Eritrea

State of EritreaEritreanERIErythreaEREritreans State of Eritrea*Administrative divisions of EritreaColonia Primigenia
Eritrea, officially the State of Eritrea, is a sovereign state in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.wikipedia
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Asmara

Asmara, EritreaAsmeraItalian Asmara
Eritrea, officially the State of Eritrea, is a sovereign state in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.
Asmara or Asmera is the capital and most populous city of Eritrea, in the country's Central Region.

Horn of Africa

HornSomali peninsulanortheastern Africa
Eritrea, officially the State of Eritrea, is a sovereign state in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.
Referred to in ancient and medieval times as the land of the Barbara and Habesha, the Horn of Africa denotes the region containing the countries of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia.

Ethiopia

EthiopianAbyssiniaFederal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
It is bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, and Djibouti in the southeast.
It shares borders with Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the northeast, the de facto state of Somaliland and Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south, South Sudan to the west and Sudan to the northwest.

Sudan

SudaneseRepublic of SudanRepublic of the Sudan
It is bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, and Djibouti in the southeast.
It is bordered by Egypt to the north, Libya to the northwest, Chad to the west, the Central African Republic to the southwest, South Sudan to the south, Ethiopia to the southeast, Eritrea to the east, and the Red Sea to the northeast.

Djibouti

Republic of DjiboutiDjiboutianDjibuti
It is bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, and Djibouti in the southeast.
It is bordered by Eritrea in the north, Ethiopia in the west and south, and Somaliland in the southeast.

Italian Eritrea

EritreaEritreanBritish Military Administration
The name Eritrea is based on the Greek name for the Red Sea (Ἐρυθρὰ Θάλασσα Erythra Thalassa), which was first adopted for Italian Eritrea in 1890.
Italian Eritrea was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in the territory of present-day Eritrea.

Tigrinya language

TigrinyaTigrignatir
Tigrinya, Arabic, and English serve as the three working languages.
They live primarily in modern countries of Eritrea and Ethiopia.

Tigrayans

TigrayanTigrayTigrinya
Among these communities, the Tigrinyas make up about 55% of the population, with the Tigre people constituting around 30% of inhabitants.
The Tigrayans or Tigrinyas are an ethnolinguistic group indigenous to Northeast Africa who primarily inhabit the highlands of Eritrea and the Tigray Region of Ethiopia.

Kingdom of Aksum

AksumiteAksumKingdom of Axum
The Kingdom of Aksum, covering much of modern-day Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, was established during the first or second centuries AD.
The Kingdom of Aksum, also known as the Kingdom of Axum or the Aksumite Empire, was an ancient kingdom centered in what is now Eritrea and the Tigray Region of northern Ethiopia.

Tigre people

Tigre
Among these communities, the Tigrinyas make up about 55% of the population, with the Tigre people constituting around 30% of inhabitants.
The Tigre people ( tigre or ትግሬ tigrē) are an ethnic group indigenous to Eritrea.

Cushitic languages

CushiticCushitic languageEast Cushitic
Most residents speak languages from the Afroasiatic family, either of the Ethiopian Semitic languages or Cushitic branches.
They are spoken primarily in the Horn of Africa (Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia), as well as the Nile Valley (Sudan and Egypt), and parts of the African Great Lakes region (Tanzania and Kenya) by Cushitic peoples.

Tigray Region

Tigraynorthern EthiopiaTigray Regional State
The Kingdom of Aksum, covering much of modern-day Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, was established during the first or second centuries AD.
Tigray is bordered by Eritrea to the north,Sudan to the west, Amhara Region to the south and the Afar Region to the east and south east.

Eritrean Liberation Front

ELF
However, in 1962 the government of Ethiopia annulled the Eritrean parliament and formally annexed Eritrea, but the Eritreans who had argued for complete Eritrean independence since the ouster of the Italians in 1941 anticipated what was coming and, in 1961, organized the Eritrean Liberation Front in opposition.
The Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) was the main independence movement in Eritrea which sought Eritrea's independence from Ethiopia during the 1960s and 1970s.

Ethiopian Semitic languages

Ethiopian SemiticEthiopicEthiosemitic
Most residents speak languages from the Afroasiatic family, either of the Ethiopian Semitic languages or Cushitic branches.
Ethiopian Semitic (also Ethio-Semitic, Ethiosemitic, Ethiopic or Abyssinian ) is a family of languages spoken in Ethiopia, Eritrea and Sudan.

Dahlak Archipelago

DahlakDahlak IslandsIsland of Dahlak
The nation has a total area of approximately 117600 km2, and includes the Dahlak Archipelago and several of the Hanish Islands.
The Dahlak Archipelago (أرخبيل دهلك, Ge'ez: ዳህላክ) is an island group located in the Red Sea near Massawa, Eritrea.

Human rights in Eritrea

EritreaEritrean government's human rights recordhuman rights record of Eritrea
According to Human Rights Watch, the Eritrean government's human rights record is among the worst in the world.
Eritrea is a one-party state in which national legislative elections have been repeatedly postponed, the judiciary is weak, and constitutional provisions protecting individual freedom have yet to be fully implemented.

Massawa

MassauaMassowahMasawa
In 1999, the Eritrean Research Project Team composed of Eritrean, Canadian, American, Dutch and French scientists discovered a Paleolithic site with stone and obsidian tools dated to over 125,000 years old near the Bay of Zula south of Massawa, along the Red Sea littoral.
Massawa or Mitsiwa is a port city in the Semienawi Keyih Bahri Region of Eritrea, located on the Red Sea at the northern end of the Gulf of Zula beside the Dahlak Archipelago.

Hamasien

HamasenHamassien
In medieval times much of Eritrea fell under the Medri Bahri kingdom, with a smaller region being part of Hamasien.
Hamasien (Ge'ez ሓማሴን) was a historical province including and surrounding Asmara, part of modern Eritrea.

Nile

Nile RiverNile ValleyRiver Nile
According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations arrived in the region during the ensuing Neolithic era from the family's proposed urheimat ("original homeland") in the Nile Valley.
The Nile, which is about 6650 km long, is an "international" river as its drainage basin covers eleven countries: Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Republic of the Sudan, and Egypt.

Hanish Islands

Greater HanishHanish al KabirHanish archipelago
The nation has a total area of approximately 117600 km2, and includes the Dahlak Archipelago and several of the Hanish Islands.
Most of them are a part of Yemen, but before 1998 they were claimed by Eritrea as well.

Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea

Eritrean federal arrangementfederation with EritreaEritrea was federated
The name persisted over the course of subsequent British and Ethiopian occupation, and was reaffirmed by the 1993 independence referendum and 1997 constitution.
The Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea or Ethiopian–Eritrean Federation was a federation of the Ethiopian Empire and Eritrea.

Constitution of Eritrea

constitution1997 constitutionnew constitution
The name persisted over the course of subsequent British and Ethiopian occupation, and was reaffirmed by the 1993 independence referendum and 1997 constitution.
The Constitution of Eritrea is the supreme law of Eritrea.

Agordat

AkordatAkurdet
Excavations in and near Agordat in central Eritrea yielded the remains of an ancient pre-Aksumite civilization known as the Gash Group.
Agordat (, أغوردات; also Akordat or Ak'ordat) is a city in Gash-Barka, Eritrea.

Afroasiatic languages

Afro-AsiaticAfroasiaticAfro-Asiatic languages
Most residents speak languages from the Afroasiatic family, either of the Ethiopian Semitic languages or Cushitic branches. According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations arrived in the region during the ensuing Neolithic era from the family's proposed urheimat ("original homeland") in the Nile Valley.

Red Sea

Redthe Red SeaErythraean Sea
The northeastern and eastern parts of Eritrea have an extensive coastline along the Red Sea.
A recent underwater expedition to the Red Sea offshore from Sudan and Eritrea found surface water temperatures 28 C in winter and up to 34 C in the summer, but despite that extreme heat, the coral was healthy with much fish life with very little sign of coral bleaching, with only 9% infected by Thalassomonas loyana, the 'white plague' agent.