A report on Estonia

Bronze Age stone-cist graves
Iron Age artefacts of a hoard from Kumna
Independent counties of Ancient Estonia in the beginning of the 13th century
Medieval Estonia and Livonia after the crusade
Kuressaare Castle in Saaremaa dates back to the 1380s
"Academia Dorpatensis" (now University of Tartu) was founded in 1632 by King Gustavus as the second university in the kingdom of Sweden. After the king's death it became known as "Academia Gustaviana".
Carl Robert Jakobson played a key role in the Estonian national awakening.
Declaration of Independence in Pärnu on 23 February 1918. One of the first images of the Republic.
Estonian armoured train during the Estonian War of Independence
According to the 23 August 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact "the Baltic States (Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania)" were divided into German and Soviet "spheres of influence" (German copy)
The Red Army troops crossing Soviet-Estonian border in October 1939 after Estonia had been forced to sign the Bases Treaty
The capital Tallinn after bombing by the Soviet Air Force during the war on the Eastern Front in March 1944
Estonian Swedes fleeing the Soviet occupation to Sweden (1944)
The blue-black-white flag of Estonia was raised again on the top of the Pikk Hermann tower on February 24, 1989.
Baltic Way in Estonia
The barn swallow (H. r. rustica) is the national bird of Estonia.
Estonia Endla Nature Reserve 07 Forest
Haanja Nature reserve where violations of Natura 2000 area logging is taking place.
The seat of the Parliament of Estonia in Toompea Castle
Building of the Supreme Court of Estonia in Tartu
US President Barack Obama giving a speech at the Nordea Concert Hall in Tallinn
Foreign ministers of the Nordic and Baltic countries in Riga, 2016
Estonian soldiers during a NATO exercise in 2015
KAPO (Kaitsepolitsei) headquarters in Kassisaba, Kesklinn, Tallinn
An Estonian Patria Pasi XA-180 in Afghanistan
Administrative divisions of Estonia
A proportional representation of Estonia exports, 2019
The central business district of Tallinn
Real GPD per capita development of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
Estonia's GDP growth from 2000 till 2012
The oil shale industry in Estonia is one of the most developed in the world. In 2012, oil shale supplied 70% of Estonia's total primary energy and accounted for 4% of Estonia's gross domestic product.
Rõuste wind farm in Lääneranna Parish
Graphical depiction of Estonia's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories
Population of Estonia 1960–2019. The changes are largely attributed to Soviet immigration and emigration.
Estonian folk dancers
A Russian Old Believer village with a church on Piirissaar island
Ruhnu stave church, built in 1644, is the oldest surviving wooden building in Estonia
Distribution of Finnic languages in Northern Europe
The University of Tartu is one of the oldest universities in Northern Europe and the highest-ranked university in Estonia. According to the Top Universities website, the University of Tartu ranks 285th in the QS Global World Ranking.
Building of the Estonian Students' Society in Tartu. It is considered to be the first example of Estonian national architecture. The Treaty of Tartu between Finland and Soviet Russia was signed in the building in 1920.
ESTCube-1 is the first Estonian satellite.
The Estonian National Museum in Tartu.
The Estonian Song Festival is UNESCO's Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
Arvo Pärt was the world's most performed living composer from 2010 to 2018.
Jaan Kross is the most translated Estonian writer.
A traditional farmhouse built in the Estonian vernacular style
Mulgipuder, a national dish of Estonia made with potatoes, groats, and meat. It is very traditional food in the southern part of Estonia.
Tartu Ski Marathon in 2006

Country in Northern Europe.

- Estonia

331 related topics with Alpha



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Country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.

Country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.

Turaida Castle near Sigulda, built in 1214 under Albert of Riga
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
The Swedish Empire (1560–1815).
Riga became the capital of Swedish Livonia and the largest city in the Swedish Empire.
Latvians national rally in Dundaga in 1905
Jānis Čakste (1859–1927), was the first president of Latvia
Red Army troops enter Riga (1940).
German soldiers enter Riga, July 1941
Red Army soldiers in front of the Freedom Monument in Riga in 1944
Reconstruction of a Gulag shack in the Museum of the Occupation of Latvia, Riga
Barricade in Riga to prevent the Soviet Army from reaching the Latvian Parliament in July 1991
Latvia became a member of the European Union in 2004 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
Latvia lies in Northern Europe, on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.
Latvia has the fifth highest proportion of land covered by forests in the European Union.
The white wagtail is the national bird of Latvia.
The building of the Saeima, the parliament of Latvia, in Riga
Historical regions: orange Courland, green Semigallia, yellow Vidzeme, blue Latgale, brown Selonia.
Administrative divisions of Latvia
The building of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Riga
Foreign ministers of the Nordic and Baltic countries in Helsinki, 2011
Naval Forces minehunter Imanta
Latvian soldiers during an exercise
Europride 2015 in Riga.
Latvia is part of the EU single market (light blue), Eurozone (dark blue) and Schengen Area (not shown).
Real GPD per capita development of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
A proportional representation of Latvia exports, 2019
An airBaltic Boeing 757−200WL takes off at Riga International Airport (RIX)
The Port of Ventspils is one of the busiest ports in the Baltic states.
Population of Latvia (in millions) from 1920 to 2014
Riga Cathedral
University of Latvia
Historic Centre of Riga was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1997
Participants of the Latvian Song and Dance Festival in 2018
Arena Riga during the 2006 IIHF World Championship
Kristaps Porziņģis
Historical regions: Courland Semigallia  Vidzeme  Latgale  Selonia

It is one of the Baltic states; and is bordered by Estonia to the north, Lithuania to the south, Russia to the east, Belarus to the southeast, and shares a maritime border with Sweden to the west.


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The Danish flag falling from the sky during the Battle of Lindanise (Tallinn), 15 June 1219. Painted by C. A. Lorentzen in 1809.
The lesser coat of arms of Tallinn depicts the Dannebrog cross.
Toompea castle
Harju Street in Tallinn old town after the Soviet aerial bombing in March 1944
Port of Reval in 1853. Painting by Alexey Bogolyubov
Härjapea river, 1889
Map of the districts of Tallinn
Rotermann business district
The SEB Pank building in Tornimäe district
The Fahle House accommodates many corporate headquarters
The buildings of Tallinn University of Technology
Estonian Art Museum in Kadriorg Palace
Mikkel Museum
Danse Macabre by Bernt Notke on display at St. Nicholas' Church
The Tallinn Song Festival Grounds (Lauluväljak)
World's largest kiluvõileib, some 20 m in length, created at Tallinn Town Hall Square on 15 May 2014
A Christmas market at the Town Hall square
Stenbock House on Toompea hill is the official seat of the Government of Estonia
A CAF tram in Tallinn (Pärnu maantee street) in 2018.
The port of Tallinn is one of the busiest cruise and passenger harbours in Northern Europe with over 10 million people passing through in 2016.
Railway platform at the Tallinn Baltic Station
A. H. Tammsaare
Marie Under, 1915
Jaan Kross, 2004
Lennart Meri, 1999
Andres Tarand, 2006
Lepo Sumera, 1991
Anu Lamp, 2012
Juhan Parts, 2012
Harriet Toompere, 2012
Tiiu Kuik, 2007
Neeme Järvi at Laulupidu, 2009
Siiri Vallner, 2009
Sergei Pareiko, 2011
Irina Embrich, 2013
Seal of Reval, 1340
Old Thomas is one of the symbols and guardians of Tallinn
Night view of Tallinn's city center in August 2012
St. Nicholas' Church
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral built in 1894–1900
House of the Brotherhood of Blackheads
Viru Gate, entrance to the Old Town. Two remaining towers that were once part of a larger fourteenth-century gate system
The Raeapteek, built in 1422, is one of the oldest continuously running pharmacies in Europe
Kiek in de Kök defence tower
City wall with temporary garden exhibition
Pikk Hermann (Toompea)
Kadriorg Palace
The ruins of Pirita Convent
A Nordica aircraft landing at Tallinn Airport
Tornimäe business area
Estonian Open Air Museum
Glehn Castle

Tallinn is the most populous, primate, and capital city of Estonia.


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Nordic country in Northern Europe.

Nordic country in Northern Europe.

Finland on a medieval map, which is part of the Carta marina (1539)
Reconstruction of Stone Age dwelling from Kierikki, Oulu
Stone Age bear head gavel found in Paltamo, Kainuu.
An ancient Finnish man's outfit according to the findings of the Tuukkala Cemetery in Mikkeli, interpretation of 1889. The cemetery dates from the late 13th century to the early 15th century.
Late Iron Age swords found in Finland
The Swedish Empire following the Treaty of Roskilde of 1658.
Dark green: Sweden proper, as represented in the Riksdag of the Estates. Other greens: Swedish dominions and possessions
Now lying within Helsinki, Suomenlinna is a UNESCO World Heritage Site consisting of an inhabited 18th-century sea fortress built on six islands. It is one of Finland's most popular tourist attractions.
Pioneers in Karelia (1900) by Pekka Halonen
White firing squad executing Red soldiers after the Battle of Länkipohja (1918)
Finnish military leader and statesman C. G. E. Mannerheim as general officer leading the White Victory Parade at the end of the Finnish Civil War in Helsinki, 1918
J. K. Paasikivi and P. E. Svinhufvud, both at the time future presidents of the Republic of Finland, discuss the Finnish monarchy project in 1918.
Finnish troops raise a flag on the cairn in April 1945 at the close of the World War II in Finland
Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union after World War II. The Porkkala land lease was returned to Finland in 1956.
Urho Kekkonen, the eighth president of Finland (1956–1982)
Finland joined the European Union in 1995 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
Topographic map of Finland
There are some 187,888 lakes in Finland larger than 500 square metres and 75,818 islands of over 0,5 km2 area, leading to the denomination "the land of a thousand lakes". Picture of Lake Pielinen in North Karelia.
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is Finland's national animal. It is also the largest carnivore in Finland.
Köppen climate classification types of Finland
The Parliament of Finland's main building along Mannerheimintie in Töölö, Helsinki
The Session Hall of the Parliament of Finland
The Court House of the Supreme Court
Martti Ahtisaari receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in 2008
Finnish Leopard 2A4 tank Ps 273–106 in a combat demonstration at Comprehensive security exhibition 2015 in Tampere.
Sisu Nasu NA-110 tracked transport vehicle of the Finnish Army. Most conscripts receive training for warfare in winter, and transport vehicles such as this give mobility in heavy snow.
People gathering at the Senate Square, Helsinki, right before the 2011 Helsinki Pride parade started.
Angry Birds Land, a theme park in the Särkänniemi amusement park, in Tampere, Pirkanmaa; the mobile phone game Angry Birds, developed in Finland, has become a commercial hit both domestically and internationally.
A treemap representing the exports of Finland in 2017
The two existing units of the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant. On the far left is a visualization of a third unit, which, when completed, will become Finland's fifth commercial nuclear reactor.
Supply of electricity in Finland
The Oasis of the Seas was built at the Perno shipyard in Turku.
Flags of the Nordic countries from left to right: Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark
Medieval old town in Porvoo is one of the most popular tourist destinations in summers for those who are fascinated by the old look.
The historical Tavastia Castle (or Häme Castle) in Hämeenlinna, Tavastia Proper is located close to the Lake Vanajavesi.
Municipalities of Finland:
The Evangelical Lutheran Helsinki Cathedral
The Meilahti Tower Hospital, part of the Helsinki University Central Hospital (HUCH) in Töölö, Helsinki
Development of life expectancy in Finland
Helsinki Central Library Oodi was chosen as the best new public library in the world in 2019
Pupils at the school of Torvinen in Sodankylä, Finland, in the 1920s
Auditorium in Aalto University's main building, designed by Alvar Aalto
The library of the University of Eastern Finland in Snellmania, the Kuopio campus of the university
The sauna is strongly associated with Finnish culture
A smoke sauna in Ruka, Kuusamo
Mikael Agricola (1510–1557), Bishop of Turku, a prominent Lutheran Protestant reformer and the father of the Finnish written language
Akseli Gallen-Kallela, The Defense of the Sampo, 1896, Turku Art Museum
The Finnish composer Jean Sibelius (1865–1957) was a significant figure in the history of classical music.
Perttu Kivilaakso of Apocalyptica
The Finnish filmmakers Edvin Laine and Matti Kassila in 1955
Linus Torvalds, the Finnish software engineer best known for creating the popular open-source kernel Linux
Karelian pasty (karjalanpiirakka) is a traditional Finnish dish made from a thin rye crust with a filling of rice. Butter, often mixed with boiled egg (egg butter or munavoi), is spread over the hot pastries before eating.
Paavo Nurmi lights the 1952 Summer Olympics flame
Finland's men's national ice hockey team is ranked as one of the best in the world. The team has won four world championships (1995, 2011, 2019 and 2022) and one Olympic gold medal (2022)
Kankkunen on the Laajavuori stage of the 2010 Rally Finland

It shares land borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east, with the Gulf of Bothnia to the west and the Gulf of Finland across Estonia to the south.

Map of the Baltic Sea region

Baltic Sea

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Map of the Baltic Sea region
Danish Straits and southwestern Baltic Sea
Åland between Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia
Cape Arkona on the island of Rügen in Germany, was a sacred site of the Rani tribe before Christianization.
Main trading routes of the Hanseatic League (Hanse).
In 1649 the settlement of the Latvian-speaking Kursenieki spanned from Klaipėda to Gdańsk along the coast of the Baltic Sea.
The naval Battle of the Sound took place on 8 November 1658 during the Dano-Swedish War.
The burning Cap Arcona shortly after the attacks, 3 May 1945. Only 350 survived of the 4,500 prisoners who had been aboard
Baltic drainage basins (catchment area), with depth, elevation, major rivers and lakes
Curonian Spit in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia
Regions and basins of the Baltic Sea: 
1 = Bothnian Bay
2 = Bothnian Sea
1 + 2 = Gulf of Bothnia, partly also 3 & 4
3 = Archipelago Sea
4 = Åland Sea
5 = Gulf of Finland
6 = Northern Baltic Proper
7 = Western Gotland Basin
8 = Eastern Gotland Basin
9 = Gulf of Riga
10 = Bay of Gdańsk/Gdansk Basin
11 = Bornholm Basin and Hanö Bight
12 = Arkona Basin 6–12 = Baltic Proper
13 = Kattegat, not an integral part of the Baltic Sea
14 = Belt Sea (Little Belt and Great Belt)
15 = Öresund (The Sound) 14 + 15 = Danish Straits, not an integral part of the Baltic Sea
Satellite image of the Baltic Sea in a mild winter
Traversing Baltic Sea and ice
On particularly cold winters, the coastal parts of the Baltic Sea freeze into ice thick enough to walk or ski on.
Piles of drift ice on the shore of Puhtulaid, near Virtsu, Estonia, in late April
Depths of the Baltic Sea in meters
Baltic Sea near Klaipėda (Karklė).
Skerries form an integral and typical part of many of the archipelagos of the Baltic Sea, such as these in the archipelago of Åland, Finland.
Stockholm archipelago
Aerial view of Bornholm, Denmark
Population density in the Baltic Sea catchment area
Vasilyevsky Island in Saint Petersburg, Russia
Stockholm in Sweden
Riga in Latvia
Helsinki in Finland
Gdańsk in Poland
Tallinn in Estonia
Satellite photo of the Baltic Sea surrounding Gotland, Sweden, with algae bloom (phytoplankton) swirling in the water
Pedestrian pier in Sellin, Germany
Svetlogorsk resort town in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia
Mrzeżyno beach in Poland

The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden and the North and Central European Plain.


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Country in the Baltic region of Europe.

Country in the Baltic region of Europe.

Lithuania's name in writing, 1009
Baltic amber was once a valuable trade resource. It was transported from the region of modern-day Lithuania to the Roman Empire and Egypt through the Amber Road.
Changes in the territory of Lithuania from the 13th to 15th century. At its peak, Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. Lithuania's strength was its toleration of various cultures and religions.
Trakai Island Castle, the former residence of the Grand Dukes and capital city of the medieval state
Battle of Grunwald and Vytautas the Great in the centre
The victory of the Polish-Lithuanian forces over the Muscovites at the Battle of Orsha in 1514
Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania in Vilnius, marked 6, in 1600
Emilia Plater, often nicknamed as a Lithuanian Joan of Arc, leading peasant scythemen during the 1831 uprising
Bishop Motiejus Valančius resisted Russification. He urged protest against the closing of Catholic churches and organised book printing in Lithuanian in Lithuania Minor
The original 20 members of the Council of Lithuania after signing the Act of Independence of Lithuania, 16 February 1918.
Lithuanian armoured train Gediminas 3, used in Lithuanian Wars of Independence and Lithuanian soldiers
Antanas Smetona was the first and last president of interbellum Lithuania (1919–1920, 1926–1940)
Lituanica above New York in 1933. The transatlantic flight was one of the most precise in aviation history. It equaled, and in some aspects surpassed, Charles Lindbergh's classic flight.
Soldiers of the Red Army enter the territory of Lithuania during the first Soviet occupation in 1940.
Lithuanian resistance fighters. The armed resistance was 50,000 strong at its peak.
Site of the Paneriai massacre, where the German Nazis and their collaborators executed up to 100,000 people of various nationalities. About 70,000 of them were Jews.
Monument in Naujoji Vilnia in memory of the Soviet deportations from Lithuania
The Baltic Way was a mass anti-Soviet demonstration where approx. 25% of the population of the Baltic states participated
An Anti-Soviet rally in Vingis Park of about 250,000 people. Sąjūdis was a movement which led to the restoration of an Independent State of Lithuania.
On 13 January 1991, Soviet forces fired live rounds at unarmed independence supporters and crushed two of them with tanks, killing 13 in total. To this day, Russia refuses to extradite the perpetrators, who were convicted of war crimes.
Physical map and geomorphological subdivision of Lithuania.
White stork is the national bird of Lithuania which has the highest-density stork population in Europe.
Seimas — Parliament of Lithuania
Commemoration of the Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania in the historical Seimas hall where it was originally signed in 1990. The ceremony is attended by the Lithuanian President, Prime Minister, Chairman of the Seimas and other high-ranking officials.
Statutes of Lithuania were the central piece of Lithuanian law in 1529–1795
Lithuanian police cruiser in Gediminas Avenue, Vilnius
Stamp dedicated to Lithuania's presidency of the European Union. Post of Lithuania, 2013.
Lithuania was recently a member of the United Nations Security Council. Its representatives are on the right side.
Lithuanian Army soldiers with their NATO allies during Iron Sword 2014
Lithuanian Army soldiers marching with their dress uniforms in Vilnius. An officer stands out with a sword.
Real GPD per capita development of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
Lithuania's GDP per capita compared to rest of the world (2020)
Lithuania, GNI per capita, PPP (current international $), 2016
A proportional representation of Lithuania exports, 2019
Nasdaq Vilnius Stock Exchange, located in K29 business centre in Konstitucijos Avenue, Vilnius
LituanicaSAT-2 in the thermal-vacuum chamber.
Druskininkai is a popular spa town
Telia (skyscraper with the old Teo LT logo) and Huawei headquarters in Vilnius
Major highways in Lithuania
Marijampolė railway station, completed in 1924
Mineral water spring in Birštonas
FSRU Independence in port of Klaipėda
Kruonis Pumped Storage Plant
Population of Lithuania 1915–2014
Population density
Kaunas Clinics is the largest and the most advanced medical institution in Lithuania.
Hill of Crosses near Šiauliai
Vilnius University, one of the oldest universities in the region. It was established by Stephen Báthory, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, in 1579.
Vilnius University Life Sciences Center in the Sunrise Valley
The earliest known Lithuanian glosses (between 1520 and 1530) written in the margins of Johannes Herolt book Liber Discipuli de eruditione Christifidelium. Words: teprÿdav[ſ]ʒÿ (let it strike), vbagÿſte (indigence)
The first Lithuanian printed book Catechism of Martynas Mažvydas (1547, Königsberg)
The title page of Radivilias (1592, Vilnius). The poem celebrating commander Mikalojus Radvila Rudasis (1512–1584) and recounts the famous victory of Lithuanian Armed Forces over Moscow troops (1564).
Vilnius Cathedral by Laurynas Gucevičius
Gryčia (traditional dwelling house, built in the 19th century)
Kings' Fairy Tale (1908–1909) by Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis
Lithuanian National Drama Theatre
Romuva Cinema, the oldest still operational cinema in Lithuania
Painter and composer M.K. Čiurlionis
Rock band Antis, which under firm censorship actively mocked the Soviet Union regime by using metaphors in their lyrics, during an Anti-Sovietism, Anti-communism concert in 1987
Lithuanian dark rye bread
Cepelinai, a potato-based dumpling dish characteristic of Lithuanian cuisine with meat, curd or mushrooms
Lithuania has longlasting beer brewing traditions
Lithuania men's national basketball team is ranked eighth worldwide in FIBA Rankings.

The event, led by Sąjūdis, was a human chain spanning 600 km across Vilnius, Riga and Tallinn, indicating the desire of the people of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to break away from the Soviet Union.

The city of Tartu in 1533


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The city of Tartu in 1533
University of Tartu main building in 1860.
The Stone Bridge and the Old Town in 1860
Tartu Town Hall
AHHAA Science Centre
Emajõe Business Centre
Carl Robert Jakobson
Alar Karis
University of Tartu main building
University of Tartu Botanical Gardens
Kaarsild (Arch Bridge) over the Emajõgi
Kuradisild (Devil's Bridge)
Cathedral ruins and University of Tartu museum
Teller chapel in Tartu, Estonia. Built in 1794
Tartu Art Museum
Song Festival Museum
"Little House" of the Vanemuine theatre
Tartu Town Hall Square
St Peter's Church
Hugo Treffner Gymnasium
Tartu Department Store
Tasku Shopping Centre
Estonian National Museum
Tartu railway station

Tartu is the second-largest city in Estonia after the political and financial capital, Tallinn.

Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

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Location of Estonia (red) within the Soviet Union
According to the 23 August 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania were divided into German and Soviet "spheres of influence" (German copy)
Location of Estonia (red) within the Soviet Union
People massacred by Soviet NKVD on 8 July 1941 in Tartu, Estonia
Soviet-organized rally in Tallinn, July 1940
Karl Säre with other Estonian Communist Party officials in Tallinn, July 1940
A propaganda poster from the Stalin era. The poster says: "The spirit of the great Lenin and his victorious banner encourage us now in the Patriotic War."
Soviet prison doors on display in the Museum of Occupations, Tallinn, Estonia
1967 Soviet stamp
A reconstruction of a typical Soviet-era living room, in a museum in central Tallinn.
Tram along the Pärnu maantee street in Tallinn on June 26, 1983
The blue-black-white flag of Estonia was raised on Pikk Hermann on February 24, 1989.
Border changes of Estonia after World War II
Johannes Käbin, leader of the Communist Party of Estonia from 1950 to 1978
1941 mugshot of kindral Johan Laidoner after his arrest 1940
Estonian Song Festival in Tallinn in 1980
Plaque on Stenbock House, the seat of the Government of Estonia, commemorating government members killed by Soviet forces

The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (widely used abbreviation Estonian SSR; Eesti Nõukogude Sotsialistlik Vabariik, Eesti NSV; Эстонская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Эстонская ССР) was an ethnically based administrative subdivision of the former Soviet Union (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, USSR) covering the territory of Estonia in 1940–1941 and 1944–1991.

Planned and actual divisions of Europe, according to the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, with later adjustments.

Occupation of the Baltic states

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Planned and actual divisions of Europe, according to the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, with later adjustments.
Soldiers of the Red Army enters the territory of Lithuania during the first Soviet occupation of Lithuania in 1940
Schematics of the Soviet military blockade and invasion of Estonia in 1940. (Russian State Naval Archives)
Einsatzkommando execution in Lithuania
Victims of Soviet NKVD in Tartu, Estonia (1941)
Latvian SS-Legion parade through Riga before deployment to Eastern Front. December 1943
Lithuanian rebels lead the disarmed soldiers of the Red Army in Kaunas
The plan of deportations of the civilian population in Lithuania during the Operation Priboi created by the Soviet MGB.
Antanas Sniečkus, the leader of the Communist Party of Lithuania from 1940 to 1974
Pro-independence Lithuanians demonstrating in Šiauliai, January 1990.
Unarmed Lithuanian citizen standing against a Soviet tank during the January Events.
Monument to Lithuanian victims of Soviet occupation in Gediminas Avenue, Vilnius. 54.68858°N, 25.27056°W
Nils Ušakovs, the first ethnic Russian mayor of Riga in independent Latvia
The Red Army's 16th Rifle Division fighting in the Oryol Oblast in the summer of 1943

The Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania were invaded and occupied in June 1940 by the Soviet Union, under the leadership of Stalin and auspices of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact that had been signed between Nazi Germany and the USSR immediately before the outbreak of World War II.

Livonia in 1534


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Historical region on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.

Historical region on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.

Livonia in 1534
The Baltics in the 17th century
Livonia in 1820
Livonia in Europe, 1190 AD
Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights.
Medieval Livonia ca. 1260.
Europe, 1550.
Livonia on the 1570 map.
Livonia, as shown in the map of 1573 of Theatrum orbis terrarum.
Inflanty Voivodeship, 1620s–1772.
Europe, 1740.
Europe, 1815.
Livonia, 1898.
Latvia around Riga, Estonia around Tallinn in 1920.
German advances from 22 June to 25 August 1941.
Baltic Tribes, ca 1200.
Livonian Brothers
Seal of the Livonian Brothers
Livonian knight in 16th century
Livonian lady by Albrecht Dürer

By the end of the 13th century, the name was extended to most of present-day Estonia and Latvia, which had been conquered during the Livonian Crusade (1193–1290) by the Livonian Brothers of the Sword.

Estonian grammar published in Reval in 1637 by Heinrich Stahl

Estonian language

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Finnic language, written in the Latin script.

Finnic language, written in the Latin script.

Estonian grammar published in Reval in 1637 by Heinrich Stahl
An 1885 ABC-book in Võro written by Johann Hurt: "Wastne Võro keeli ABD raamat"

It is the official language of Estonia and one of the official languages of the European Union, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people; 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.