A report on Erie Canal

Erie Canal map c. 1840
Aqueduct over the Mohawk River at Rexford, one of 32 navigable aqueducts on the Erie Canal
The Mohawk Valley, running east and west, cuts a natural pathway (water gap) between the Catskill Mountains to the south and the Adirondack Mountains to the north.
Profile of the original canal
Operations at Lockport, New York, in 1839
Stonework of lock abandoned because of route change, at Durhamville, New York
An original five-step lock structure crossing the Niagara Escarpment at Lockport, now without gates and used as a cascade for excess water
Erie Canal lock in Lockport, New York
1853 map of New York canals emboldened, center: the Erie Canal; other lines: railroads, rivers and county borders
Lithograph of the Erie Canal at Lockport, New York c. 1855. Published for Herrman J. Meyer, 164 William Street, New York City.
Aqueduct over Nine Mile Creek north of Camillus, New York, built in 1841 and abandoned c. 1918; one of 32 navigable aqueducts on the Erie Canal, it has since been restored.
Upstream view of the downstream lock at Lock 32, Pittsford, New York
Map of the "Water Level Routes" of the New York Central Railroad (purple), West Shore Railroad (red) and Erie Canal (blue)
Rochester, New York, aqueduct c. 1890
Two "low" lift bridges in Lockport, New York, July 2010
The modern Erie Canal has 34 locks, which are painted with the blue and gold colors of the New York State Canal System.
Gateway Harbor in North Tonawanda, about 1000 ft from the present-day western terminus of the Erie Canal where it connects to the Niagara River
The Old Erie Canal and its towpath at Kirkville, New York, within Old Erie Canal State Historic Park
Buffalo's Erie Canal Commercial Slip in Spring 2008
Erie Canal Lock 18, Cohoes, New York
Old Erie Canal State Historic Park, DeWitt, New York
The modern single lock at the Niagara Escarpment

Historic canal in upstate New York that runs east-west between the Hudson River and Lake Erie.

- Erie Canal

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New York (state)

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State in the Northeastern United States.

State in the Northeastern United States.

New York was dominated by Iroquoian (purple) and Algonquian (pink) tribes.
New Amsterdam, present-day Lower Manhattan, 1660
New York and neighboring provinces, by Claude Joseph Sauthier, 1777
British general John Burgoyne surrenders at Saratoga in 1777
1800 map of New York from Low's Encyclopaedia
The Erie Canal at Lockport, New York, in 1839
Flight 175 hitting the South Tower on September11, 2001
Flooding on AvenueC in Lower Manhattan caused by Hurricane Sandy
New York is bordered by six U.S. states, two Great Lakes, and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec.
Enveloped by the Atlantic Ocean and Long Island Sound, New York City and Long Island alone are home to about eleven million residents conjointly.
Lake-effect snow is a major contributor to heavy snowfall totals in western New York, including the Tug Hill region.
Two major state parks (in green) are the Adirondack Park (north) and the Catskill Park (south).
The Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor is a symbol of the United States and its ideals.
The African Burial Ground National Monument in Lower Manhattan
Map of the counties in New York
New York population distribution map. New York's population is primarily concentrated in the Greater New York area, including New York City and Long Island.
The Stonewall Inn in the gay village of Greenwich Village, Lower Manhattan, site of the June 1969 Stonewall riots, the cradle of the modern LGBT rights movement
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The main laboratory building of the IBM Watson Research Center is located in Yorktown Heights, New York.
Times Square in Midtown Manhattan, hub of the Broadway theater district, a media center, and one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections
"I Love New York"
CMA CGM Theodore Roosevelt, the largest container ship to enter the Port of New York and New Jersey as of September7, 2017
Harris Hall of the City College of New York, a public college of the City University of New York
Butler Library at Columbia University
University of Rochester
South campus of the University at Buffalo, the flagship of the State University of New York
The New York City Subway is one of the world's busiest, serving more than five million passengers per average weekday.
Grand Central Terminal in New York City
John F. Kennedy Airport in Queens, the busiest international air passenger gateway to the United States
The New York State Capitol in Albany
New York State Court of Appeals
Kirsten Gillibrand and Chuck Schumer, New York's U.S. Senators
Kathy Hochul (D), the 57th Governor of New York
Yankee Stadium in The Bronx
Koppen climate of New York

In the early 19th century, New York's development of its interior, beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the east coast and built its political and cultural ascendancy.

Hudson River

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315 mi river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.

315 mi river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.

The Hudson River Watershed, including the Hudson and Mohawk rivers
The mouth of the Hudson (yellow), located between Jersey City and New York City
The Hudson River flowing out of Henderson Lake in Tahawus
The river from Poughkeepsie, looking north.
The river between Hudson Waterfront in New Jersey (left) and Manhattan (right)
The bulk carrier Nord Angel breaking ice on the Hudson
Robert Havell, Jr., View of the Hudson River from Tarrytown, c. 1866
The Erie Canal in Amsterdam, New York
The George Washington Bridge links Upper Manhattan and Fort Lee, New Jersey
The Hudson Valley Hot-Air Balloon Festival, 2009
US Airways Flight 1549 after landing on the waters of the Hudson River in January 2009
North River by George Bellows, 1908, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts
The Norrie Point Environmental Center in Staatsburg, headquarters of the Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve
Debris floating on the river near the World Trade Center, 1973
A juvenile house sparrow by the Hudson River

The Hudson was also the eastern outlet for the Erie Canal, which, when completed in 1825, became an important transportation artery for the early 19th century United States.

Buffalo, New York

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Second-largest city in the U.S. state of New York and the seat of Erie County.

Second-largest city in the U.S. state of New York and the seat of Erie County.

Approximate extent of Wenro territory c. 1630
Buffalo in 1813
Pan-American Exposition, 1901
Iron ore unloaded at Buffalo, c. 1900
Satellite image of the Niagara Peninsula and Niagara Frontier; Buffalo is at the lower right.
Allentown
Buffalo in winter, 2019
Racial distribution in Buffalo in 2010: Each dot represents 25 residents.
Temple Beth Zion
Kleinhans Music Hall
Buffalo wings with celery and blue cheese
The Albright–Knox Art Gallery, seen from Hoyt Lake in Delaware Park
Tifft Nature Preserve
Looking down Canalside’s Central Wharf
Common Council Chamber, Buffalo City Hall
The Buffalo News headquarters
City Honors School
The quad at Buffalo State College
Reading Park at Buffalo's Central Library
Buffalo Metro Rail train at the Amherst Street station
Reddy Bikeshare at 250 Delaware Avenue

In 1825, after its harbor was improved, Buffalo was selected as the terminus of the Erie Canal, which led to its incorporation in 1832.

Albany, New York

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Capital of the U.S. state of New York, also the seat and largest city of Albany County.

Capital of the U.S. state of New York, also the seat and largest city of Albany County.

North Pearl Street from Maiden Lane North by James Eights, circa 1805
This 1895 map of Albany shows the gridded block system as it expanded around the former turnpikes.
The steamer Albany departs for New York City; at the height of steam travel in 1884, more than 1.5 million passengers took the trip.
The Albany Lumber District was home to the largest lumber market in the nation in 1865.
Broadway in Albany during the funeral ceremonies for Abraham Lincoln (1865)
The Albany Institute of History & Art
This 1955 map shows the planned expansion of the Interstate Highway System around Albany.
The Albany Pine Bush is the only sizable inland pine barrens sand dune ecosystem in the United States.
Housing in Ten Broeck Triangle, a subset of the Arbor Hill neighborhood
The 1929 Washington Park Lake House replaced a wooden lake house built in 1876.
Lincoln Park is flanked on the north by the Empire State Plaza.
The New York State Capitol
Aerial view of Albany looking northeast
System Administration Building of the State University of New York
This 1789 etching shows the Dutch influence on the architecture of early Albany.
Price Chopper sponsors the annual Fourth of July fireworks show at the Empire State Plaza (2009 show pictured).
An artist paints tulips during the Tulip Fest at Washington Park.
Ten Broeck Mansion is home to the Albany County Historical Association.
Southwest corner of the Cultural Education Center on Empire State Plaza housing the State Museum, Library, and Archives.
Albany High School is the central high school of the City School District of Albany.
State Quad is one of the four iconic dormitory towers at SUNY Albany's Uptown Campus.
One Commerce Plaza
SUNY Polytechnic Institute's College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering embodies Albany's emerging high-tech industry.
Albany City Hall, an 1883 Richardsonian Romanesque structure, is the seat of Albany's government.
The First Church in Albany (Reformed) is the oldest congregation in Upstate New York.
WTEN (headquarters pictured), WXXA, and Spectrum News broadcast from within city limits.
Albany-Rensselaer Amtrak Station
Albany International Airport
The Port of Albany-Rensselaer adds $428 million to the Capital District's $70.1 billion gross product.
Siena guard Ronald Moore dribbles toward the basket in a game against Loyola in January 2010.

It was the original eastern terminus of the Erie Canal, connecting to the Great Lakes, and was home to some of the earliest railroads in the world.

Syracuse, New York

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City in and the county seat of Onondaga County, New York, United States.

City in and the county seat of Onondaga County, New York, United States.

View of the Boulevard c. 1908
Syracuse's weather averages
Skyline from northwest, showing downtown at left to Syracuse University's Carrier Dome at right
State University of New York Upstate Medical University (above); Upstate is ranked No. 35 Best Large Employer in America by Forbes.
Upstate Children's Hospital at Upstate Medical University
State Tower Building on Clinton Square
The 26 Syracuse neighborhoods
Syracuse University's Crouse College
The Niagara Mohawk Building (now owned by National Grid USA), an example of art deco, listed in 2010 on the National Register of Historic Places
Everson Museum of Art
Syracuse's four interstate highways link the city with its suburbs and other cities throughout the country.
The flag of Syracuse flies over Clinton Square
Syracuse City Hall
County Courthouse at Columbus Circle
Patch of the Syracuse Fire Department
NBT Bank Stadium is home to the Syracuse Mets baseball team.
Syracuse University's football team plays its games in the JMA Dome.
alt=|Historic Clinton Square
alt=|Erie Canal in Syracuse
alt=|Salina Street
alt=|Fayette Street
alt=|Onondaga Creekwalk
alt=|Green Lakes State Park
alt=|Green Lakes State Park
alt=|Winter in Syracuse
alt=|Basilica of the Sacred Heart of Jesus
alt=|Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception
alt=|Assumption Church
alt=|St. John the Baptist Greek Catholic Church
alt=|First Baptist Church
alt=|Saint Paul's Episcopal Cathedral
Armory Square
alt=|Columbus Circle, Syracuse, NY
alt=|Franklin Square, Syracuse
Franklin Square
alt=|Buildings in Downtown
alt=|Gere Bank Building
alt=|Hotel Syracuse Downtown
alt=|South Salina Street Downtown Historic District
alt=|South Salina Street Downtown Historic District
alt=|The Amos Block building in downtown
alt=|Syracuse University
alt=|Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs
alt=|Syracuse University
alt=|Joe Biden speaking at Syracuse University
alt=|Upstate Medical University
alt=|Upper Onondaga Park in Strathmore
alt=|Inner harbor at Onondaga Lake
alt=|Onondaga Lake Park
alt=|Skaneateles lake

Historically, the city has functioned as a major crossroads over the last two centuries, first between the Erie Canal and its branch canals, then of the railway network.

Utica, New York

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City in the Mohawk Valley and the county seat of Oneida County, New York, United States.

City in the Mohawk Valley and the county seat of Oneida County, New York, United States.

An 1802 engraved map of Utica. The Mohawk River is at the top, and Bagg's Tavern is at the center right.
This 1883 index map shows the development around Utica and Bagg's Square, with the Erie Canal (now Oriskany Street) and Chenango Canal towards the upper-right.
Bird's-eye view of Utica over Bagg's Square in the 1850s, showing the smoke from numerous factory chimneys
Newsboys for the Utica Saturday Globe, 1910
Looking north towards the corner of Genesee and Bleecker streets, c. 1900–1915. Streetcars can be seen crossing a bridge over the Erie Canal.
November 1985 photo of the Mohawk Valley from Space Shuttle Challenger, with Utica center-left and Albany center-right
The Utica Marsh is a series of wetlands north of the city
Utica as viewed from the northern hills of the city
A CSX train sharing Schuyler Street in West Utica
The Bosnian Islamic Association of Utica's mosque near City Hall.
Fermentation tanks at the Matt Brewing Company in West Utica, producer of Saranac beer
Participants in Utica's annual Boilermaker Road Race
A skillet of Utica greens
Roscoe Conkling Park
NY Routes 5, 8, and 12 cut through the city as the North–South Arterial Highway.
Early Federal Highway Administration map of the Interstate Highway System in Utica; Interstates 90 and 790 are in the shaded portion
Aerial view of SUNY Polytechnic Institute from south to north
Thomas R. Proctor High School
Adirondack Bank Center after renovations, 2016

In the 19th century, immigrants strengthened its position as a layover city between Albany and Syracuse on the Erie and Chenango Canals and the New York Central Railroad.

New York Central Railroad

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Railroad primarily operating in the Great Lakes and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.

Railroad primarily operating in the Great Lakes and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.

The main concourse of Grand Central Terminal, New York Central's most notable landmark
The former New York Central headquarters on Park Avenue is today known as the Helmsley Building
Map of the Water Level Routes of the New York Central Railroad (purple), West Shore Railroad (red) and Erie Canal (blue)
Bond of the New York Central Rail Road Company, issued 1 August 1853, signed by Erastus Corning
A New York Central train running on the High Line through the Bell Laboratories Building, 1936
The streamlined steam-powered 20th Century Limited departs Chicago's LaSalle Street Station behind a NYC Hudson locomotive, 1938
A full steam-powered NYC Mercury train, 1936
1936 postcard photograph of the Rexall Train

It was chartered in 1826 to connect the Mohawk River at Schenectady to the Hudson River at Albany, providing a way for freight and especially passengers to avoid the extensive and time-consuming locks on the Erie Canal between Schenectady and Albany.

Lock 30 at Macedon, 2006

New York State Canal System

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Lock 30 at Macedon, 2006
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Present-day Erie Canal near Bushnell's Basin, southeast of Rochester, New York
Lock 27 in Lyons, New York

The New York State Canal System (formerly known as the New York State Barge Canal) is a successor to the Erie Canal and other canals within New York.

Mohawk River

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149 mi river in the U.S. state of New York.

149 mi river in the U.S. state of New York.

Mohawk River at confluence of South Chuctanunda Creek
As the Laurentian Glacier retreated, it blocked the outflow of Glacial Lake Iroquois. Instead of flowing down the St Lawrence Valley it flowed down the Mohawk River.
Aerial view of the Mohawk River, with Troy and the Hudson River in the foreground, and Schenectady in the background

On the south side of the City it enters the Erie Canal and begins to flow east.

The Fulton Chain Lakes (4th Lake) in the Adirondack Park from Bald Mountain

Upstate New York

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Geographic region consisting of the portion of New York State lying north of the New York City metropolitan area.

Geographic region consisting of the portion of New York State lying north of the New York City metropolitan area.

The Fulton Chain Lakes (4th Lake) in the Adirondack Park from Bald Mountain
New York City is highlighted in red; "Upstate" refers to some or all of the area north and west of the city.
The Bear Mountain Bridge across the Hudson River, as seen from Bear Mountain. It connects the northern parts of Westchester and Rockland counties, considered by some to be the southeastern edge of Upstate.
The opening ceremony at Woodstock
Ethnic ancestries across the United States
Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks
Canisteo River Valley in the Allegheny Plateau
Mean annual snowfall (in inches) for Upstate New York, using 1991-2020 climate normals. Snowfall is especially prevalent within the lake-effect snowbelts of western and north central New York.
A traditional Iroquois longhouse
Cherry Valley massacre
A 1816 engraving of the Battle of Plattsburgh
Erie Canal at Lockport, New York, in 1839
Harvard Mark I, one of the earliest computers, made by IBM in Endicott
Baseball Hall of Fame
Fort Stanwix
Boldt Castle in the Thousand Islands
NASCAR Cup Series at Watkins Glen
Economic regions of New York, showing approximate location of several upstate subregions

The 1825 opening of the Erie Canal across Upstate New York transformed the economy of the region and the state.