The digestive tract, with the esophagus marked in red
Respiratory system
The esophagus is constricted in three places.
Structure of diaphragm shown using a 3D medical animation still shot
A mass seen during an endoscopy and an ultrasound of the mass conducted during the endoscopy session.
Definition of diaphragm in Blount's 1707 Glossographia Anglicana Nova
Human diaphragm, transverse view from below, showing openings
X-ray of chest, showing top of diaphragm.
Diaphragm and pleural cavities in amphibian (left), bird (center), mammal (right). a, mandible; b, genio-hyoid; c, hyoid; d, sterno-hyoid; e, sternum; f, pericardium; g, septum transversum; h, rectus abdominis; i, abdominal cavity; j, pubis; k, esophagus; l, trachea; m, cervical limiting membrane of abdominal cavity; n, dorsal wall of body; o, lung; o', air-sac.

The esophagus is a fibromuscular tube, about 25 cm long in adults, that travels behind the trachea and heart, passes through the diaphragm, and empties into the uppermost region of the stomach.

- Esophagus

There are three large openings — one for the aorta, one for the esophagus, and one for the inferior vena cava (the caval opening), plus a series of smaller ones.

- Thoracic diaphragm
The digestive tract, with the esophagus marked in red

9 related topics

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Scheme of digestive tract, with stomach in red.

Stomach

Muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.

Muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.

Scheme of digestive tract, with stomach in red.
1. Body of stomach 2. Fundus 3. Anterior wall 4. Greater curvature 5. Lesser curvature 6. Cardia 9. Pyloric sphincter 10. Pyloric antrum 11. Pyloric canal 12. Angular incisure 13. Gastric canal 14. Rugae
Schematic image of the blood supply to the human stomach: left and right gastric artery, left and right gastroepiploic artery and short gastric artery.
The gastrointestinal wall of the human stomach.
Histology of normal fundic mucosa. Fundic glands are simple, branched tubular glands that extend from the bottom of the gastric pits to the muscularis mucosae; the more distinctive cells are parietal cells. H&E stain.
Histology of normal antral mucosa. Antral mucosa is formed by branched coiled tubular glands lined by secretory cells similar in appearance to the surface mucus cells. H&E stain.
An endoscopy of a normal stomach of a healthy 65-year-old woman.
Endoscopic image of a fundic gland polyp.
Greater omentum and stomach of humans
A more realistic image, showing the celiac artery and its branches in humans; the liver has been raised, and the lesser omentum and anterior layer of the greater omentum removed.
An autopsy of a human stomach, showing the many folds ({{wt|en|rugae}}) of the stomach. 2012 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología
Human stomach
High-quality image of the stomach

In humans and many other animals, the stomach is located between the oesophagus and the small intestine.

The top of the stomach lies against the diaphragm.

Diagram of stomach, intestines and rectum in the average human

Gastrointestinal tract

Tract or passageway of the digestive system that leads from the mouth to the anus.

Tract or passageway of the digestive system that leads from the mouth to the anus.

Diagram of stomach, intestines and rectum in the average human
Illustration of the small intestine

The GI tract contains all the major organs of the digestive system, in humans and other animals, including the esophagus, stomach, and intestines.

The suspensory muscle attaches the superior border of the ascending duodenum to the diaphragm.

Heart

Muscular organ in most animals that pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

Muscular organ in most animals that pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

Human heart during an autopsy
Computer-generated animation of a beating human heart
The human heart is in the middle of the thorax, with its apex pointing to the left.
Heart being dissected showing right and left ventricles, from above
Frontal section showing papillary muscles attached to the tricuspid valve on the right and to the mitral valve on the left via chordae tendineae.
Layers of the heart wall, including visceral and parietal pericardium
The swirling pattern of myocardium helps the heart pump effectively
Arterial supply to the heart (red), with other areas labelled (blue).
Autonomic innervation of the heart
Development of the human heart during the first eight weeks (top) and the formation of the heart chambers (bottom). In this figure, the blue and red colors represent blood inflow and outflow (not venous and arterial blood). Initially, all venous blood flows from the tail/atria to the ventricles/head, a very different pattern from that of an adult.
Blood flow through the valves
The cardiac cycle as correlated to the ECG
The x-axis reflects time with a recording of the heart sounds. The y-axis represents pressure.
Transmission of a cardiac action potential through the heart's conduction system
Conduction system of the heart
The prepotential is due to a slow influx of sodium ions until the threshold is reached followed by a rapid depolarization and repolarization. The prepotential accounts for the membrane reaching threshold and initiates the spontaneous depolarization and contraction of the cell; there is no resting potential.
3D echocardiogram showing the mitral valve (right), tricuspid and mitral valves (top left) and aortic valve (top right).
The closure of the heart valves causes the heart sounds.
Cardiac cycle shown against ECG
Heart and its blood vessels, by Leonardo da Vinci, 15th century
Animated heart
Elize Ryd making a heart sign at a concert in 2018
The tube-like heart (green) of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae extends horizontally across the body, interlinked with the diamond-shaped wing muscles (also green) and surrounded by pericardial cells (red). Blue depicts cell nuclei.
Basic arthropod body structure – heart shown in red
The human heart viewed from the front
The human heart viewed from behind
The coronary circulation
The human heart viewed from the front and from behind
Frontal section of the human heart
An anatomical specimen of the heart
Heart illustration with circulatory system
Animated Heart 3d Model Rendered in Computer

The superior vena cava drains blood from above the diaphragm and empties into the upper back part of the right atrium.

Echocardiography can be conducted by a probe on the chest (transthoracic), or by a probe in the esophagus (transesophageal).

An esophageal ulcer visualized by esophagoscopy: the reddened area at 10 o'clock on the surface of the mucosa.

Esophagitis

An esophageal ulcer visualized by esophagoscopy: the reddened area at 10 o'clock on the surface of the mucosa.
Microscopic Slide of Infectious Esophagitis
Microscopic Slide of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

Esophagitis, also spelled oesophagitis, is a disease characterized by inflammation of the esophagus.

Hernias – A hernia can poke through the diaphragm muscle and can inhibit the stomach acid and food from draining quickly.

The abdominal aorta and its branches (inferior phrenic arteries labeled at upper right)

Inferior phrenic arteries

The abdominal aorta and its branches (inferior phrenic arteries labeled at upper right)

The inferior phrenic arteries are two small vessels which supply the diaphragm.

The left phrenic passes behind the esophagus, and runs forward on the left side of the esophageal hiatus.

Position of human cervical vertebrae (shown in red). It consists of 7 bones, from top to bottom, C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, and C7.

Cervical vertebrae

In tetrapods, cervical vertebrae (singular: vertebra) are the vertebrae of the neck, immediately below the skull.

In tetrapods, cervical vertebrae (singular: vertebra) are the vertebrae of the neck, immediately below the skull.

Position of human cervical vertebrae (shown in red). It consists of 7 bones, from top to bottom, C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, and C7.
Side view of a typical cervical vertebra
Despite greatly differing neck lengths, okapi (left) and giraffe (right) both have seven cervical vertebrae. The giraffe's neck is elongated by heterochrony, extension of the time for the embryonic development of these bones.
Position of C7 shown in red.
Scrollable computed tomography images of normal cervical vertebrae
Position of cervical vertebrae (shown in red). Animation.
Illustration of cervical vertebrae
Shape of cervical vertebrae (shown in blue and yellow). Animation.
Cervical vertebrae, lateral view (shown in blue and yellow)
Vertebral column
Vertebral column
X-ray of cervical vertebrae
X-ray of cervical spine in flexion and extension
First cervical vertebra, or atlas
Second cervical vertebra, or epistropheus, from above
Second cervical vertebra, epistropheus, or axis, from the side
Seventh cervical vertebra
Posterior atlanto-occipital membrane and atlantoaxial ligament
Median sagittal section through the occipital bone and first three cervical vertebrae
Section of the neck at about the level of the sixth cervical vertebra
Anterior view of cervical spine showing the vertebral arteries along with the spinal nerves. See this in 3d here.

If it does occur, however, it may cause death or profound disability, including paralysis of the arms, legs, and diaphragm, which leads to respiratory failure.

At C6, the oesophagus becomes continuous with the laryngopharynx and also where the larynx becomes continuous with the trachea. It is also the level where the carotid pulse can be palpated against the transverse process of the C6 vertebrae.

The diaphragm. Under surface. (Esophageal hiatus labeled at center right.)

Esophageal hiatus

The diaphragm. Under surface. (Esophageal hiatus labeled at center right.)

In human anatomy, the esophageal hiatus is an opening in the diaphragm through which the esophagus and the vagus nerve pass.

Schematic view of aorta and its segments, with Descending thoracic aorta labeled near middle

Descending thoracic aorta

Part of the aorta located in the thorax.

Part of the aorta located in the thorax.

Schematic view of aorta and its segments, with Descending thoracic aorta labeled near middle
Histopathological image of dissecting aneurysm of descending thoracic aorta in a patient without evidence of Marfan's trait. The damaged aorta was surgically removed and replaced by artificial vessel. Victoria blue & HE stain.
Transverse section of thorax, showing relations of pulmonary artery.
The arch of the aorta, and its branches.
Schematic of the thoracic aorta, showing major branches

The descending thoracic aorta begins at the lower border of the fourth thoracic vertebra and ends in front of the lower border of the twelfth thoracic vertebra, at the aortic hiatus in the diaphragm where it becomes the abdominal aorta.

In front of the descending thoracic aorta lies the root of the left lung, the pericardium, the esophagus, and the diaphragm.

Abdomen

Part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.

Part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.

Abdominal organs anatomy.
Surface projections of the organs of the trunk, from which organ locations are derived mainly from vertebra levels, ribs and the ilium.
Front of abdomen, showing markings for duodenum, pancreas, and kidneys.
Side-by-side comparison of quadrants and regions.
The analogous gross morphologies of a human and an ant.
In the worker ant, the abdomen consists of the propodeum fused to the thorax and the metasoma, itself divided into the narrow petiole and bulbous gaster.
View of the various organs and blood-vessels in proximity with liver.
The relations of the viscera and large vessels of the abdomen, seen from behind.

In humans, the abdomen stretches from the thorax at the thoracic diaphragm to the pelvis at the pelvic brim.

Structures such as the aorta, inferior vena cava and esophagus pass through the diaphragm.