The university in 1860, during its 'Golden Age'.
Location of Estonia (red) within the Soviet Union
Main building of the University of Tartu constructed between 1804 and 1809.
Bronze Age stone-cist graves
According to the 23 August 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania were divided into German and Soviet "spheres of influence" (German copy)
The Old Observatory of Tartu Observatory was completed in 1810. Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve worked here.
Iron Age artefacts of a hoard from Kumna
Location of Estonia (red) within the Soviet Union
The Botanical Garden was founded by Gottfried Albrecht Germann in 1803.
Independent counties of Ancient Estonia in the beginning of the 13th century
People massacred by Soviet NKVD on 8 July 1941 in Tartu, Estonia
The first Estonian satellite ESTCube-1 was developed mainly by the students from the University of Tartu.
Medieval Estonia and Livonia after the crusade
Soviet-organized rally in Tallinn, July 1940
The Baltic German chemist Wilhelm Ostwald received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1909.
Kuressaare Castle in Saaremaa dates back to the 1380s
Karl Säre with other Estonian Communist Party officials in Tallinn, July 1940
Students' Spring Days on river Emajõgi.
"Academia Dorpatensis" (now University of Tartu) was founded in 1632 by King Gustavus as the second university in the kingdom of Sweden. After the king's death it became known as "Academia Gustaviana".
A propaganda poster from the Stalin era. The poster says: "The spirit of the great Lenin and his victorious banner encourage us now in the Patriotic War."
University of Tartu Folk Art Ensemble.
Carl Robert Jakobson played a key role in the Estonian national awakening.
Soviet prison doors on display in the Museum of Occupations, Tallinn, Estonia
Tartu University main building during Christmas (2006)
Declaration of Independence in Pärnu on 23 February 1918. One of the first images of the Republic.
1967 Soviet stamp
Faculty of Social Sciences
Estonian armoured train during the Estonian War of Independence
A reconstruction of a typical Soviet-era living room, in a museum in central Tallinn.
Institute of Mathematics and Statistics
According to the 23 August 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact "the Baltic States (Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania)" were divided into German and Soviet "spheres of influence" (German copy)
Tram along the Pärnu maantee street in Tallinn on June 26, 1983
University track and field
The Red Army troops crossing Soviet-Estonian border in October 1939 after Estonia had been forced to sign the Bases Treaty
The blue-black-white flag of Estonia was raised on Pikk Hermann on February 24, 1989.
Iuridicum, law building
The capital Tallinn after bombing by the Soviet Air Force during the war on the Eastern Front in March 1944
Border changes of Estonia after World War II
Chemicum and Physicum
Estonian Swedes fleeing the Soviet occupation to Sweden (1944)
Johannes Käbin, leader of the Communist Party of Estonia from 1950 to 1978
Institute of Technology
The blue-black-white flag of Estonia was raised again on the top of the Pikk Hermann tower on February 24, 1989.
1941 mugshot of kindral Johan Laidoner after his arrest 1940
Baltic Way in Estonia
Estonian Song Festival in Tallinn in 1980
The barn swallow (H. r. rustica) is the national bird of Estonia.
Plaque on Stenbock House, the seat of the Government of Estonia, commemorating government members killed by Soviet forces
Estonia Endla Nature Reserve 07 Forest
Haanja Nature reserve where violations of Natura 2000 area logging is taking place.
The seat of the Parliament of Estonia in Toompea Castle
Building of the Supreme Court of Estonia in Tartu
US President Barack Obama giving a speech at the Nordea Concert Hall in Tallinn
Foreign ministers of the Nordic and Baltic countries in Riga, 2016
Estonian soldiers during a NATO exercise in 2015
KAPO (Kaitsepolitsei) headquarters in Kassisaba, Kesklinn, Tallinn
An Estonian Patria Pasi XA-180 in Afghanistan
Administrative divisions of Estonia
A proportional representation of Estonia exports, 2019
The central business district of Tallinn
Real GPD per capita development of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
Estonia's GDP growth from 2000 till 2012
The oil shale industry in Estonia is one of the most developed in the world. In 2012, oil shale supplied 70% of Estonia's total primary energy and accounted for 4% of Estonia's gross domestic product.
Rõuste wind farm in Lääneranna Parish
Graphical depiction of Estonia's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories
Population of Estonia 1960–2019. The changes are largely attributed to Soviet immigration and emigration.
Estonian folk dancers
A Russian Old Believer village with a church on Piirissaar island
Ruhnu stave church, built in 1644, is the oldest surviving wooden building in Estonia
Distribution of Finnic languages in Northern Europe
The University of Tartu is one of the oldest universities in Northern Europe and the highest-ranked university in Estonia. According to the Top Universities website, the University of Tartu ranks 285th in the QS Global World Ranking.
Building of the Estonian Students' Society in Tartu. It is considered to be the first example of Estonian national architecture. The Treaty of Tartu between Finland and Soviet Russia was signed in the building in 1920.
ESTCube-1 is the first Estonian satellite.
The Estonian National Museum in Tartu.
The Estonian Song Festival is UNESCO's Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
Arvo Pärt was the world's most performed living composer from 2010 to 2018.
Jaan Kross is the most translated Estonian writer.
A traditional farmhouse built in the Estonian vernacular style
Mulgipuder, a national dish of Estonia made with potatoes, groats, and meat. It is very traditional food in the southern part of Estonia.
Tartu Ski Marathon in 2006

The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (widely used abbreviation Estonian SSR; Eesti Nõukogude Sotsialistlik Vabariik, Eesti NSV; Эстонская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Эстонская ССР) was an ethnically based administrative subdivision of the former Soviet Union (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, USSR) covering the territory of Estonia in 1940–1941 and 1944–1991.

- Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

The University of Tartu (UT; Tartu Ülikool; Universitas Tartuensis) is a university in the city of Tartu in Estonia.

- University of Tartu

Democratic throughout most of the interwar period, Estonia declared neutrality at the outbreak of World War II, but the country was repeatedly contested, invaded and occupied, first by Stalinist Soviet Union in 1940, then by Nazi Germany in 1941, and ultimately reoccupied in 1944 by, and annexed into, the USSR as an administrative subunit (Estonian SSR).

- Estonia

The university was named Ostland-Universität in Dorpat during the German occupation of Estonia in 1941–1944 and Tartu State University (Estonian: Tartu Riiklik Ülikool) in 1940–1941 and 1944–1989, during the Soviet occupation.

- University of Tartu

Swedish King Gustaf II Adolf established gymnasiums in Reval and Dorpat; the latter was upgraded to Tartu University in 1632.

- Estonia

Despite the immense needs for research, the Faculty of Medicine at the Tartu State University (now University of Tartu) suffered from major purges, culminating after March 1950.

- Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

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Pärnu in 1554


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Pärnu in 1554
Rüütli street in Pärnu.
Memorial monument of Lydia Koidula (1843–1886), the national poet of Estonia, created by Amandus Adamson.
thumb|Pärnu beach promenade
thumb|Nikolai street with St. Elizabeth's Church
thumb|left|Sunset in Pärnu beach.
thumb|Pärnu mud baths

Pärnu is the fourth largest city in Estonia.

Pärnu then continued as being part of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic from 1944 to 1991, when Estonia restored its independence.

During the Great Northern War, the University of Dorpat (Tartu) was relocated to Pärnu from 1699 to 1710.

Baltic German stained glass

Baltic Germans

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Baltic German stained glass
Map of Terra Mariana in 1260.
Citizens (upper panel) and commoners (lower panel) in medieval Livonia, 16th century
Polish-Lithuanian and Swedish lands in the Baltics
Russian Baltic governorates
Duke's Rundāle Palace
The many manors in Estonia and Latvia testify to the former splendor of the Baltic German landowning class. Pictured: Vääna manor, Estonia.
Mežotne Palace in Latvia
Building of the Large Guild in Riga, 1918
Boxed goods of leaving Germans, Riga 1939
Some better preserved tombstones in Riga's Great Cemetery.
Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly. Russia postage stamp, 2011
Nazi plans to "resettle" Baltic Germans in "Warthegau"
At the port
Baltic German resettlers disembark at the Port of Stettin from the ship General Steuben
Resettled Baltic Germans take new home of expelled Poles in "Warthegau"
Newly built village in Reichsgau Wartheland

Baltic Germans (Deutsch-Balten or Deutschbalten, later Baltendeutsche) were ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia.

The Academia Gustaviana (now University of Tartu) was founded in 1632 by King Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden.

During the Soviet Baltic time, Soviet authorities governing the Estonian SSR and the Latvian SSR, politically empowered by their victory in World War II, were keen to erase any traces of ethnic German rule in past centuries.