Ernst Kaltenbrunner

KaltenbrunnerKALTENBRUNNER, Ernst
Ernst Kaltenbrunner (4 October 1903 – 16 October 1946) was an Austrian senior official of Nazi Germany during World War II. An Obergruppenführer (general) in the Schutzstaffel (SS), he held the office of Chief of the Reich Main Security Office (Reichssicherheitshauptamt; RSHA) between January 1943 and May 1945.wikipedia
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Austrian SS

SS-Oberabschnitt DonauSS-Oberabschnitt AlpenlandAlpenland
Kaltenbrunner joined the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in 1930 and the SS in 1931, and by 1935 he was considered a leader of the Austrian SS.
Early Austrian SS leaders were Ernst Kaltenbrunner and Arthur Seyss-Inquart.

Hanging

hangedhangdeath by hanging
He was sentenced to death and executed by hanging in October 1946.
This method was used to execute condemned Nazis under United States jurisdiction after the Nuremberg Trials including Joachim von Ribbentrop and Ernst Kaltenbrunner.

Austria

AUTAustrianRepublic of Austria
Ernst Kaltenbrunner (4 October 1903 – 16 October 1946) was an Austrian senior official of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Though Austrians made up only 8% of the population of the Third Reich, some of the most prominent Nazis were native Austrians, including Adolf Hitler, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Franz Stangl, and Odilo Globocnik, as were over 13% of the SS and 40% of the staff at the Nazi extermination camps.

Schutzstaffel

SSßNazi SS
An Obergruppenführer (general) in the Schutzstaffel (SS), he held the office of Chief of the Reich Main Security Office (Reichssicherheitshauptamt; RSHA) between January 1943 and May 1945.
Ernst Kaltenbrunner, the highest-ranking surviving SS main department chief, was found guilty of crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg trials and hanged in 1946.

Adolf Eichmann

EichmannEichmann trialtrial of Adolf Eichmann
Raised in a nationalist family, Kaltenbrunner was childhood friends with Adolf Eichmann, the infamous SS officer who played a key role in implementing the Nazis' Final Solution against Europe's Jews.
On the advice of family friend and local SS leader Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Eichmann joined the Austrian branch of the NSDAP on 1 April 1932, member number 889,895.

War crime

war crimeswar criminalwar criminals
Kaltenbrunner was the highest-ranking member of the SS to face trial at the first Nuremberg trials, where he was found guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity.

Obergruppenführer

SS-ObergruppenführerSS-Obergruppenführer und General der Waffen-SSObergruppenfuhrer
An Obergruppenführer (general) in the Schutzstaffel (SS), he held the office of Chief of the Reich Main Security Office (Reichssicherheitshauptamt; RSHA) between January 1943 and May 1945.

Sicherheitsdienst

SDSecurity ServiceAusland-SD
The RSHA was composed of the SiPo (Sicherheitspolizei; the combined forces of the Gestapo and Kripo) along with the SD (Sicherheitsdienst, Security Service).
Heydrich's successor, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, was convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg trials, sentenced to death and hanged in 1946.

Reich Main Security Office

RSHAReichssicherheitshauptamtSS-Reichssicherheitshauptamt
An Obergruppenführer (general) in the Schutzstaffel (SS), he held the office of Chief of the Reich Main Security Office (Reichssicherheitshauptamt; RSHA) between January 1943 and May 1945.
In January 1943 Himmler delegated the office to SS-Obergruppenführer and General of Police Ernst Kaltenbrunner, who headed the RSHA until the end of World War II in Europe.

Gestapo

Geheime Staatspolizeithe authoritiesauthorities
The RSHA was composed of the SiPo (Sicherheitspolizei; the combined forces of the Gestapo and Kripo) along with the SD (Sicherheitsdienst, Security Service).
After Heydrich's 1942 assassination, Himmler assumed the leadership of the RSHA until January 1943, when Ernst Kaltenbrunner was appointed chief.

Kriminalpolizei (Nazi Germany)

KriminalpolizeiKripoKriminalabteilungen
The RSHA was composed of the SiPo (Sicherheitspolizei; the combined forces of the Gestapo and Kripo) along with the SD (Sicherheitsdienst, Security Service).
In the last year of its existence, Amt V was commanded by Friedrich Panzinger who answered directly to Ernst Kaltenbrunner, the head of the Reich Main Security Office after Heydrich's assassination in 1942.

Interpol

International Criminal Police OrganizationInternational PoliceInternational Criminal Police Organisation
He also replaced Heydrich as President of the International Criminal Police Commission (ICPC), the organization today known as Interpol.
From 1938 to 1945, the presidents of the ICPC included Otto Steinhäusl, Reinhard Heydrich, Arthur Nebe, and Ernst Kaltenbrunner.

Otto Skorzeny

Dipl-Ing. Otto SkorzenySkorzenySKORZENY, Otto
Kaltenbrunner was also a longtime friend of Otto Skorzeny and recommended him for many secret missions, allowing Skorzeny to become one of Hitler's favorite agents.
Skorzeny's proposals were to develop units specialized in such warfare, including partisan-like fighting deep behind enemy lines, fighting in enemy uniform, sabotage attacks, etc. In April 1943 Skorzeny's name was put forward by Ernst Kaltenbrunner, the new head of the RSHA, and Skorzeny met with Walter Schellenberg, head of Amt VI, Ausland-SD (the SS foreign intelligence service department of the RSHA).

Reinhard Heydrich

HeydrichR. HeydrichReinhardt Heydrich
In January 1943, Kaltenbrunner was appointed a chief of the RSHA, succeeding Reinhard Heydrich, who was assassinated in June 1942. To provide Heinrich Himmler, Reinhard Heydrich and Heinz Jost with new information, Kaltenbrunner repeatedly made trips to Bavaria.
Heydrich's replacements were Ernst Kaltenbrunner as the chief of RSHA, and Karl Hermann Frank (27–28 May 1942) and Kurt Daluege (28 May 1942 – 14 October 1943) as the new acting Reichsprotektors.

Allgemeine-SS regional commands

Allgemeine-SS Order of BattleAllgemeine SS order of battleAllgemeine-SS'' Order of Battle
He first became a Rechtsberater (legal consultant) for the party in 1929 and later held this same position for SS Abschnitt (Section) VIII beginning in 1932.

Anschluss

annexation of AustriaAnschlußannexation
In 1938, Kaltenbrunner assisted in the Anschluss and was given command of the SS and police force in Austria. Acting on orders from Hermann Göring, Kaltenbrunner assisted in the Anschluss with Germany in March 1938, and was awarded the role as the state secretary for public security in the Seyss-Inquart cabinet.

Operation Long Jump

Kaltenbrunner was also responsible for heading Operation Long Jump, a plan to assassinate Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt in Tehran.
Operational control was passed to Ernst Kaltenbrunner, chief of the Reich Security Main Office, who chose Skorzeny to head the mission.

SS and police leader

Higher SS and Police LeaderHSSPFHöherer SS- und Polizeiführer
Also in 1938, he was appointed High SS and police leader (Höherer SS- und Polizeiführer; HSSPF) for Donau, which was the primary SS command in Austria (he held that post until 30 January 1943).

Heinrich Müller (Gestapo)

Heinrich MüllerGeneral MüllerMüller
From what historian Anthony Read relates, Kaltenbrunner's appointment as RSHA chief came as a surprise given the other possible candidates like head of the Gestapo, Heinrich Müller, or even SD foreign intelligence chief, Walter Schellenberg.
For the remainder of the war, Ernst Kaltenbrunner took over as Müller's superior.

Hermann Göring

GöringHermann GoeringGoering
Acting on orders from Hermann Göring, Kaltenbrunner assisted in the Anschluss with Germany in March 1938, and was awarded the role as the state secretary for public security in the Seyss-Inquart cabinet. His body, like those of the other nine executed men and that of Hermann Göring (who committed suicide the previous day), was cremated at the Eastern Cemetery in Munich and the ashes were scattered in a tributary of the River Isar.
Göring told US psychiatrist Leon Goldensohn that the court was "stupid" to try "little fellows" like Funk and Kaltenbrunner instead of letting Göring take all the blame on himself.

Walter Schellenberg

Walther SchellenbergSCHELLENBERG, WalterSchellenberg’s
From what historian Anthony Read relates, Kaltenbrunner's appointment as RSHA chief came as a surprise given the other possible candidates like head of the Gestapo, Heinrich Müller, or even SD foreign intelligence chief, Walter Schellenberg.
Assumption of these powers made Schellenberg the "absolute master" of Nazi intelligence". He was infamous for his "office fortress" desk, which had two automatic guns built into it that could be fired by the touch of a button. According to the memoirs of SS intelligence officer Wilhelm Hoettl, Schellenberg was very suspicious of Gestapo Chief Müller, whom he claimed to have evidence against by way of radio surveillance recordings (allegedly revealing Müller's plans to work with the Soviets); when he informed then RSHA chief Ernst Kaltenbrunner of possessing proof to that end, he was ignored. Kaltenbrunner disliked Schellenberg, perhaps due to his direct access to Himmler, and complained about him in particular on a number of occasions. Despite Kaltenbrunner's animosity towards Schellenberg, the latter's soothing manners kept him in good graces with Himmler and allowed him to "retain the ear of the SS overlord".

Heinrich Himmler

HimmlerAlfred HimmlerH Himmler
To provide Heinrich Himmler, Reinhard Heydrich and Heinz Jost with new information, Kaltenbrunner repeatedly made trips to Bavaria.

Ostfriedhof (Munich)

OstfriedhofEastern CemeteryEast Cemetery
His body, like those of the other nine executed men and that of Hermann Göring (who committed suicide the previous day), was cremated at the Eastern Cemetery in Munich and the ashes were scattered in a tributary of the River Isar.
In reality the bodies were those of ten Nazi war criminals condemned by the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials to be hanged: Joachim von Ribbentrop, Wilhelm Keitel, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Alfred Rosenberg, Hans Frank, Wilhelm Frick, Julius Streicher, Fritz Sauckel, Alfred Jodl, and Arthur Seyss-Inquart.

International Committee of the Red Cross

International Red CrossICRCRed Cross
On 12 March 1945, a meeting took place in the Vorarlberg between Kaltenbrunner and Carl Jacob Burckhardt, president of the International Committee of the Red Cross (1945–48).
On 12 March 1945, ICRC President Jacob Burckhardt received a message from SS General Ernst Kaltenbrunner accepting the ICRC's demand to allow delegates to visit the concentration camps.

Nuremberg executions

executed in Nuremberg16 October 1946are executed by hanging
Kaltenbrunner was executed on 16 October 1946, around 1:15 a.m., in Nuremberg.
Ten prominent members of the political and military leadership of Nazi Germany were executed by hanging: Hans Frank, Wilhelm Frick, Alfred Jodl, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Wilhelm Keitel, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Alfred Rosenberg, Fritz Sauckel, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, and Julius Streicher.