Erzurum

ErzerumTheodosiopolisKarinErzurum, TurkeyQaliqalaTheodosioupolisGarinErzeroumTheodosiopolis (Armenia)Theodosiopolis in Armenia
Erzurum is a city in eastern Anatolia (Asian Turkey).wikipedia
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List of largest cities and towns in Turkey

citycitiesList of cities in Turkey
Erzurum is a city in eastern Anatolia (Asian Turkey).

2011 Winter Universiade

2011Erzurum 20112011 Erzurum
Erzurum has some diverse winter sports facilities in Turkey and hosted the 2011 Winter Universiade.
The XXV Winter Universiade, took place in Erzurum, Turkey between 27 January to 6 February.

Artze

A neighboring commercial city named Artze (Arcn, Arzan; Armenian: Արծն) was heavily sacked by the Seljuk Turks in 1048/49.
It was located some 55 km east of the Byzantine city of Theodosiopolis, in the district of Phasiane on the borderlands between Armenia and Iberia, on the left bank of the Araxes River.

Erzurum Province

ErzurumArzenErzerum
It is the largest city in and eponymous capital of Erzurum Province.
The city (present day Erzurum) was alternatively held by the Arabs and Byzantines during the 7-10th centuries it was also part of the Armenian kingdom of Tayk in the 10th century.

Saltukids

SaltukidSaltukid dynastyErzerum
The Saltukids were rulers of an Anatolian beylik (principality) centered in Erzurum, who ruled from 1071 to 1202.
The Saltukids or Saltuqids (Modern Turkish: Saltuklu Beyliği ) were a dynasty ruling one of the Anatolian beyliks founded after the Battle of Manzikert (1071) and centered on Erzurum.

Muslim conquest of Armenia

Arab conquest of ArmeniaArmeniaconquest of Armenia
After the Arab conquest of Armenia, the city was known to the Arabs as Kālīkalā (which was adopted from the original Armenian name).
Mu'awiya's general Habib ibn Maslama al-Fihri first moved against the Byzantine portion of the country: he besieged and captured Theodosiopolis (present-day Erzurum, Turkey) and defeated a Byzantine army, reinforced with Khazar and Alan troops, on the Euphrates.

Sasanian Empire

SassanidSasanianSassanid Empire
After the partition of Armenia between the Eastern Roman Empire and Sassanid Persia in 387 AD, the city passed into the hands of the Romans.
Galerius advanced into Media and Adiabene, winning successive victories, most prominently near Erzurum, and securing Nisibis (Nusaybin, Turkey) before 1 October 298.

Melike Mama Hatun

Mama Hatun
Melike Mama Hatun, sister of Nâsırüddin Muhammed, was the ruler between 1191 and 1200.
Melike Mama Hatun, or simply Mama Hatun, was a female ruler of the Saltukid dynasty, with its capital in Erzurum, for an estimated nine years between 1191 and 1200.

Anastasius I Dicorus

Anastasius IAnastasiusEmperor Anastasius
Emperors Anastasius I and Justinian I both refortified the city and built new defenses during their reigns.
During the Anastasian War of 502–505 with the Sassanid Persians, the Sassanids captured the cities of Theodosiopolis and Amida, although the Romans later received Amida in exchange for gold.

Abdallah ibn Abd al-Malik

Abd AllahAbdallahAbdallah ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan ibn al-Hakam
Theodosiopolis was conquered by the Umayyad general Abdallah ibn Abd al-Malik in 700/701.
During this expedition he captured the border fortress of Theodosiopolis and raided into Armenia Minor.

Battle of Manzikert

ManzikertBattle of MalazgirtMalazgirt
It got its present name after its conquest by the Seljuks following the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.
The expedition rested at Sebasteia on the river Halys, reaching Theodosiopolis in June 1071.

Safavid dynasty

SafavidSafavid EmpireSafavids
It subsequently passed to Safavid Persia, until the Ottomans under Selim I in 1514 conquered it through the Battle of Chaldiran.
Having started with just the possession of Azerbaijan, Shirvan, southern Dagestan (with its important city of Derbent), and Armenia in 1501, Erzincan and Erzurum fell into his power in 1502, Hamadan in 1503, Shiraz and Kerman in 1504, Diyarbakir, Najaf, and Karbala in 1507, Van in 1508, Baghdad in 1509, and Herat, as well as other parts of Khorasan, in 1510.

Erzurum Congress

ErzurumcongressCongress of Erzurum
The Erzurum Congress of 1919 was one of the starting points of the Turkish War of Independence.
Erzurum Congress (Erzurum Kongresi) was an assembly of Turkish Revolutionaries held from 23 July to 4 August 1919 in the city of Erzurum, in eastern Turkey, in accordance with the previously issued Amasya Circular.

Erzurum Offensive

Battle of ErzurumErzerum OffensiveBattle of Erzurum (1916)
The city was the location of one of the key battles in the Caucasus Campaign of World War I between the armies of the Ottoman and Russian Empires.
The Erzurum Offensive (Эрзурумское сражение Erzurumskoe srazhenie ;Turkish: Erzurum Taarruzu) or Battle of Erzurum (Turkish: Erzurum Muharebesi) was a major winter offensive by the Imperial Russian Army on the Caucasus Campaign, during the First World War, that led to the capture of the strategic city of Erzurum.

Battle of Kapetron

Battle of KapetrouBattle of Pasinlerfirst large-scale raid
A neighboring commercial city named Artze (Arcn, Arzan; Armenian: Արծն) was heavily sacked by the Seljuk Turks in 1048/49.
Ibrahim's main army raided the district of Basean, and the area between Theodosiopolis, Artze, and the district of Mananalis.

Suleiman II (Rûm)

Süleymanshah IISüleyman IISuleiman II
Theodosiopolis repelled many attacks and military campaigns by the Seljuks and Georgians (the latter knew the city as Karnu-Kalaki) until 1201 when the city and the province was conquered by the Seljuk sultan Süleymanshah II.
In 1201 he conquered Erzurum, giving it as a fief to Mughith al-Din Tugrulshah in 1202.

Atatürk University

Ataturk UniversityAtatürk Üniversitesi
One of the largest source of income and economic activity in the city has been Atatürk University.
Atatürk University (Atatürk Üniversitesi) is a land-grant university established in 1957 in Erzurum, Turkey.

Russo-Turkish War (1828–29)

Russo-Turkish WarRusso-Turkish War (1828–1829)Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829
In 1829 the city was captured by the Russian Empire, but was returned to the Ottoman Empire under the Treaty of Adrianople (Edirne), in September of the same year.
Meanwhile, Ivan Paskevich advanced on the Caucasian front defeated the Turks at the Battle of Akhalzic and captured Kars on 23 June and Erzurum, in north-eastern Anatolia on 27 June, the 120th anniversary of the Poltava.

Sultanate of Rum

Sultanate of RûmSeljukSeljuks of Turkey
The city uses the double-headed Anatolian Seljuk Eagle as its coat-of-arms, a motif that was a common symbol throughout Anatolia and the Balkans in the medieval period.
The forces of the Mongol Empire took Erzurum in 1242 and in 1243, the sultan was crushed by Baiju in the Battle of Köse Dağ (a mountain between the cities of Sivas and Erzincan), and the Seljuq Turks were forced to swear allegiance to the Mongols and became their vassals.

Nabucco pipeline

NabuccoNabucco Gas Pipeline International GmbHNabucco project
Erzurum will also be the starting point of the planned Nabucco pipeline which will carry natural gas from the Caspian Sea basin to the European Union member states.
It was a modification of the original Nabucco Pipeline project, which was to run from Erzurum in Turkey to Baumgarten an der March in Austria.

Anatolian beyliks

beylikAnatolian beylikbeyliks
The Saltukids were rulers of an Anatolian beylik (principality) centered in Erzurum, who ruled from 1071 to 1202.

Battle of Erzurum (1821)

Battle of Erzurum1821 Battle of Erzurumbattle at the city of Erzurum
In 1821, during the last major Ottoman-Persian War, the Ottomans were crushingly defeated at Erzurum despite a numerical superiority by the Iranian Qajars at the Battle of Erzurum (1821).
The Persians, led by crown prince Abbas Mirza himself scored a crushing defeat over their Ottoman arch rivals near Erzurum, securing a Persian victory.

Russian Empire

RussiaImperial RussiaRussian
The city was the location of one of the key battles in the Caucasus Campaign of World War I between the armies of the Ottoman and Russian Empires.
In the 1828–29 Russo-Turkish War, Russia invaded northeastern Anatolia and occupied the strategic Ottoman towns of Erzurum and Gümüşhane and, posing as protector and saviour of the Greek Orthodox population, received extensive support from the region's Pontic Greeks.

Battle of Erzurum (1877)

Battle of Erzurum
The city was unsuccessfully attacked (Battle of Erzurum (1877)) by a Russian army in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78.
Although the Turkish troops ceased resistance and were fleeing in disarray, with 4,000 of them deserting the army, a part of their infantry maintained order and retreated to the well-fortified position in Erzurum with 14 guns.

Hamidian massacres

Hamidian massacreArmenian massacresmassacres
There were massacres of the city's Armenian citizens during the Hamidian massacres (1894–1896).
William Sachtleben, an American journalist who happened to be in Erzurum after the massacre there in 1895, recounted the grisly scene he came across in a lengthy letter to The Times: