic accidents, birth injuries, and malaria and other parasitic infections.
In severe cases it can cause yellow skin, seizures, coma, or death.

Concussion

concussionsconcussedmild traumatic brain injury
Provoked seizures are due to a temporary event such as low blood sugar, alcohol withdrawal, low blood sodium, fever, brain infection, or concussion.

Metabolic disorder

metabolic disordersmetabolic diseasemetabolic diseases
Some of the symptoms that can occur with metabolic disorders are lethargy, weight loss, jaundice and seizures.

Delirium tremens

delerium tremensalcohol withdrawal deliriumDT
Difficulties with withdrawal seizures commonly occurs after prolonged alcohol or sedative use, a condition known as delirium tremens.
Occasionally, a very high body temperature or seizures may result in death.

Drug overdose

overdoseoverdosingoverdosed
Both medication and drug overdoses can result in seizures, as may certain medication and drug withdrawal.
A person experiencing an opioid overdose might also have muscle spasms, seizures and decreased consciousness.