Epistemology

epistemologicalepistemictheory of knowledgeepistemologistepistemologiesepistemologicallyphilosophy of knowledgeepistemologistsknowledgeepistemologic
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.wikipedia
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Belief

beliefsreligious beliefbelief system
Much debate in epistemology centers on four areas: (1) the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to such concepts as truth, belief, and justification, (2) various problems of skepticism, (3) the sources and scope of knowledge and justified belief, and (4) the criteria for knowledge and justification.
In epistemology, philosophers use the term "belief" to refer to personal attitudes associated with true or false ideas and concepts.

Theory of justification

justificationepistemic justificationwarrant
Much debate in epistemology centers on four areas: (1) the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to such concepts as truth, belief, and justification, (2) various problems of skepticism, (3) the sources and scope of knowledge and justified belief, and (4) the criteria for knowledge and justification.
The theory of justification is a part of epistemology that attempts to understand the justification of propositions and beliefs.

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics ("concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being"), epistemology (about the "nature and grounds of knowledge [and]...its limits and validity" ), ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic and philosophy of science.

Knowledge

knowhuman knowledgesituated knowledge
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
In philosophy, the study of knowledge is called epistemology; the philosopher Plato famously defined knowledge as "justified true belief", though this definition is now thought by some analytic philosophers to be problematic because of the Gettier problems, while others defend the platonic definition.

James Frederick Ferrier

FerrierJames FerrierJ. F. Ferrier
It was properly introduced in the philosophical literature by Scottish philosopher James Frederick Ferrier in his Institutes of Metaphysics (1854):
He introduced the word epistemology in philosophical English.

John Locke

LockeLockeanJ Locke
John Locke describes his Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1689) as an inquiry "into the original, certainty, and extent of human knowledge, together with the grounds and degrees of belief, opinion, and assent".
His work greatly affected the development of epistemology and political philosophy.

Skepticism

skepticskepticalscepticism
Much debate in epistemology centers on four areas: (1) the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to such concepts as truth, belief, and justification, (2) various problems of skepticism, (3) the sources and scope of knowledge and justified belief, and (4) the criteria for knowledge and justification.
Formally, skepticism as a topic occurs in the context of philosophy, particularly epistemology, although it can be applied to any topic such as politics, religion, and pseudoscience.

Bertrand Russell

RussellRussell, BertrandBertrand Russel
In his paper On Denoting and his later book Problems of Philosophy Bertrand Russell stressed the distinction between "knowledge by description" and "knowledge by acquaintance".
His work has had a considerable influence on mathematics, logic, set theory, linguistics, artificial intelligence, cognitive science, computer science (see type theory and type system) and philosophy, especially the philosophy of language, epistemology and metaphysics.

Truth

trueTruth theorytheory of truth
Much debate in epistemology centers on four areas: (1) the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to such concepts as truth, belief, and justification, (2) various problems of skepticism, (3) the sources and scope of knowledge and justified belief, and (4) the criteria for knowledge and justification.
Vico's epistemological orientation gathers the most diverse rays and unfolds in one axiom—verum ipsum factum—"truth itself is constructed".

Knowledge by acquaintance

knowledge by descriptionacquaintance-knowledgeknowledge by (direct) acquaintance
In his paper On Denoting and his later book Problems of Philosophy Bertrand Russell stressed the distinction between "knowledge by description" and "knowledge by acquaintance". Some philosophers think there is an important distinction between "knowing that" (know a concept), "knowing how" (understand an operation), and "acquaintance-knowledge" (know by relation), with epistemology being primarily concerned with the first of these.
(Recent work in epistemology deploys related ideas concerning acquaintance in developing an epistemology of knowing other persons.

Ernest Sosa

SosaSosa, Ernest
In recent times, epistemologists including Sosa, Greco, Kvanvig, Zagzebski and Duncan Pritchard have argued that epistemology should evaluate people's "properties" (i.e., intellectual virtues) and not just the properties of propositions or of propositional mental attitudes.
Ernest Sosa (born June 17, 1940) is an American philosopher primarily interested in epistemology.

Theaetetus (dialogue)

TheaetetusTheatetusdialogue
In the Theaetetus, Socrates considers a number of theories as to what knowledge is, the last being that knowledge is true belief "with an account" (meaning explained or defined in some way).
The Theaetetus is one of Plato's dialogues concerning the nature of knowledge, written circa 369 BCE.

Socrates

SocraticSokratesSocrate
In the Theaetetus, Socrates considers a number of theories as to what knowledge is, the last being that knowledge is true belief "with an account" (meaning explained or defined in some way).
Plato's dialogues are among the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity, from which Socrates has become renowned for his contributions to the fields of ethics and epistemology.

Infallibilism

infallibilist
In one response to Gettier, the American philosopher Richard Kirkham has argued that the only definition of knowledge that could ever be immune to all counterexamples is the infallibilist one.
Infallibilism, in epistemology, is the idea that propositional knowledge is incompatible with a chance of being wrong, where this is typically understood as one's evidence or justification providing one's belief with such strong grounds that it must be true and perhaps cannot be rationally doubted.

Episteme

epistēmēknowledgeépistémè
The word epistemology is derived from the ancient Greek epistēmē meaning "knowledge" and the suffix -logy, meaning "logical discourse" (derived from the Greek word logos meaning "discourse").
The word "epistemology" is derived from episteme.

Fallibilism

falliblefallibilistfallibility
The Indian philosopher B.K. Matilal has drawn on the Navya-Nyāya fallibilism tradition to respond to the Gettier problem.
The term "fallibilism" is used in a variety of senses in contemporary epistemology.

Timothy Williamson

T. Williamson
Timothy Williamson has advanced a theory of knowledge according to which knowledge is not justified true belief plus some extra condition(s), but primary.
Timothy Williamson (born 6 August 1955) is a British philosopher whose main research interests are in philosophical logic, philosophy of language, epistemology and metaphysics.

David Malet Armstrong

David ArmstrongD. M. ArmstrongD.M. Armstrong
He is well known for his work on metaphysics and the philosophy of mind, and for his defence of a factualist ontology, a functionalist theory of the mind, an externalist epistemology, and a necessitarian conception of the laws of nature.

Robert Nozick

NozickNozick, RobertNozickian
His other work involved ethics, decision theory, philosophy of mind, metaphysics and epistemology.

Alvin Goldman

GoldmanAlvin I. GoldmanAlvin Ira Goldman
Reliabilism has been a significant line of response to the Gettier problem among philosophers, originating with work by Alvin Goldman in the 1960s.
Alvin Ira Goldman (born 1938) is an American philosopher who is Emeritus Board of Governors Professor of Philosophy and Cognitive Science at Rutgers University in New Jersey and a leading figure in epistemology.

Virtue epistemology

virtue epistemologistsvirtue-epistemological theories
The value problem re-emerged in the philosophical literature on epistemology in the twenty-first century following the rise of virtue epistemology in the 1980s, partly because of the obvious link to the concept of value in ethics.
Virtue epistemology is a contemporary philosophical approach to epistemology that stresses the importance of intellectual, and specifically epistemic virtues.

Tabula rasa

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"Only small parts of the brain resemble a tabula rasa; this is true even for human beings. The remainder is more like an exposed negative waiting to be dipped into a developer fluid".
Epistemological proponents of tabula rasa disagree with the doctrine of innatism which holds that the mind is born already in possession of certain knowledge.

Reliabilism

reliablereliabilistreliability
The value problem has been presented as an argument against epistemic reliabilism by philosophers including Linda Zagzebski, Wayne Riggs and Richard Swinburne.
Reliabilism, a category of theories in the philosophical discipline of epistemology, has been advanced as a theory both of justification and of knowledge.

Bernard Bolzano

BolzanoBernardus P.J.N. "Bernard" BolzanoBolzano, Bernard
It is analogous to the German Wissenschaftslehre (literally, theory of science) which was introduced by philosophers Johann Fichte and Bernard Bolzano in the late 18th century.
Bolzano's main claim to fame, however, is his 1837 Wissenschaftslehre (Theory of Science), a work in four volumes that covered not only philosophy of science in the modern sense but also logic, epistemology and scientific pedagogy.

Philosophy of science

philosopher of sciencephilosophers of sciencephilosophy
As such, the philosophy of science may be viewed variously as an application or foundation of the philosophy of knowledge acquisition.
This discipline overlaps with metaphysics, ontology, and epistemology, for example, when it explores the relationship between science and truth.