Location of Estonia (red) within the Soviet Union
Location of Estonia
Bronze Age stone-cist graves
According to the 23 August 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania were divided into German and Soviet "spheres of influence" (German copy)
Jüri Uluots
Iron Age artefacts of a hoard from Kumna
Location of Estonia (red) within the Soviet Union
Location of Estonia
Independent counties of Ancient Estonia in the beginning of the 13th century
People massacred by Soviet NKVD on 8 July 1941 in Tartu, Estonia
Medieval Estonia and Livonia after the crusade
Soviet-organized rally in Tallinn, July 1940
Kuressaare Castle in Saaremaa dates back to the 1380s
Karl Säre with other Estonian Communist Party officials in Tallinn, July 1940
"Academia Dorpatensis" (now University of Tartu) was founded in 1632 by King Gustavus as the second university in the kingdom of Sweden. After the king's death it became known as "Academia Gustaviana".
A propaganda poster from the Stalin era. The poster says: "The spirit of the great Lenin and his victorious banner encourage us now in the Patriotic War."
Carl Robert Jakobson played a key role in the Estonian national awakening.
Soviet prison doors on display in the Museum of Occupations, Tallinn, Estonia
Declaration of Independence in Pärnu on 23 February 1918. One of the first images of the Republic.
1967 Soviet stamp
Estonian armoured train during the Estonian War of Independence
A reconstruction of a typical Soviet-era living room, in a museum in central Tallinn.
According to the 23 August 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact "the Baltic States (Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania)" were divided into German and Soviet "spheres of influence" (German copy)
Tram along the Pärnu maantee street in Tallinn on June 26, 1983
The Red Army troops crossing Soviet-Estonian border in October 1939 after Estonia had been forced to sign the Bases Treaty
The blue-black-white flag of Estonia was raised on Pikk Hermann on February 24, 1989.
The capital Tallinn after bombing by the Soviet Air Force during the war on the Eastern Front in March 1944
Border changes of Estonia after World War II
Estonian Swedes fleeing the Soviet occupation to Sweden (1944)
Johannes Käbin, leader of the Communist Party of Estonia from 1950 to 1978
The blue-black-white flag of Estonia was raised again on the top of the Pikk Hermann tower on February 24, 1989.
1941 mugshot of kindral Johan Laidoner after his arrest 1940
Baltic Way in Estonia
Estonian Song Festival in Tallinn in 1980
The barn swallow (H. r. rustica) is the national bird of Estonia.
Plaque on Stenbock House, the seat of the Government of Estonia, commemorating government members killed by Soviet forces
Estonia Endla Nature Reserve 07 Forest
Haanja Nature reserve where violations of Natura 2000 area logging is taking place.
The seat of the Parliament of Estonia in Toompea Castle
Building of the Supreme Court of Estonia in Tartu
US President Barack Obama giving a speech at the Nordea Concert Hall in Tallinn
Foreign ministers of the Nordic and Baltic countries in Riga, 2016
Estonian soldiers during a NATO exercise in 2015
KAPO (Kaitsepolitsei) headquarters in Kassisaba, Kesklinn, Tallinn
An Estonian Patria Pasi XA-180 in Afghanistan
Administrative divisions of Estonia
A proportional representation of Estonia exports, 2019
The central business district of Tallinn
Real GPD per capita development of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
Estonia's GDP growth from 2000 till 2012
The oil shale industry in Estonia is one of the most developed in the world. In 2012, oil shale supplied 70% of Estonia's total primary energy and accounted for 4% of Estonia's gross domestic product.
Rõuste wind farm in Lääneranna Parish
Graphical depiction of Estonia's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories
Population of Estonia 1960–2019. The changes are largely attributed to Soviet immigration and emigration.
Estonian folk dancers
A Russian Old Believer village with a church on Piirissaar island
Ruhnu stave church, built in 1644, is the oldest surviving wooden building in Estonia
Distribution of Finnic languages in Northern Europe
The University of Tartu is one of the oldest universities in Northern Europe and the highest-ranked university in Estonia. According to the Top Universities website, the University of Tartu ranks 285th in the QS Global World Ranking.
Building of the Estonian Students' Society in Tartu. It is considered to be the first example of Estonian national architecture. The Treaty of Tartu between Finland and Soviet Russia was signed in the building in 1920.
ESTCube-1 is the first Estonian satellite.
The Estonian National Museum in Tartu.
The Estonian Song Festival is UNESCO's Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
Arvo Pärt was the world's most performed living composer from 2010 to 2018.
Jaan Kross is the most translated Estonian writer.
A traditional farmhouse built in the Estonian vernacular style
Mulgipuder, a national dish of Estonia made with potatoes, groats, and meat. It is very traditional food in the southern part of Estonia.
Tartu Ski Marathon in 2006

The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (widely used abbreviation Estonian SSR; Eesti Nõukogude Sotsialistlik Vabariik, Eesti NSV; Эстонская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Эстонская ССР) was an ethnically based administrative subdivision of the former Soviet Union (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, USSR) covering the territory of Estonia in 1940–1941 and 1944–1991.

- Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Estonian government-in-exile was the formally declared governmental authority of the Republic of Estonia in exile, existing from 1944 until the reestablishment of Estonian sovereignty over Estonian territory in 1991 and 1992.

- Estonian government-in-exile

Democratic throughout most of the interwar period, Estonia declared neutrality at the outbreak of World War II, but the country was repeatedly contested, invaded and occupied, first by Stalinist Soviet Union in 1940, then by Nazi Germany in 1941, and ultimately reoccupied in 1944 by, and annexed into, the USSR as an administrative subunit (Estonian SSR).

- Estonia

After the loss of its de facto independence to the Soviet Union, Estonia's de jure state continuity was preserved by diplomatic representatives and the government-in-exile.

- Estonia

The "People's Riigikogu" met on 21 July, with only one order of business–a resolution declaring Estonia a Soviet republic and petitioning to join the Soviet Union.

- Estonian government-in-exile

Although the US, the UK, the other Allies of World War II recognized the occupation of the Baltic states by USSR at Yalta Conference in 1945 de facto, they retained diplomatic relations with the exiled representatives of the independent Republic of Estonia, and never formally recognized the annexation of Estonia de jure.

- Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

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Photograph of Konstantin Päts, c. 1930s

Konstantin Päts

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Photograph of Konstantin Päts, c. 1930s
Konstantin Päts with his family. 
From left: brother Nikolai, sister Marianna, father Jakob, brother Voldemar, mother Olga, brother Peeter and Konstantin.
Ensign officer Konstantin Päts in 1917
Konstantin Päts was one of the authors of the Estonian Declaration of Independence.
Konstantin Päts gave the first traditional speech at the Independence Day parade on 24 February 1919.
Weak representation in the left wing dominated Constituent Assembly left Konstantin Päts with little power in composing the land reform law and the 1920 constitution.
Oru palace in Toila was used as the summer residence of Päts during his authoritarian and presidential years. The palace was destroyed in World War II.
The presidential palace in Kadriorg was finished during Päts's presidency in 1938.
Konstantin Päts giving a speech at the 20th anniversary of the Republic of Estonia on Peter's Square in Tallinn.
Estonia's leaders before the Soviet occupation, celebrating the country's Independence Day for the last time, on 24 February 1940. From left General Johan Laidoner, President Konstantin Päts and Prime Minister Jüri Uluots.
Destruction of Konstantin Päts's statue in Tahkuranna in 1940.
Konstantin Päts as a Soviet prisoner.
President of Finland Pehr Evind Svinhufvud and Konstantin Päts in Narva in 1936. Päts's idea of a union of Finnic countries never came into existence.
President Konstantin Päts visiting Polish president, Ignacy Mościcki, in 1935.
"Mees ordenitega (K. Päts)" by Andrus Johani (1936)
Statue for Konstantin Päts in his birthplace Tahkuranna. Erected in 1939, it was removed by the Soviets in 1940. The statue was restored in 1989, exactly fifty years after it was first erected.
Konstantin Päts and his wife Helma.
Konstantin and Helma Päts' graves in Tallinn Metsakalmistu cemetery (2019).

Konstantin Päts (23 February 1874 – 18 January 1956) was an Estonian statesman and the country's President in 1938–1940.

On 21 July 1940, the Estonian SSR was proclaimed and it is claimed that only then Päts realized the essence of the Soviet occupation.

After Uluots died in Stockholm in 1945, presidential duties went to the oldest member of Tief's cabinet, August Rei, who formed the Estonian Government in Exile in 1953.