Erosion

erodederodingerodeglacial erosionerosivesoil erosionwater erosionerosionalriver erosionerodes
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that removes soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transports it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).wikipedia
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Soil

dirtsoilssoil moisture
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that removes soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transports it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
It continually undergoes development by way of numerous physical, chemical and biological processes, which include weathering with associated erosion.

Sediment

sedimentssedimentarydregs
The particulate breakdown of rock or soil into clastic sediment is referred to as physical or mechanical erosion; this contrasts with chemical erosion, where soil or rock material is removed from an area by its dissolving into a solvent (typically water), followed by the flow away of that solution. Rill erosion refers to the development of small, ephemeral concentrated flow paths which function as both sediment source and sediment delivery systems for erosion on hillslopes.
Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.

Wind

windsgustsgust
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that removes soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transports it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
Winds can shape landforms, via a variety of aeolian processes such as the formation of fertile soils, such as loess, and by erosion.

Weathering

weatheredchemical weatheringweather resistant
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that removes soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transports it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
Weathering occurs in situ (on site), that is, in the same place, with little or no movement, and thus should not be confused with erosion, which involves the movement of rocks and minerals by agents such as water, ice, snow, wind, waves and gravity and then being transported and deposited in other locations.

Abrasion (geology)

abrasionabradedabrade
Natural rates of erosion are controlled by the action of geological weathering geomorphic drivers, such as rainfall; bedrock wear in rivers; coastal erosion by the sea and waves; glacial plucking, abrasion, and scour; areal flooding; wind abrasion; groundwater processes; and mass movement processes in steep landscapes like landslides and debris flows.
Abrasion is a process of erosion which occurs when material being transported wears away at a surface over time.

Clastic rock

clasticclastclasts
The particulate breakdown of rock or soil into clastic sediment is referred to as physical or mechanical erosion; this contrasts with chemical erosion, where soil or rock material is removed from an area by its dissolving into a solvent (typically water), followed by the flow away of that solution.
Clastic sedimentary rocks are rocks composed predominantly of broken pieces or clasts of older weathered and eroded rocks.

Aeolian processes

aeolianeolianwind erosion
Natural rates of erosion are controlled by the action of geological weathering geomorphic drivers, such as rainfall; bedrock wear in rivers; coastal erosion by the sea and waves; glacial plucking, abrasion, and scour; areal flooding; wind abrasion; groundwater processes; and mass movement processes in steep landscapes like landslides and debris flows.
Winds may erode, transport, and deposit materials and are effective agents in regions with sparse vegetation, a lack of soil moisture and a large supply of unconsolidated sediments.

Sediment transport

transporttransportedtransport sediment
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that removes soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transports it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
Knowledge of sediment transport is most often used to determine whether erosion or deposition will occur, the magnitude of this erosion or deposition, and the time and distance over which it will occur.

Landslide

landslideslandslipdebris avalanche
Natural rates of erosion are controlled by the action of geological weathering geomorphic drivers, such as rainfall; bedrock wear in rivers; coastal erosion by the sea and waves; glacial plucking, abrasion, and scour; areal flooding; wind abrasion; groundwater processes; and mass movement processes in steep landscapes like landslides and debris flows.
erosion of the toe of a slope by rivers or ocean waves;

Surface runoff

runoffagricultural runoffrun-off
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that removes soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transports it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement). Rainfall, and the surface runoff which may result from rainfall, produces four main types of soil erosion: splash erosion, sheet erosion, rill erosion, and gully erosion.
It is instead forced directly into streams or storm water runoff drains, where erosion and siltation can be major problems, even when flooding is not.

Rock (geology)

rockstonerocks
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that removes soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transports it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
Before being deposited, sediments are formed by weathering of earlier rocks by erosion in a source area and then transported to the place of deposition by water, wind, ice, mass movement or glaciers (agents of denudation).

Glacier

glaciersglacialglaciated
Natural rates of erosion are controlled by the action of geological weathering geomorphic drivers, such as rainfall; bedrock wear in rivers; coastal erosion by the sea and waves; glacial plucking, abrasion, and scour; areal flooding; wind abrasion; groundwater processes; and mass movement processes in steep landscapes like landslides and debris flows.
This contrast is thought to a large extent to govern the ability of a glacier to effectively erode its bed, as sliding ice promotes plucking at rock from the surface below.

Soil erosion

erosionErodedsoil erosion by water
Rainfall, and the surface runoff which may result from rainfall, produces four main types of soil erosion: splash erosion, sheet erosion, rill erosion, and gully erosion.
However, there are many prevention and remediation practices that can curtail or limit erosion of vulnerable soils.

Headward erosion

headcuttingheadwardheadward (i.e. upstream) erosion
The erosion is both downward, deepening the valley, and headward, extending the valley into the hillside, creating head cuts and steep banks.
Headward erosion is erosion at the origin of a stream channel, which causes the origin to move back away from the direction of the stream flow, and so causes the stream channel to lengthen.

Gully

gulliesgully erosiongulley
Gully erosion occurs when runoff water accumulates and rapidly flows in narrow channels during or immediately after heavy rains or melting snow, removing soil to a considerable depth.
A gully is a landform created by running water, eroding sharply into soil, typically on a hillside.

Meander

meandersoxbowincised meander
The stream gradient becomes nearly flat, and lateral deposition of sediments becomes important as the stream meanders across the valley floor.
A meander is produced by a stream or river as it erodes the sediments comprising an outer, concave bank (cut bank) and deposits this and other sediment downstream on an inner, convex bank which is typically a point bar.

Land degradation

degradedpoor farming practicesdegraded land
Water and wind erosion are the two primary causes of land degradation; combined, they are responsible for about 84% of the global extent of degraded land, making excessive erosion one of the most significant environmental problems worldwide.
In addition to the usual types of land degradation that have been known for centuries (water, wind and mechanical erosion, physical, chemical and biological degradation), four other types have emerged in the last 50 years:

Deforestation

deforestedland clearingforest clearing
Intensive agriculture, deforestation, roads, anthropogenic climate change and urban sprawl are amongst the most significant human activities in regard to their effect on stimulating erosion.
Due to surface plant litter, forests that are undisturbed have a minimal rate of erosion.

Rill

rills
Rill erosion refers to the development of small, ephemeral concentrated flow paths which function as both sediment source and sediment delivery systems for erosion on hillslopes.
In hillslope geomorphology, a rill is a shallow channel (no more than a few tens of centimetres deep) cut into soil by the erosive action of flowing water.

Valley

river valleyhanging valleyvalleys
The erosion is both downward, deepening the valley, and headward, extending the valley into the hillside, creating head cuts and steep banks.
Erosional valley: A valley formed by erosion.

Base level

River Mouthbaseleveldischarges into it
When some base level is reached, the erosive activity switches to lateral erosion, which widens the valley floor and creates a narrow floodplain.
In geology and geomorphology a base level is the lower limit for an erosion process.

Corrosion

corrosion resistancecorrodecorrosive
It is the most effective and rapid form of shoreline erosion (not to be confused with corrosion). Corrosion is the dissolving of rock by carbonic acid in sea water.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.

River bank failure

river bank erosionchanges in the form of river banksbank instability
Erosion and changes in the form of river banks may be measured by inserting metal rods into the bank and marking the position of the bank surface along the rods at different times.
All river banks experience erosion, but failure is dependent on the location and the rate at which erosion is occurring.

Head cut (stream geomorphology)

head cutsHead cutheadcut
The erosion is both downward, deepening the valley, and headward, extending the valley into the hillside, creating head cuts and steep banks.
Head cut, in stream geomorphology, is an erosional feature of some intermittent and perennial streams with an abrupt vertical drop, also known as a knickpoint, in the stream bed.

Downcutting

downcutdownwarddownward erosion
The erosion is both downward, deepening the valley, and headward, extending the valley into the hillside, creating head cuts and steep banks.
The speed of downcutting depends on the stream's base level, the lowest point to which the stream can erode.