Location of Estonia (red) within the Soviet Union
According to the 23 August 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania were divided into German and Soviet "spheres of influence" (German copy)
Bronze Age stone-cist graves
Swedish Lion Monument in Narva
Location of Estonia (red) within the Soviet Union
Iron Age artefacts of a hoard from Kumna
Peter I of Russia pacifies his marauding troops after taking Narva in 1704 by Nikolay Sauerweid, 1859
People massacred by Soviet NKVD on 8 July 1941 in Tartu, Estonia
Independent counties of Ancient Estonia in the beginning of the 13th century
View of Narva in the 1750s
Soviet-organized rally in Tallinn, July 1940
Medieval Estonia and Livonia after the crusade
The Resurrection of Christ Cathedral, Narva (constructed 1890–1896)
Karl Säre with other Estonian Communist Party officials in Tallinn, July 1940
Kuressaare Castle in Saaremaa dates back to the 1380s
A 1929 plan of Narva (including Ivangorod, part of Narva at the time)
A propaganda poster from the Stalin era. The poster says: "The spirit of the great Lenin and his victorious banner encourage us now in the Patriotic War."
"Academia Dorpatensis" (now University of Tartu) was founded in 1632 by King Gustavus as the second university in the kingdom of Sweden. After the king's death it became known as "Academia Gustaviana".
The Town Hall, surrounded by Soviet-era apartment blocks, is one of the few buildings which were restored after World War II.
Soviet prison doors on display in the Museum of Occupations, Tallinn, Estonia
Carl Robert Jakobson played a key role in the Estonian national awakening.
View of Narva in 2014. Ivangorod Fortress, in Russia, lies across the river on the right.
1967 Soviet stamp
Declaration of Independence in Pärnu on 23 February 1918. One of the first images of the Republic.
Neighborhoods of Narva
A reconstruction of a typical Soviet-era living room, in a museum in central Tallinn.
Estonian armoured train during the Estonian War of Independence
The reconstructed fortress of Narva (to the left) overlooking the Russian fortress of Ivangorod (to the right).
Tram along the Pärnu maantee street in Tallinn on June 26, 1983
According to the 23 August 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact "the Baltic States (Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania)" were divided into German and Soviet "spheres of influence" (German copy)
The blue-black-white flag of Estonia was raised on Pikk Hermann on February 24, 1989.
The Red Army troops crossing Soviet-Estonian border in October 1939 after Estonia had been forced to sign the Bases Treaty
Border changes of Estonia after World War II
The capital Tallinn after bombing by the Soviet Air Force during the war on the Eastern Front in March 1944
Johannes Käbin, leader of the Communist Party of Estonia from 1950 to 1978
Estonian Swedes fleeing the Soviet occupation to Sweden (1944)
1941 mugshot of kindral Johan Laidoner after his arrest 1940
The blue-black-white flag of Estonia was raised again on the top of the Pikk Hermann tower on February 24, 1989.
Estonian Song Festival in Tallinn in 1980
Baltic Way in Estonia
Plaque on Stenbock House, the seat of the Government of Estonia, commemorating government members killed by Soviet forces
The barn swallow (H. r. rustica) is the national bird of Estonia.
Estonia Endla Nature Reserve 07 Forest
Haanja Nature reserve where violations of Natura 2000 area logging is taking place.
The seat of the Parliament of Estonia in Toompea Castle
Building of the Supreme Court of Estonia in Tartu
US President Barack Obama giving a speech at the Nordea Concert Hall in Tallinn
Foreign ministers of the Nordic and Baltic countries in Riga, 2016
Estonian soldiers during a NATO exercise in 2015
KAPO (Kaitsepolitsei) headquarters in Kassisaba, Kesklinn, Tallinn
An Estonian Patria Pasi XA-180 in Afghanistan
Administrative divisions of Estonia
A proportional representation of Estonia exports, 2019
The central business district of Tallinn
Real GPD per capita development of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
Estonia's GDP growth from 2000 till 2012
The oil shale industry in Estonia is one of the most developed in the world. In 2012, oil shale supplied 70% of Estonia's total primary energy and accounted for 4% of Estonia's gross domestic product.
Rõuste wind farm in Lääneranna Parish
Graphical depiction of Estonia's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories
Population of Estonia 1960–2019. The changes are largely attributed to Soviet immigration and emigration.
Estonian folk dancers
A Russian Old Believer village with a church on Piirissaar island
Ruhnu stave church, built in 1644, is the oldest surviving wooden building in Estonia
Distribution of Finnic languages in Northern Europe
The University of Tartu is one of the oldest universities in Northern Europe and the highest-ranked university in Estonia. According to the Top Universities website, the University of Tartu ranks 285th in the QS Global World Ranking.
Building of the Estonian Students' Society in Tartu. It is considered to be the first example of Estonian national architecture. The Treaty of Tartu between Finland and Soviet Russia was signed in the building in 1920.
ESTCube-1 is the first Estonian satellite.
The Estonian National Museum in Tartu.
The Estonian Song Festival is UNESCO's Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
Arvo Pärt was the world's most performed living composer from 2010 to 2018.
Jaan Kross is the most translated Estonian writer.
A traditional farmhouse built in the Estonian vernacular style
Mulgipuder, a national dish of Estonia made with potatoes, groats, and meat. It is very traditional food in the southern part of Estonia.
Tartu Ski Marathon in 2006

The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (widely used abbreviation Estonian SSR; Eesti Nõukogude Sotsialistlik Vabariik, Eesti NSV; Эстонская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Эстонская ССР) was an ethnically based administrative subdivision of the former Soviet Union (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, USSR) covering the territory of Estonia in 1940–1941 and 1944–1991.

- Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

Narva (, Нарва ) is a municipality and city in Estonia.

- Narva

Democratic throughout most of the interwar period, Estonia declared neutrality at the outbreak of World War II, but the country was repeatedly contested, invaded and occupied, first by Stalinist Soviet Union in 1940, then by Nazi Germany in 1941, and ultimately reoccupied in 1944 by, and annexed into, the USSR as an administrative subunit (Estonian SSR).

- Estonia

The Russian Federation, however, considers Estonia to be a successor of the Estonian SSR and recognizes the 1945 border between the two former national republics.

- Narva

The Estonian Soviet Republic was proclaimed in Narva on 29 November 1918 but fell to counter-revolutionaries and the White Armies in 1919.

- Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Nordic Council of Ministers has an office in Tallinn with a subsidiaries in Tartu and Narva.

- Estonia

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Distribution of Estonians and non-Estonians in Estonia according to data from the 2011 Estonian census. Russians and other Russophone people form the bulk of the non-Estonian population.

Russians in Estonia

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Distribution of Estonians and non-Estonians in Estonia according to data from the 2011 Estonian census. Russians and other Russophone people form the bulk of the non-Estonian population.
Valeriy Karpin is a coach of Russia's football team born in Estonia
A Russian Old Believer village with a church on Piirissaar
The majority of the pre-war Russian population in Estonia lived in border areas that were annexed by the Russian SFSR in 1944.

In Estonia, the population of ethnic Russians is estimated at 320,000, most of whom live in the capital city Tallinn and other urban areas of Harju and Ida-Viru counties.

The country remained annexed to the Soviet Union until 1991, except for the period of Nazi occupation between 1941 and 1944.

In the Ida-Viru and Harju Counties, cities such as Paldiski, Sillamäe, and Narva were ethnically cleansed and the indigenous Estonian population was totally replaced by Russian colonists.