The digestive tract, with the esophagus marked in red
Endoscopic image of an esophageal adenocarcinoma
The esophagus is constricted in three places.
Esophageal cancer (lower part) as a result of Barrettʼs esophagus
A mass seen during an endoscopy and an ultrasound of the mass conducted during the endoscopy session.
Esophageal cancer as shown by a filling defect during an upper GI series
Esophageal stent for esophageal cancer
Esophageal stent for esophageal cancer
Before and after a total esophagectomy
Typical scar lines after the two main methods of surgery
Death from esophageal cancer per million persons in 2012
Endoscopic image of Barrett esophagus – a frequent precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma
Endoscopy and radial endoscopic ultrasound images of a submucosal tumor in the central portion of the esophagus
Contrast CT scan showing an esophageal tumor (axial view)
Contrast CT scan showing an esophageal tumor (coronal view)
Esophageal cancer
Micrograph showing histopathological appearance of an esophageal adenocarcinoma (dark blue – upper-left of image) and normal squamous epithelium (upper-right of image) at H&E staining
T1, T2, and T3 stages of esophageal cancer
Stage T4 esophageal cancer
Esophageal cancer with spread to lymph nodes
Internal radiotherapy for esophageal cancer
Self-expandable metallic stents are sometimes used for palliative care

Esophageal cancer is cancer arising from the esophagus—the food pipe that runs between the throat and the stomach.

- Esophageal cancer

The esophagus may be affected by gastric reflux, cancer, prominent dilated blood vessels called varices that can bleed heavily, tears, constrictions, and disorders of motility.

- Esophagus
The digestive tract, with the esophagus marked in red

7 related topics

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A chest X-ray showing achalasia ( arrows point to the outline of the massively dilated esophagus )

Esophageal achalasia

A chest X-ray showing achalasia ( arrows point to the outline of the massively dilated esophagus )
Transhiatal oesophagectomy specimen from a patient suffering from late-stage achalasia. Diverticulum at the left lower end of the oesophagus.
An axial CT image showing marked dilatation of the esophagus in a person with achalasia.
"Bird's beak" appearance and "megaesophagus", typical in achalasia.
Schematic of manometry in achalasia showing aperistaltic contractions, increased intraesophageal pressure, and failure of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter.
Image of a stomach which has undergone Fundoplomy

Esophageal achalasia, often referred to simply as achalasia, is a failure of smooth muscle fibers to relax, which can cause the lower esophageal sphincter to remain closed.

However, a small proportion occurs secondary to other conditions, such as esophageal cancer, Chagas disease (an infectious disease common in South America) or Triple-A syndrome.

X-ray image of the chest showing the internal anatomy of the rib cage, lungs and heart as well as the inferior thoracic border–made up of the diaphragm.

Heartburn

Burning sensation in the central chest or upper central abdomen.

Burning sensation in the central chest or upper central abdomen.

X-ray image of the chest showing the internal anatomy of the rib cage, lungs and heart as well as the inferior thoracic border–made up of the diaphragm.

Heartburn is usually due to regurgitation of gastric acid (gastric reflux) into the esophagus.

Esophageal cancers

The digestive tract, with the esophagus marked in red

Dysphagia

Difficulty in swallowing.

Difficulty in swallowing.

The digestive tract, with the esophagus marked in red

In achalasia, there is idiopathic destruction of parasympathetic ganglia of the Auerbach's (Myenteric) plexus of the entire esophagus, which results in functional narrowing of the lower esophagus, and peristaltic failure throughout its length.

Esophageal cancer

X-ray showing radiocontrast from the stomach (white material below diaphragm) entering the esophagus (three vertical collections of white material in the mid-line of the chest) due to severe reflux

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

X-ray showing radiocontrast from the stomach (white material below diaphragm) entering the esophagus (three vertical collections of white material in the mid-line of the chest) due to severe reflux
Frontal view of severe tooth erosion in GERD.
Severe tooth erosion in GERD.
A comparison of a healthy condition to GERD
Endoscopic image of peptic stricture, or narrowing of the esophagus near the junction with the stomach: This is a complication of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease and can be a cause of dysphagia or difficulty swallowing.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a chronic condition in which stomach contents and acid rise up into the esophagus, resulting in symptoms and/or complications.

Esophageal adenocarcinoma – a form of cancer

Endoscopic image of Barrett's esophagus, which is the area of dark reddish-brown mucosa at the base of the
                   esophagus. (Biopsies showed intestinal metaplasia.)

Barrett's esophagus

Endoscopic image of Barrett's esophagus, which is the area of dark reddish-brown mucosa at the base of the
                   esophagus. (Biopsies showed intestinal metaplasia.)
Histopathology of Barrett's esophagus, showing intestinalized epithelium with goblet cells, as opposed to normal stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus, and pseudostratified columnar epithelium of the fundus of the stomach. The submucosa displays an infiltrate including lymphocytes and plasma cells, constituting an underlying chronic inflammation. The area between the stratified and the intestinalized epithelium displays reactive changes, but there is no secondary dysplasia in this case. H&E stain.
In incomplete Barrett's esophagus, there are both foveolar cells and goblet cells, the latter (indicated by arrows) usually having a slightly bluish color compared to the apical cytoplasm of foveolar cells on H&E stain. An occasional but specific sign of goblet cells is crescent shaped nuclei (seen in middle one).
Micrograph showing Barrett's esophagus - columnar epithelia with goblet cells - on the left side of image; and normal stratified squamous epithelium on the right side of image Alcian blue stain
High-magnification micrograph of Barrett's esophagus showing the characteristic goblet cells, Alcian blue stain
Endoscopic view of Barrett's esophagus showing location of biopsies for screening using the Seattle protocol
Barrettʼs cancer adenocarcinoma (poor; signet-ringcell)

Barrett's esophagus is a condition in which there is an abnormal (metaplastic) change in the mucosal cells lining the lower portion of the esophagus, from stratified squamous epithelium to simple columnar epithelium with interspersed goblet cells that are normally present only in the small intestine and large intestine.

This change is considered to be a premalignant condition because it is associated with a high incidence of further transition to esophageal adenocarcinoma, an often-deadly cancer.

Angular stomatitis

Plummer–Vinson syndrome

Rare disease characterized by difficulty swallowing, iron-deficiency anemia, glossitis, cheilosis and esophageal webs.

Rare disease characterized by difficulty swallowing, iron-deficiency anemia, glossitis, cheilosis and esophageal webs.

Angular stomatitis
Upright double contrast image showing jet phenomennna from cervical esophageal web.
Right posterior oblique prone single contrast flouroscopic last image hold image showing circumferential thin cervical esophageal web.
Ascorbic-acid

Its identification and follow-up is considered relevant due to increased risk of squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus and pharynx.

Upper esophageal webs (post cricoid region - contrasts with Schatzki rings found at the lower end of esophagus).

Surgical removal of the esophagus.

Esophagectomy

Surgical removal of the esophagus.
Diagram showing before and after an oesophago-gastrectomy
Diagram showing before and after a partial oesophagectomy
Diagram showing before and after a total oesophagectomy
An esophagectomy using the bowel (colon) to replace the esophagus

Esophagectomy or oesophagectomy is the surgical removal of all or parts of the esophagus.

This procedure is usually done for patients with esophageal cancer.