A report on Esophagus

The digestive tract, with the esophagus marked in red
The esophagus is constricted in three places.
A mass seen during an endoscopy and an ultrasound of the mass conducted during the endoscopy session.

Organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

- Esophagus
The digestive tract, with the esophagus marked in red

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Overall

Diagram of stomach, intestines and rectum in the average human

Gastrointestinal tract

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Tract or passageway of the digestive system that leads from the mouth to the anus.

Tract or passageway of the digestive system that leads from the mouth to the anus.

Diagram of stomach, intestines and rectum in the average human
Illustration of the small intestine

The GI tract contains all the major organs of the digestive system, in humans and other animals, including the esophagus, stomach, and intestines.

Scheme of digestive tract, with stomach in red.

Stomach

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Muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.

Muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.

Scheme of digestive tract, with stomach in red.
1. Body of stomach 2. Fundus 3. Anterior wall 4. Greater curvature 5. Lesser curvature 6. Cardia 9. Pyloric sphincter 10. Pyloric antrum 11. Pyloric canal 12. Angular incisure 13. Gastric canal 14. Rugae
Schematic image of the blood supply to the human stomach: left and right gastric artery, left and right gastroepiploic artery and short gastric artery.
The gastrointestinal wall of the human stomach.
Histology of normal fundic mucosa. Fundic glands are simple, branched tubular glands that extend from the bottom of the gastric pits to the muscularis mucosae; the more distinctive cells are parietal cells. H&E stain.
Histology of normal antral mucosa. Antral mucosa is formed by branched coiled tubular glands lined by secretory cells similar in appearance to the surface mucus cells. H&E stain.
An endoscopy of a normal stomach of a healthy 65-year-old woman.
Endoscopic image of a fundic gland polyp.
Greater omentum and stomach of humans
A more realistic image, showing the celiac artery and its branches in humans; the liver has been raised, and the lesser omentum and anterior layer of the greater omentum removed.
An autopsy of a human stomach, showing the many folds ({{wt|en|rugae}}) of the stomach. 2012 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología
Human stomach
High-quality image of the stomach

In humans and many other animals, the stomach is located between the oesophagus and the small intestine.

X-ray showing radiocontrast from the stomach (white material below diaphragm) entering the esophagus (three vertical collections of white material in the mid-line of the chest) due to severe reflux

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

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X-ray showing radiocontrast from the stomach (white material below diaphragm) entering the esophagus (three vertical collections of white material in the mid-line of the chest) due to severe reflux
Frontal view of severe tooth erosion in GERD.
Severe tooth erosion in GERD.
A comparison of a healthy condition to GERD
Endoscopic image of peptic stricture, or narrowing of the esophagus near the junction with the stomach: This is a complication of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease and can be a cause of dysphagia or difficulty swallowing.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a chronic condition in which stomach contents and acid rise up into the esophagus, resulting in symptoms and/or complications.

Anatomy of the larynx, anterolateral view

Larynx

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Organ in the top of the neck involved in breathing, producing sound and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.

Organ in the top of the neck involved in breathing, producing sound and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.

Anatomy of the larynx, anterolateral view
Sagittal section of the larynx and upper part of the trachea.
The basic parts of the human larynx.
Vocal cords abducted and adducted
Extrinsic laryngeal muscles
Image of endoscopy
Endoscopic image of an inflamed human larynx
Larynx. Deep dissection. Anterior view.
Larynx. Deep dissection. Posterior view.

It is situated just below where the tract of the pharynx splits into the trachea and the esophagus.

Conducting passages

Trachea

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Cartilaginous tube that connects the larynx to the bronchi of the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.

Cartilaginous tube that connects the larynx to the bronchi of the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.

Conducting passages
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Lymph nodes of the trachea.
Tracheal diverticulum as seen on axial CT imaging
Tracheal system of dissected cockroach. The largest tracheae run across the width of the body of the cockroach and are horizontal in this image. Scale bar, 2 mm.
The tracheal system branches into progressively smaller tubes, here supplying the crop of the cockroach. Scale bar, 2 mm.
thumb|Cross section of a trachea and esophagus
The sternohyoid and sternothyroid muscles lie on top of the upper part of the trachea
The thyroid gland also lies on top of the trachea, and lies below the cricoid cartilage.
Cross-section
Cross-section of the trachea, with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and goblet cells labelled
Magnified cross-section of the cartilage of the trachea.
Trachea
Coronal section of larynx and upper part of trachea
alt=Trachea (mammal) cross-section high resolution|Trachea (mammal) cross-section high resolution
alt=Trachea (mammal) cross-section low resolution|Trachea (mammal) cross-section low resolution

Behind the trachea, along its length, sits the oesophagus, followed by connective tissue and the vertebral column.

Respiratory system

Thoracic diaphragm

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Sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.

Sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.

Respiratory system
Structure of diaphragm shown using a 3D medical animation still shot
Definition of diaphragm in Blount's 1707 Glossographia Anglicana Nova
Human diaphragm, transverse view from below, showing openings
X-ray of chest, showing top of diaphragm.
Diaphragm and pleural cavities in amphibian (left), bird (center), mammal (right). a, mandible; b, genio-hyoid; c, hyoid; d, sterno-hyoid; e, sternum; f, pericardium; g, septum transversum; h, rectus abdominis; i, abdominal cavity; j, pubis; k, esophagus; l, trachea; m, cervical limiting membrane of abdominal cavity; n, dorsal wall of body; o, lung; o', air-sac.

There are three large openings — one for the aorta, one for the esophagus, and one for the inferior vena cava (the caval opening), plus a series of smaller ones.

Head and inner neck

Pharynx

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Head and inner neck
Upper respiratory system, with the nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx labeled at left
Details of torus tubarius
Pharyngitis is the painful swelling of the throat. The oropharynx shown here is very inflamed and red.
An illustration of the pharyngeal jaws of a moray eel
Everted pharynx of Alitta virens (also known as Nereis virens), lateral view
Pharynx of the flatworm Prorhynchus fontinalis
Pharynx of the flatworm Platydemus manokwari visible as the worm feeds on a snail.
Longitudinal section through the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans showing the position of the pharynx in the animal body.
Microscopic cross section through the pharynx of a larva from an unknown lamprey species.
Nose and nasal
Coronal section of right ear, showing auditory tube and levator veli palatini muscle
The entrance to the larynx, viewed from behind
Deep dissection of human larynx, pharynx and tongue seen from behind
The nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx or larynx can be seen clearly in this sagittal section of the head and neck.

The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat behind the mouth and nasal cavity, and above the oesophagus and trachea (the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs).

Endoscopic image of an esophageal adenocarcinoma

Esophageal cancer

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Endoscopic image of an esophageal adenocarcinoma
Esophageal cancer (lower part) as a result of Barrettʼs esophagus
Esophageal cancer as shown by a filling defect during an upper GI series
Esophageal stent for esophageal cancer
Esophageal stent for esophageal cancer
Before and after a total esophagectomy
Typical scar lines after the two main methods of surgery
Death from esophageal cancer per million persons in 2012
Endoscopic image of Barrett esophagus – a frequent precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma
Endoscopy and radial endoscopic ultrasound images of a submucosal tumor in the central portion of the esophagus
Contrast CT scan showing an esophageal tumor (axial view)
Contrast CT scan showing an esophageal tumor (coronal view)
Esophageal cancer
Micrograph showing histopathological appearance of an esophageal adenocarcinoma (dark blue – upper-left of image) and normal squamous epithelium (upper-right of image) at H&E staining
T1, T2, and T3 stages of esophageal cancer
Stage T4 esophageal cancer
Esophageal cancer with spread to lymph nodes
Internal radiotherapy for esophageal cancer
Self-expandable metallic stents are sometimes used for palliative care

Esophageal cancer is cancer arising from the esophagus—the food pipe that runs between the throat and the stomach.

Many of the internal organs of the human body

Organ (biology)

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Organ is a collection of tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function.

Organ is a collection of tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function.

Many of the internal organs of the human body
The liver and gallbladder of a sheep
Relationship of major animal lineages with indication of how long ago these animals shared a common ancestor. On the left, important organs are shown, which allows us to determine how long ago these may have evolved.
The flower is the angiosperm's reproductive organ. This Hibiscus flower is hermaphroditic, and it contains stamen and pistils.
Strobilus of Equisetum telmateia
Human viscera

Digestive system: digestion and processing food with salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, intestines, colon, rectum and anus.

Plan of the upper portions of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves.

Vagus nerve

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Cranial nerve that interfaces with the parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.

Cranial nerve that interfaces with the parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.

Plan of the upper portions of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves.
H&E stained fibers of the vagus nerve (bottom right) innervate the sinoatrial node tissue (middle left)
Inferior view of the human brain, with the cranial nerves labeled.
Section of the neck at about the level of the sixth cervical vertebra
Transverse section of thorax, showing relations of pulmonary artery
The arch of the aorta, and its branches
Dura mater and its processes exposed by removing part of the right half of the skull, and the brain
The tracheobronchial lymph glands
Section of the medulla oblongata at about the middle of the olive
Hind- and mid-brains; postero-lateral view
Upper part of medulla spinalis and hind- and mid-brains; posterior aspect, exposed in situ
The right sympathetic chain and its connections with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic plexuses
The celiac ganglia with the sympathetic plexuses of the abdominal viscera radiating from the ganglia
The position and relation of the esophagus in the cervical region and in the posterior mediastinum, seen from behind
The thyroid gland and its relations
The thymus of a full-term fetus, exposed in situ
Deep dissection of vagus nerve
Vagus nerve – dissection

The right vagus nerve gives rise to the right recurrent laryngeal nerve, which hooks around the right subclavian artery and ascends into the neck between the trachea and esophagus.