Eskimo–Aleut languages

Eskimo–AleutEskimoEskimo-AleutEskimo–Aleut languageEskimo languagesEskimo-Aleut languagesEskimo languageEskimo-Aleut languageEskimo–Aleut familyInuit
The Eskimo–Aleut languages, Eskaleut languages, or Inuit-Yupik-Unangan languages are a language family native to Alaska, the Canadian Arctic (Nunavut and Inuvialuit Settlement Region), Nunavik, Nunatsiavut, Greenland, and the Chukotka Peninsula in the far east of Russia.wikipedia
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Aleut language

AleutAleutianUnangax̂
The Eskimo–Aleut language family is divided into two branches: the Eskimo languages and the Aleut language.
Aleut is the sole language in the Aleut branch of the Eskimo–Aleut language family.

Sirenik Eskimo language

SirenikSireniki Eskimo languageSireniki
The proper place of one language, Sirenik, within the Eskimo family has not been settled.
Sirenik Yupik, Sireniki Yupik (also Old Sirenik or Vuteen), Sirenik, or Sirenikskiy is an extinct Eskimo–Aleut language.

Yupik languages

YupikYupik languageCentral Yup'ik
The Eskimo languages are divided into two branches: the Yupik languages, spoken in western and southwestern Alaska and in Chukotka, and the Inuit languages, spoken in northern Alaska, Canada and Greenland.
The Yupik languages are in the family of Eskimo–Aleut languages.

Alaska Native Language Center

The Alaska Native Language Center believes that the common ancestral language of the Eskimo languages and of Aleut divided into the Eskimo and Aleut branches at least 4,000 years ago.
It publishes grammars, dictionaries, folklore collections and research materials, as well as hosting an extensive archive of written materials relating to Eskimo, North Athabaskan and related languages.

Central Alaskan Yup'ik language

Central Alaskan Yup'ikYup'ikCentral Yup'ik
Central Alaskan Yupik, or Yupʼik (also rendered Yupik, Central Yupik, or indigenously Yugtun) is one of the languages of the Yupik family, in turn a member of the Eskimo–Aleut language group, spoken in western and southwestern Alaska.

Inuit languages

InuitInuit languageInuktitut
The Eskimo languages are divided into two branches: the Yupik languages, spoken in western and southwestern Alaska and in Chukotka, and the Inuit languages, spoken in northern Alaska, Canada and Greenland.
The language of the Inuit is an Eskimo–Aleut language.

Indigenous languages of the Americas

Native American languagesindigenous languagesNative American language
The Eskimo–Aleut languages are among the native languages of the Americas.
Many languages throughout North America are polysynthetic (Eskimo–Aleut languages are extreme examples), although this is not characteristic of all North American languages (contrary to what was believed by 19th-century linguists).

Alaska

CityAKAlaskan
The Eskimo–Aleut languages, Eskaleut languages, or Inuit-Yupik-Unangan languages are a language family native to Alaska, the Canadian Arctic (Nunavut and Inuvialuit Settlement Region), Nunavik, Nunatsiavut, Greenland, and the Chukotka Peninsula in the far east of Russia.
Most of Alaska's native languages belong to either the Eskimo–Aleut or Na-Dene language families; however, some languages are thought to be isolates (e.g. Haida) or have not yet been classified (e.g. Tsimshianic).

Thule people

ThuleThule cultureThule Tradition
The Eskimo–Aleut languages are not demonstrably related to the other language families of North America and are believed to represent a separate, and the last, prehistoric migration of people from Asia.
The links between the Thule and the Inuit are biological, cultural, and linguistic.

Inupiaq language

InupiaqIñupiaqInupiat
The Inupiat language is a member of the Inuit-Yupik-Unangan language family, and is closely related to Inuit languages of Canada and Greenland.

Naukan Yupik language

NaukanNaukan YupikEast Cape Yupik language
Naukan Yupik language or Naukan Siberian Yupik language is a critically endangered Eskimo language spoken by ca.

Greenlandic language

GreenlandicKalaallisutWest Greenlandic
One of the first such proposals was made by the pioneering Danish linguist Rasmus Rask in 1818, upon noticing similarities between Greenlandic and Finnish.
Greenlandic (kalaallisut) is an Eskimo–Aleut language with about 57,000 speakers, mostly Greenlandic Inuit people in Greenland.

Uralo-Siberian languages

Uralo-Siberian
Perhaps the most fully developed such proposal to date is Michael Fortescue's Uralo-Siberian hypothesis, published in 1998.
Uralo-Siberian is a hypothetical language family consisting of Uralic, Yukaghir, Eskimo–Aleut, possibly Nivkh and formerly Chukotko-Kamchatkan.

Urheimat

homelandlinguistic homelandancestral home
Vovin (2015) considers the homeland (Urheimat) of Proto-Eskimo-Aleut to be in Siberia rather than in Alaska.
As noted below, many notable linguists have proposed that the Eskimo-Aleut languages and Uralic languages have a common origin, although there is no consensus that this connection is genuine.

Aleutian Islands

AleutiansAleutianAleutian Chain
The Aleut branch consists of a single language, Aleut, spoken in the Aleutian Islands and the Pribilof Islands.
The Aleut language is one of the two main branches of the Eskimo–Aleut language family.

Eurasiatic languages

EurasiaticEurasiatic language familyinterior Eurasian language families
More recently Joseph Greenberg (2000–2002) suggested grouping Eskimo–Aleut with all of the language families of northern Eurasia (Indo-European, Uralic, Altaic, Korean, Japanese, Ainu, Nivkh/Gilayak, and Chukchi-Kamchatkan), with the exception of Yeniseian, in a proposed language family called Eurasiatic.
The branches of Eurasiatic vary between proposals, but typically include Altaic (Mongolic, Tungusic and Turkic), Chukchi-Kamchatkan, Eskimo–Aleut, Indo-European, and Uralic—although Greenberg uses the controversial Uralic-Yukaghir classification instead.

Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages

Chukotko-KamchatkanChukotko-Kamchatkan peoplesChukchi-Kamchatkan
The more credible proposals on the external relations of Eskimo–Aleut all concern one or more of the language families of northern Eurasia, such as Chukotko-Kamchatkan just across the Bering Strait.
The most popular such proposals have been for links with Eskimo–Aleut, either alone or in the context of a wider grouping.

Tungusic languages

TungusicTungusic languageTungus
Alexander Vovin (2015) notes that Northern Tungusic languages, which are spoken in eastern Siberia and northeastern China, have Eskimo-Aleut loanwords that are not found in Southern Tungusic, implying that Eskimo-Aleut was once much more widely spoken in eastern Siberia.
Alexander Vovin (2015) notes that Northern Tungusic languages have Eskimo-Aleut loanwords that are not found in Southern Tungusic, implying that Eskimo-Aleut was once much more widely spoken in eastern Siberia.

Russian Far East

Soviet Far EastFar EastFar East Russia
The Eskimo–Aleut languages, Eskaleut languages, or Inuit-Yupik-Unangan languages are a language family native to Alaska, the Canadian Arctic (Nunavut and Inuvialuit Settlement Region), Nunavik, Nunatsiavut, Greenland, and the Chukotka Peninsula in the far east of Russia.

Greenland

Kalaallit NunaatGreenlandicGL
The Eskimo–Aleut languages, Eskaleut languages, or Inuit-Yupik-Unangan languages are a language family native to Alaska, the Canadian Arctic (Nunavut and Inuvialuit Settlement Region), Nunavik, Nunatsiavut, Greenland, and the Chukotka Peninsula in the far east of Russia.
Both Greenlandic (an Eskimo–Aleut language) and Danish have been used in public affairs since the establishment of home rule in 1979; the majority of the population can speak both languages.

Michael Fortescue

Fortescue, Michael
Perhaps the most fully developed such proposal to date is Michael Fortescue's Uralo-Siberian hypothesis, published in 1998.
Fortescue is known for his reconstructions of the Eskimo-Aleut, Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Nivkh, and Wakashan proto-languages.

Inuktun

Avannarhuarmiutut (North Thule Greenlandic)Inuktun languageNorth Greenlandic
The language is an Eskimo–Aleut language and dialectologically it is in between the Greenlandic Kalaallisut and the Canadian Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun or Inuinnaqtun.

Inuktitut

Inuktitut languageInuktitukInuktitut writing
Inuktitut, like other Eskimo–Aleut languages, has a very rich morphological system, in which a succession of different morphemes are added to root words to indicate things that, in languages like English, would require several words to express.

Proto-Eskimo–Aleut language

Proto-Eskimo–AleutProto-Eskimo-Aleut language[1
Proto-Inuit-Yupik-Unangan or Proto-Eskimo–Aleut was the common ancestor of the Eskimo languages and Aleut.

Balancing and deranking

derankingfinite verb forms in ordinary clausesordinary verb forms
All Eskimo–Aleut languages have obligatory verbal agreement with agent and patient in transitive clauses, and there are special suffixes used for this purpose in subordinate clauses, which makes these languages, like most in the North Pacific, highly complement deranking.