Erec and Enide

The White Stag hunt in a medieval manuscript
The opening lines of the Welsh language version of Geraint and Enid (pre 1382), from the Red Book of Hergest manuscript

First of Chrétien de Troyes' five romance poems, completed around 1170.

- Erec and Enide
The White Stag hunt in a medieval manuscript

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Engraving considered to be a representation of Chrétien de Troyes in his work studio (1530)

Chrétien de Troyes

French poet and trouvère known for his writing on Arthurian subjects, and for first writing of Lancelot, Percival and the Holy Grail.

French poet and trouvère known for his writing on Arthurian subjects, and for first writing of Lancelot, Percival and the Holy Grail.

Engraving considered to be a representation of Chrétien de Troyes in his work studio (1530)

Chrétien's works, including Erec and Enide, Lancelot, Perceval and Yvain, represent some of the best-regarded of medieval literature.

Guinevere watching the mortally wounded Arthur being sailed off to Avalon in Queen Guinevere by James Archer (c. 1860)

Guinevere

Early-medieval queen of Great Britain and the wife of King Arthur.

Early-medieval queen of Great Britain and the wife of King Arthur.

Guinevere watching the mortally wounded Arthur being sailed off to Avalon in Queen Guinevere by James Archer (c. 1860)
Guinevere by Henry Justice Ford (c. 1910)
Lady Guinevere, Howard Pyle's illustration for The Story of King Arthur and His Knights (1903)
Guinevere Takes Refuge in a Convent, Edmund H. Garrett's illustration for Legends of King Arthur and His Court (1911)
Guinevere with Enid and Vivien by George and Louis Rhead (1898)
Guinevere and Iseult by William Morris (1862)
Ritter und Dame (Sir Lancelot und Guinevere) by Wilhelm List (c. 1902)
Meigle stone detail
A scene preceding the kidnapping by Maleagant: "How Queen Guenever rode a maying into the woods and fields beside Westminster."
Arthur Rackham's illustration from The Romance of King Arthur (1917), abridged from Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur by Alfred W. Pollard
Ellen Terry as Guinevere in the play King Arthur by J. Comyns Carr in the Lyceum Theatre production, designed by Edward Burne-Jones, in an American postcard mailed 12 January 1895
A 1961 photo of Robert Goulet as Lancelot and Julie Andrews as Guenevere in the musical Camelot

The few exceptions of that include Arthur's son named Loholt or Ilinot in Perlesvaus and Parzival (first mentioned in Erec and Enide).

Yvain fighting Gawain in order to regain the love of his lady Laudine. Medieval illumination from Chrétien de Troyes's romance, Yvain, le Chevalier au Lion

Chivalric romance

Type of prose and verse narrative that was popular in the noble courts of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe.

Type of prose and verse narrative that was popular in the noble courts of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe.

Yvain fighting Gawain in order to regain the love of his lady Laudine. Medieval illumination from Chrétien de Troyes's romance, Yvain, le Chevalier au Lion
Holger Danske, or Ogier the Dane, from the Matter of France
A knight rescues a lady from a dragon.

In Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart (unlike his earlier Erec and Enide), the behavior of Lancelot conforms to the courtly love ideal; it also, though still full of adventure, devotes an unprecedented amount of time to dealing with the psychological aspects of the love.

Piety: The Knights of the Round Table about to Depart in Quest of the Holy Grail by William Dyce (1849)

Knights of the Round Table

The Knights of the Round Table (Marchogion y Ford Gron, Marghekyon an Moos Krenn, Marc'hegien an Daol Grenn) are the knights of the fellowship of King Arthur in the literary cycle of the Matter of Britain.

The Knights of the Round Table (Marchogion y Ford Gron, Marghekyon an Moos Krenn, Marc'hegien an Daol Grenn) are the knights of the fellowship of King Arthur in the literary cycle of the Matter of Britain.

Piety: The Knights of the Round Table about to Depart in Quest of the Holy Grail by William Dyce (1849)
The attributed arms of Agloval de Galles
"Queen Guenever's Peril." Alfred Kappes' illustration for The Boy's King Arthur (1880)
The arms of Arthur le Petit
Shared attributed arms of Blamor and Blioberis
Brandelis' attributed arms
The attributed arms of Calogrenant
Calogrenant at the fountain in the BN MS fr.1433 manuscript of Yvain ou le chevalier au lion (c. 1325)
The attributed arms of "Dodinet le Sauvaige"
The arms of Helain le Blanc
The attributed arms of "Herec le fils Lac"
The attributed arms of "Exclabor ly Viescovtiens"
The attributed arms of the Duc de Clerence
Girflet's attributed arms
Giflet throwing Excalibur into the lake in a 1470 illustration for the 13th-century romance La Mort du roi Arthur
The attributed arms of Hector des Mares
Lancelot stops his half-brother Hector from killing Arthur defeated in battle, as depicted by William Dyce in King Arthur Unhorsed, Spared by Sir Launcelot (1852)
The attributed arms of "Lucam le Bouteillier"
Mador's attributed arms
"At last the strange knight smote him to the earth, and gave him such a bugget on the helm as well-night killed him." Lancelot Speed's illustration for The Legends of King Arthur and His Knights, abridged from Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur by James Knowles (1912)
The attributed arms of "Mellienderis"
The attributed arms of Morholt d'Irlande
Saphar's attributed arms
The attributed arms of "Securades"
"Sir Segwarides rides after Sir Tristram." F. A. Fraser's illustration for Henry Frith's King Arthur and His Knights of the Round Table (1912)
The attributed arms of Tor
The attributed arms of Yvain the Bastard
His attributed arms
Le Morte d'Arthur scene of Guinevere with some of her unarmed knights before they are ambushed by Maleagant, as depicted in Queen Guinevere's Maying by John Collier
The attributed arms of Seguran le Brun

Bleoberis de Ganis is a Knight of the Round Table from the land of Ganis (Ganes, Gannes, Gaunes, Gaunnes), meaning probably Gaul or perhaps Vannes, who was first mentioned by Chrétien de Troyes in his Erec and Enide, named therein as Bliobleheris.

Portrait of Hartmann von Aue from the Codex Manesse (folio 184v)

Hartmann von Aue

German knight and poet.

German knight and poet.

Portrait of Hartmann von Aue from the Codex Manesse (folio 184v)

The first of these, Erec, which may have been written as early as 1191 or 1192, and the last, Iwein, belong to the Arthurian cycle and are based on epics by Chrétien de Troyes (Erec and Enide and Yvain, the Knight of the Lion, respectively).

The opening lines of Owain from Jesus College, Oxford (MS 111}

Three Welsh Romances

The Three Welsh Romances (Welsh: Y Tair Rhamant) are three Middle Welsh tales associated with the Mabinogion.

The Three Welsh Romances (Welsh: Y Tair Rhamant) are three Middle Welsh tales associated with the Mabinogion.

The opening lines of Owain from Jesus College, Oxford (MS 111}
"Enid and Geraint Reconciled", Louis Rhead and George Rhead's illustration for Idylls of the King (1898)
The opening lines of Peredur on Jesus College, Oxford (MS 111)

Geraint and Enid, which corresponds to Chrétien's Erec and Enide.

Tapestry showing Arthur as one of the Nine Worthies, wearing a coat of arms often attributed to him

King Arthur

Legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries.

Legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries.

Tapestry showing Arthur as one of the Nine Worthies, wearing a coat of arms often attributed to him
Arthur defeats the Saxons in a 19th-century picture by John Cassell
"Arturus rex" (King Arthur), a 1493 illustration from the Nuremberg Chronicle
A facsimile page of Y Gododdin, one of the most famous early Welsh texts featuring Arthur
Culhwch entering Arthur's court in the Welsh tale Culhwch and Olwen. An illustration by Alfred Fredericks for a 1881 edition of the Mabinogion
King Arthur in a crude illustration from a 15th-century Welsh version of Historia Regum Britanniae
The Death of Arthur by John Garrick (1862), depicting a boat arriving to take the dying Arthur to Avalon after the Battle of Camlann
During the 12th century, Arthur's character began to be marginalised by the accretion of "Arthurian" side-stories such as that of Tristan and Iseult, here pictured in a painting by John William Waterhouse (1916)
The story of Arthur drawing the sword from a stone appeared in Robert de Boron's 13th-century Merlin. By Howard Pyle (1903)
The Round Table experiences a vision of the Holy Grail, an illumination by Évrard d'Espinques
Arthur receiving the later tradition's sword Excalibur in N. C. Wyeth's illustration for The Boy's King Arthur (1922), a modern edition of Thomas Malory's 1485 Le Morte d'Arthur
Merlin and Viviane in Gustave Doré's 1868 illustration for Alfred, Lord Tennyson's Idylls of the King
King Arthur (holding Excalibur) and Patsy in Spamalot, a stage musical adaptation of the 1975 film Monty Python and the Holy Grail

Erec and Enide and Cligès are tales of courtly love with Arthur's court as their backdrop, demonstrating the shift away from the heroic world of the Welsh and Galfridian Arthur, while Yvain, the Knight of the Lion, features Yvain and Gawain in a supernatural adventure, with Arthur very much on the sidelines and weakened.

Enid (in the Idylls of the King), illustrated by Eleanor Fortescue-Brickdale

Enide

Character in Arthurian romance.

Character in Arthurian romance.

Enid (in the Idylls of the King), illustrated by Eleanor Fortescue-Brickdale

She is the daughter of Yniol and the wife of Erec in Chrétien de Troyes' Erec and Enide, and the wife of Geraint in the Welsh Romance of Geraint and Enid (analogous to Chrétien's version).

The Arthurian knight Isdernus (Yder) as depicted on the archivolt of Modena Cathedral (1120-40).

Edern ap Nudd

Knight of the Round Table in Arthur's court in early Arthurian tradition.

Knight of the Round Table in Arthur's court in early Arthurian tradition.

The Arthurian knight Isdernus (Yder) as depicted on the archivolt of Modena Cathedral (1120-40).
King "Ydier's" attributed arms

Edern plays a more important role in Geraint son of Erbin (a Welsh adaptation of Chrétien de Troyes' romance Erec et Enide), in which he and two companions, a beautiful lady and a whip-brandishing dwarf, come across Gwenhwyfar, one of her handmaidens and the knight Geraint ab Erbin in a forest.

The Ambraser Heldenbuch, folio 30r with the start of Erec

Erec (poem)

Middle High German poem written in rhyming couplets by Hartmann von Aue.

Middle High German poem written in rhyming couplets by Hartmann von Aue.

The Ambraser Heldenbuch, folio 30r with the start of Erec
King Arthur hunting the White Stag. From a 13th century MS of Chrétien's Erec et Enide.
The Wolfenbüttel Manuscript of Hartmann von Aue's Erec. Fragment IV recto.

An adaptation of Chrétien de Troyes' Erec et Enide, it is the first Arthurian Romance in German.