Epiphany (holiday)

EpiphanyTheophanyFeast of the EpiphanyThree Kings DayFeast of EpiphanyEpiphany DayEpiphany of the LordEpiphany EveThe EpiphanyThree Kings
Epiphany, also Theophany, Denha, Little Christmas, or Three Kings' Day, is a Christian feast day that celebrates the revelation of God incarnate as Jesus Christ.wikipedia
954 Related Articles

Winter swimming

ice swimmingwinter bathingPolar Bear Club
Popular Epiphany customs include Epiphany singing, chalking the door, having one's house blessed, consuming Three Kings Cake, winter swimming, as well as attending church services.
In Eastern Europe and Russia winter swimming is part of the celebration of the Epiphany.

Plough Monday

Fool PloughPlough Boy's Play
The Monday after Epiphany is known as Plough Monday.
While local practices may vary, Plough Monday is generally the first Monday after Twelfth Day (Epiphany), 6 January.

Star singers

Epiphany singingFinnish Yule Tablestar boy
Popular Epiphany customs include Epiphany singing, chalking the door, having one's house blessed, consuming Three Kings Cake, winter swimming, as well as attending church services.
The singing processions have their roots in an old medieval ecclesiastical play, centred on the Biblical Magi of the Christmas story in the Gospel of Matthew (Mt 2,1-28), appropriate to Epiphany.

As with Gladness Men of Old

Two very familiar Christmas carols associated with Epiphany are "As with gladness, men of old", written by William Chatterton Dix in 1860 as a response to the many legends which had grown up surrounding the Magi, and "We Three Kings of Orient Are", written by the Reverend John Henry Hopkins Jr., then an ordained deacon in the Episcopal Church, instrumental in organizing an elaborate holiday pageant (which featured this hymn) for the students of the General Theological Seminary in New York City in 1857 while serving as the seminary's music director.
"As with Gladness Men of Old" is an Epiphany hymn, written by William Chatterton Dix on 6 January 1859 (Epiphany) while he was ill in bed.

Sie werden aus Saba alle kommen, BWV 65

65Sie werden aus Saba alle kommen'', BWV 65Sie werden aus Saba alle kommen
Sie werden aus Saba alle kommen, BWV 65 (1724)
He composed it in 1724 in Leipzig for Epiphany and first performed it on 6 January 1724 as part of his first cantata cycle.

Christmas Oratorio

WeihnachtsoratoriumPart IIBreak Forth, O Beauteous, Heav’nly Light
Part VI of his Christmas Oratorio, Herr, wenn die stolzen Feinde schnauben, was also designed to be performed during the service for Epiphany.
The first part (for Christmas Day) describes the Birth of Jesus, the second (for December 26) the annunciation to the shepherds, the third (for December 27) the adoration of the shepherds, the fourth (for New Year's Day) the circumcision and naming of Jesus, the fifth (for the first Sunday after New Year) the journey of the Magi, and the sixth (for Epiphany) the adoration of the Magi.

Liebster Immanuel, Herzog der Frommen, BWV 123

123Liebster Immanuel, Herzog der Frommen'', BWV 123Liebster Immanuel, Herzog der Frommen
Liebster Immanuel, Herzog der Frommen, BWV 123 (1725)
He composed the chorale cantata in Leipzig for Epiphany and first performed it on 6 January 1725.

General Roman Calendar

calendarRoman Calendarfeast day
The 1969 revision of the General Roman Calendar made the date to some extent variable, stating: "The Epiphany of the Lord is celebrated on 6 January, unless, where it is not observed as a holy day of obligation, it has been assigned to the Sunday occurring between 2 and 8 January."
4) Christmas Time, the period from First Vespers of Christmas (evening of 24 December) to the Sunday after Epiphany or after 6 January. It includes the Octave of Christmas, which is composed of the Feast of the Holy Family of Jesus, Mary and Joseph (on the Sunday within the Octave or, if there is no Sunday, on 30 December), the Feasts of Saint Stephen (26 December), Saint John, Apostle and Evangelist (27 December), the Holy Innocents (28 December), days within the Octave (29–31 December), and the Solemnity of Mary, the Holy Mother of God (1 January, the Octave Day). It also includes the Solemnity of the Epiphany and the Feast of the Baptism of the Lord.

Epiphany season

Christmas-Epiphany seasonEpiphanyEpiphanytide
Moreover, the feast of the Epiphany, in some Western Christian denominations, also initiates the liturgical season of Epiphanytide.
It begins on the day of Epiphany, and ends at various points as defined by those churches.

Christ Child

infant Jesusbaby Jesuschild Jesus
In Western Christianity, the feast commemorates principally (but not solely) the visit of the Magi to the Christ Child, and thus Jesus' physical manifestation to the Gentiles.
The Feast of the Epiphany (6 January)

Baptism of Jesus

baptismBaptism of Christhis baptism
Eastern Christians, on the other hand, commemorate the baptism of Jesus in the Jordan River, seen as his manifestation to the world as the Son of God.
In Eastern Christianity, Jesus' baptism is commemorated on 6 January (the Julian calendar date of which corresponds to 19 January on the Gregorian calendar), the feast of Epiphany.

Christmas

Christmas DayDecember 25Nativity
In the Catholic Church, "Christmas Time runs from First Vespers (Evening Prayer I) of the Nativity of the Lord up to and including the Sunday after Epiphany or after 6 January"; and "Ordinary Time begins on the Monday which follows the Sunday occurring after 6 January". On this day the Royal Hours are celebrated, thus tying together the feasts of Nativity and Good Friday.
However, some Eastern Christian Churches celebrate Christmas on December 25 of the older Julian calendar, which currently corresponds to January 7 in the Gregorian calendar, the day after the Western Christian Church celebrates the Epiphany.

Church cantata

Christmas DayAscensionEstomihi
Church cantatas for the Feast of Epiphany were written by Protestant composers such as Georg Philipp Telemann, Christoph Graupner, Johann Sebastian Bach and Gottfried Heinrich Stölzel.
The Christmas season was celebrated from Christmas Day through Epiphany. Three days were observed for Christmas, with a Christmas cantata performed every day. The next feast days were New Year and Epiphany. Sundays may occur between the third day of Christmas and New Year and/or between New Year and Epiphany: thus the period had at least five occasions, or at most seven.

Al-Maghtas

Baptism Site "Bethany Beyond the Jordan" (Al-Maghtas)Baptism Site “Bethany Beyond the Jordan” (Al-Maghtas)Al-Maghtas (Baptismal site)
Qasr el Yahud in the West Bank, and Al-Maghtas in Jordan on the east bank, is considered to be the original site of the baptism of Jesus and the ministry of John the Baptist.
Thousands flock to the site on January 6 to mark Epiphany.

Octave (liturgy)

octaveoctavesOctave Day
Even at this early date, there was an octave associated with the feast. Before the 1969 revision of its liturgy, the Sundays following the Octave of Epiphany or, when this was abolished, following the Feast of the Baptism of the Lord, which was instituted to take the place of the Octave Day of Epiphany were named as the "Second (etc., up to Sixth) Sunday after Epiphany", as the at least 24 Sundays following Pentecost Sunday and Trinity Sunday were known as the "Second (etc.) Sunday after Pentecost".
The first such feasts were Easter, Pentecost, and, in the East, Epiphany.

House blessing

having one's house blessedhomes were blessed
Popular Epiphany customs include Epiphany singing, chalking the door, having one's house blessed, consuming Three Kings Cake, winter swimming, as well as attending church services.
Consequently, Anglicans, Catholics, Lutherans, Methodists and Orthodox Christians often have their homes blessed at Epiphany, on January 6; this blessing often starts with the Christian custom of chalking the door and prayer at the home altar.

Chalking the door

blessing homes on Epiphanychalk on house doors
Popular Epiphany customs include Epiphany singing, chalking the door, having one's house blessed, consuming Three Kings Cake, winter swimming, as well as attending church services.
Either on Twelfth Night (January 5), the twelfth day of Christmastide and eve of the feast of the Epiphany, or on Epiphany Day (January 6) itself, many Christians (including Anglicans, Lutherans, Methodists, Presbyterians and Roman Catholics, among others) chalk their doors with a pattern such as this, "20 † C † M † B † 19", with the numbers referring "to the calendar year (20 and 19, for instance, for this upcoming year, 2019); the crosses stand for Christ; and the letters have a two-fold significance: C, M and B are the initials for the traditional names of the Magi (Caspar, Melchior and Balthasar), but they are also an abbreviation of the Latin blessing Christus mansionem benedicat, which means, May Christ bless this house."

Baptism of the Lord

Baptism of ChristFeast of Baptism of the LordThe Baptism of Christ
Before the 1969 revision of its liturgy, the Sundays following the Octave of Epiphany or, when this was abolished, following the Feast of the Baptism of the Lord, which was instituted to take the place of the Octave Day of Epiphany were named as the "Second (etc., up to Sixth) Sunday after Epiphany", as the at least 24 Sundays following Pentecost Sunday and Trinity Sunday were known as the "Second (etc.) Sunday after Pentecost".
Originally the baptism of Christ was celebrated on Epiphany, which commemorates the coming of the Magi, the baptism of Christ, and the wedding at Cana.

Holy day of obligation

Holy Days of Obligationholy daysholy day
The 1969 revision of the General Roman Calendar made the date to some extent variable, stating: "The Epiphany of the Lord is celebrated on 6 January, unless, where it is not observed as a holy day of obligation, it has been assigned to the Sunday occurring between 2 and 8 January."
6 January: Solemnity of the Epiphany of the Lord

Liturgical year

liturgical calendarchurch yearliturgical season
This tradition dated from a time when calendars were not readily available, and the church needed to publicize the date of Easter, since many celebrations of the liturgical year depend on it. The proclamation may be sung or proclaimed at the ambo by a deacon, cantor, or reader either after the reading of the Gospel or after the postcommunion prayer. Here it is one of the Great Feasts of the liturgical year, being third in rank, behind only Paskha (Easter) and Pentecost in importance.
2) Epiphany of Christ

Royal Hours

On this day the Royal Hours are celebrated, thus tying together the feasts of Nativity and Good Friday.
The Royal Hours is celebrated only three times a year: on the Eve of the Nativity, the Eve of Theophany, and Great Friday.

Twelfth Night (holiday)

Twelfth Night12th NightRauhnächte
In many Western Christian Churches, the eve of the feast is celebrated as Twelfth Night.
Twelfth Night is a festival in some branches of Christianity that takes place on the last night of the Twelve Days of Christmas, marking the coming of the Epiphany.

Ordinary Time

ordinaryWeeks of the Church YearWeeks of the Year
In the Catholic Church, "Christmas Time runs from First Vespers (Evening Prayer I) of the Nativity of the Lord up to and including the Sunday after Epiphany or after 6 January"; and "Ordinary Time begins on the Monday which follows the Sunday occurring after 6 January". The expression with "after" has been interpreted as making the period in question correspond to that of Ordinary Time.
Ordinary Time comprises two periods: the first period begins on Epiphany Day (in the Anglican Communion and Methodist churches) or the day after the Feast of the Baptism of the Lord (in the Catholic Church) and ends on the day before Ash Wednesday; the second period begins on the Monday after Pentecost, the conclusion of the Easter season, and continues until the Saturday before the First Sunday of Advent.

Timkat

In the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, the feast is known as Timkat and is celebrated on the day that the Gregorian calendar calls January 19, but on January 20 in years when Enkutatash in the Ethiopian calendar falls on Gregorian September 12 (i.e. when the following February in the Gregorian calendar will have 29 days).
Timkat ( T’imik’et, literally "Baptism"; also spelled Timqat) is the Orthodox Tewahedo celebration of Epiphany.

Great feasts in the Eastern Orthodox Church

Great FeastsFeastTwelve Great Feasts
Here it is one of the Great Feasts of the liturgical year, being third in rank, behind only Paskha (Easter) and Pentecost in importance.
5) The Baptism of Christ — Theophany, also called Epiphany, 6 January