A report on Episodic memory

Memory of everyday events that can be explicitly stated or conjured.

- Episodic memory

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Overall

Hippocampus as seen in red

Explicit memory

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One of the two main types of long-term human memory, the other of which is implicit memory.

One of the two main types of long-term human memory, the other of which is implicit memory.

Hippocampus as seen in red
Amygdala as seen in red
The Morris water maze

Explicit memory can be divided into two categories: episodic memory, which stores specific personal experiences, and semantic memory, which stores factual information.

Long-term memory

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Stage of the Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model in which informative knowledge is held indefinitely.

Stage of the Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model in which informative knowledge is held indefinitely.

Long-term memory is commonly labelled as explicit memory (declarative), as well as episodic memory, semantic memory, autobiographical memory, and implicit memory (procedural memory).

Overview of the forms and functions of memory.

Memory

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Faculty of the mind by which data or information is encoded, stored, and retrieved when needed.

Faculty of the mind by which data or information is encoded, stored, and retrieved when needed.

Overview of the forms and functions of memory.
Olin Levi Warner, Memory (1896). Library of Congress Thomas Jefferson Building, Washington, D.C.
The working memory model
The garden of oblivion, illustration by Ephraim Moses Lilien.
Regulatory sequence in a promoter at a transcription start site with a paused RNA polymerase and a TOP2B-induced double-strand break
Brain regions involved in memory formation including medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)
Regulatory sequence in a promoter at a transcription start site with a paused RNA polymerase and a TOP2B-induced double-strand break

Under declarative memory resides semantic and episodic memory.

Humans have two hippocampi, one in each hemisphere of the brain. They are located in the medial temporal lobes of the cerebrum. In this lateral view of the human brain, the frontal lobe is at the left, the occipital lobe at the right, and the temporal and parietal lobes have largely been removed to reveal one of the hippocampi underneath.

Hippocampus

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Major component of the brain of humans and other vertebrates.

Major component of the brain of humans and other vertebrates.

Humans have two hippocampi, one in each hemisphere of the brain. They are located in the medial temporal lobes of the cerebrum. In this lateral view of the human brain, the frontal lobe is at the left, the occipital lobe at the right, and the temporal and parietal lobes have largely been removed to reveal one of the hippocampi underneath.
Image 1: The human hippocampus and fornix (left) compared with a seahorse (right)
Image 2: Cross-section of cerebral hemisphere showing structure and location of hippocampus
Image 3: Coronal section of the brain of a macaque monkey, showing hippocampus (circled)
Image 4: Basic circuit of the hippocampus, as drawn by Cajal DG: dentate gyrus. Sub: subiculum. EC: entorhinal cortex
Image 5: Hippocampal location and regions
Rats and cognitive maps
Image 6: Spatial firing patterns of 8 place cells recorded from the CA1 layer of a rat. The rat ran back and forth along an elevated track, stopping at each end to eat a small food reward. Dots indicate positions where action potentials were recorded, with color indicating which neuron emitted that action potential.
Image 7: Examples of rat hippocampal EEG and CA1 neural activity in the theta (awake/behaving) and LIA (slow-wave sleep) modes. Each plot shows 20 seconds of data, with a hippocampal EEG trace at the top, spike rasters from 40 simultaneously recorded CA1 pyramidal cells in the middle (each raster line represents a different cell), and a plot of running speed at the bottom. The top plot represents a time period during which the rat was actively searching for scattered food pellets. For the bottom plot the rat was asleep.
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Image 9: An EEG showing epilepsy right-hippocampal seizure onset
Image 10: An EEG showing epilepsy left-hippocampal seizure onset
Image 11: Drawing by Italian pathologist Camillo Golgi of a hippocampus stained using the silver nitrate method
thumb|Hippocampus highlighted in green on coronal T1 MRI images
thumb|Hippocampus highlighted in green on sagittal T1 MRI images
thumb|Hippocampus highlighted in green on transversal T1 MRI images

Over the years, three main ideas of hippocampal function have dominated the literature: response inhibition, episodic memory, and spatial cognition.

Semantic memory

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Semantic memory refers to general world knowledge that humans have accumulated throughout their lives.

Semantic memory refers to general world knowledge that humans have accumulated throughout their lives.

Semantic memory is distinct from episodic memory, which is our memory of experiences and specific events that occur during our lives, from which we can recreate at any given point.

Lobes of the human brain (temporal lobe is shown in green)

Temporal lobe

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One of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.

One of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.

Lobes of the human brain (temporal lobe is shown in green)
Animation showing the position of the human left temporal lobe

Declarative (denotative) or explicit memory is conscious memory divided into semantic memory (facts) and episodic memory (events).

Hierarchical structure of the autobiographical knowledge base

Autobiographical memory

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Hierarchical structure of the autobiographical knowledge base
Writing in a diary
Happy emotions will strengthen a memory of an Olympic goal
Diagram of the different lobes of the brain

Autobiographical memory is a memory system consisting of episodes recollected from an individual's life, based on a combination of episodic (personal experiences and specific objects, people and events experienced at particular time and place) and semantic (general knowledge and facts about the world) memory.

Hippocampus (brain)

Anterograde amnesia

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Loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.

Loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.

Hippocampus (brain)

Furthermore, the data do not explain the dichotomy that exists in the MTL memory system between episodic memory and semantic memory (described below).

Hermann Ebbinghaus

Recall (memory)

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Recall in memory refers to the mental process of retrieval of information from the past.

Recall in memory refers to the mental process of retrieval of information from the past.

Hermann Ebbinghaus
Cerebellum highlighted in red
Globus pallidus highlighted in red
Hippocampus highlighted in red
Anterior cingulate cortex
A visual representation of Spreading Activation
Jorge Luis Borges in 1951

Tulving described episodic memory as a memory about a specific event that occurred at a particular time and place, for example what you got for your 10th birthday.

Endel Tulving

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Estonian-born Canadian experimental psychologist and cognitive neuroscientist.

Estonian-born Canadian experimental psychologist and cognitive neuroscientist.

In his research on human memory he proposed the distinction between semantic and episodic memory.