A report on Estonia and Estonian language

Estonian grammar published in Reval in 1637 by Heinrich Stahl
An 1885 ABC-book in Võro written by Johann Hurt: "Wastne Võro keeli ABD raamat"
Bronze Age stone-cist graves
Iron Age artefacts of a hoard from Kumna
Independent counties of Ancient Estonia in the beginning of the 13th century
Medieval Estonia and Livonia after the crusade
Kuressaare Castle in Saaremaa dates back to the 1380s
"Academia Dorpatensis" (now University of Tartu) was founded in 1632 by King Gustavus as the second university in the kingdom of Sweden. After the king's death it became known as "Academia Gustaviana".
Carl Robert Jakobson played a key role in the Estonian national awakening.
Declaration of Independence in Pärnu on 23 February 1918. One of the first images of the Republic.
Estonian armoured train during the Estonian War of Independence
According to the 23 August 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact "the Baltic States (Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania)" were divided into German and Soviet "spheres of influence" (German copy)
The Red Army troops crossing Soviet-Estonian border in October 1939 after Estonia had been forced to sign the Bases Treaty
The capital Tallinn after bombing by the Soviet Air Force during the war on the Eastern Front in March 1944
Estonian Swedes fleeing the Soviet occupation to Sweden (1944)
The blue-black-white flag of Estonia was raised again on the top of the Pikk Hermann tower on February 24, 1989.
Baltic Way in Estonia
The barn swallow (H. r. rustica) is the national bird of Estonia.
Estonia Endla Nature Reserve 07 Forest
Haanja Nature reserve where violations of Natura 2000 area logging is taking place.
The seat of the Parliament of Estonia in Toompea Castle
Building of the Supreme Court of Estonia in Tartu
US President Barack Obama giving a speech at the Nordea Concert Hall in Tallinn
Foreign ministers of the Nordic and Baltic countries in Riga, 2016
Estonian soldiers during a NATO exercise in 2015
KAPO (Kaitsepolitsei) headquarters in Kassisaba, Kesklinn, Tallinn
An Estonian Patria Pasi XA-180 in Afghanistan
Administrative divisions of Estonia
A proportional representation of Estonia exports, 2019
The central business district of Tallinn
Real GPD per capita development of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
Estonia's GDP growth from 2000 till 2012
The oil shale industry in Estonia is one of the most developed in the world. In 2012, oil shale supplied 70% of Estonia's total primary energy and accounted for 4% of Estonia's gross domestic product.
Rõuste wind farm in Lääneranna Parish
Graphical depiction of Estonia's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories
Population of Estonia 1960–2019. The changes are largely attributed to Soviet immigration and emigration.
Estonian folk dancers
A Russian Old Believer village with a church on Piirissaar island
Ruhnu stave church, built in 1644, is the oldest surviving wooden building in Estonia
Distribution of Finnic languages in Northern Europe
The University of Tartu is one of the oldest universities in Northern Europe and the highest-ranked university in Estonia. According to the Top Universities website, the University of Tartu ranks 285th in the QS Global World Ranking.
Building of the Estonian Students' Society in Tartu. It is considered to be the first example of Estonian national architecture. The Treaty of Tartu between Finland and Soviet Russia was signed in the building in 1920.
ESTCube-1 is the first Estonian satellite.
The Estonian National Museum in Tartu.
The Estonian Song Festival is UNESCO's Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
Arvo Pärt was the world's most performed living composer from 2010 to 2018.
Jaan Kross is the most translated Estonian writer.
A traditional farmhouse built in the Estonian vernacular style
Mulgipuder, a national dish of Estonia made with potatoes, groats, and meat. It is very traditional food in the southern part of Estonia.
Tartu Ski Marathon in 2006

It is the official language of Estonia and one of the official languages of the European Union, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people; 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.

- Estonian language

The Estonian language is the autochthonous and the official language of Estonia; it is the first language of the majority of its population, as well as the world's second most spoken Finnic language.

- Estonia

12 related topics with Alpha


Map of the Baltic Sea region

Baltic Sea

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Map of the Baltic Sea region
Danish Straits and southwestern Baltic Sea
Åland between Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia
Cape Arkona on the island of Rügen in Germany, was a sacred site of the Rani tribe before Christianization.
Main trading routes of the Hanseatic League (Hanse).
In 1649 the settlement of the Latvian-speaking Kursenieki spanned from Klaipėda to Gdańsk along the coast of the Baltic Sea.
The naval Battle of the Sound took place on 8 November 1658 during the Dano-Swedish War.
The burning Cap Arcona shortly after the attacks, 3 May 1945. Only 350 survived of the 4,500 prisoners who had been aboard
Baltic drainage basins (catchment area), with depth, elevation, major rivers and lakes
Curonian Spit in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia
Regions and basins of the Baltic Sea: 
1 = Bothnian Bay
2 = Bothnian Sea
1 + 2 = Gulf of Bothnia, partly also 3 & 4
3 = Archipelago Sea
4 = Åland Sea
5 = Gulf of Finland
6 = Northern Baltic Proper
7 = Western Gotland Basin
8 = Eastern Gotland Basin
9 = Gulf of Riga
10 = Bay of Gdańsk/Gdansk Basin
11 = Bornholm Basin and Hanö Bight
12 = Arkona Basin 6–12 = Baltic Proper
13 = Kattegat, not an integral part of the Baltic Sea
14 = Belt Sea (Little Belt and Great Belt)
15 = Öresund (The Sound) 14 + 15 = Danish Straits, not an integral part of the Baltic Sea
Satellite image of the Baltic Sea in a mild winter
Traversing Baltic Sea and ice
On particularly cold winters, the coastal parts of the Baltic Sea freeze into ice thick enough to walk or ski on.
Piles of drift ice on the shore of Puhtulaid, near Virtsu, Estonia, in late April
Depths of the Baltic Sea in meters
Baltic Sea near Klaipėda (Karklė).
Skerries form an integral and typical part of many of the archipelagos of the Baltic Sea, such as these in the archipelago of Åland, Finland.
Stockholm archipelago
Aerial view of Bornholm, Denmark
Population density in the Baltic Sea catchment area
Vasilyevsky Island in Saint Petersburg, Russia
Stockholm in Sweden
Riga in Latvia
Helsinki in Finland
Gdańsk in Poland
Tallinn in Estonia
Satellite photo of the Baltic Sea surrounding Gotland, Sweden, with algae bloom (phytoplankton) swirling in the water
Pedestrian pier in Sellin, Germany
Svetlogorsk resort town in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia
Mrzeżyno beach in Poland

The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden and the North and Central European Plain.

In another Finnic language, Estonian, it is called the "West Sea" (Läänemeri), with the correct geography (the sea is west of Estonia). In South Estonian, it has the meaning of both "West Sea" and "Evening Sea" (Õdagumeri).


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The Danish flag falling from the sky during the Battle of Lindanise (Tallinn), 15 June 1219. Painted by C. A. Lorentzen in 1809.
The lesser coat of arms of Tallinn depicts the Dannebrog cross.
Toompea castle
Harju Street in Tallinn old town after the Soviet aerial bombing in March 1944
Port of Reval in 1853. Painting by Alexey Bogolyubov
Härjapea river, 1889
Map of the districts of Tallinn
Rotermann business district
The SEB Pank building in Tornimäe district
The Fahle House accommodates many corporate headquarters
The buildings of Tallinn University of Technology
Estonian Art Museum in Kadriorg Palace
Mikkel Museum
Danse Macabre by Bernt Notke on display at St. Nicholas' Church
The Tallinn Song Festival Grounds (Lauluväljak)
World's largest kiluvõileib, some 20 m in length, created at Tallinn Town Hall Square on 15 May 2014
A Christmas market at the Town Hall square
Stenbock House on Toompea hill is the official seat of the Government of Estonia
A CAF tram in Tallinn (Pärnu maantee street) in 2018.
The port of Tallinn is one of the busiest cruise and passenger harbours in Northern Europe with over 10 million people passing through in 2016.
Railway platform at the Tallinn Baltic Station
A. H. Tammsaare
Marie Under, 1915
Jaan Kross, 2004
Lennart Meri, 1999
Andres Tarand, 2006
Lepo Sumera, 1991
Anu Lamp, 2012
Juhan Parts, 2012
Harriet Toompere, 2012
Tiiu Kuik, 2007
Neeme Järvi at Laulupidu, 2009
Siiri Vallner, 2009
Sergei Pareiko, 2011
Irina Embrich, 2013
Seal of Reval, 1340
Old Thomas is one of the symbols and guardians of Tallinn
Night view of Tallinn's city center in August 2012
St. Nicholas' Church
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral built in 1894–1900
House of the Brotherhood of Blackheads
Viru Gate, entrance to the Old Town. Two remaining towers that were once part of a larger fourteenth-century gate system
The Raeapteek, built in 1422, is one of the oldest continuously running pharmacies in Europe
Kiek in de Kök defence tower
City wall with temporary garden exhibition
Pikk Hermann (Toompea)
Kadriorg Palace
The ruins of Pirita Convent
A Nordica aircraft landing at Tallinn Airport
Tornimäe business area
Estonian Open Air Museum
Glehn Castle

Tallinn is the most populous, primate, and capital city of Estonia.

The name Tallinn(a) is Estonian.

Finnic languages

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The Finnic (Fennic), or more precisely Balto-Finnic (Balto-Fennic; Baltic Finnic, Baltic Fennic) languages, constitute a branch of the Uralic language family spoken around the Baltic Sea by the Baltic Finnic peoples.

The Finnic (Fennic), or more precisely Balto-Finnic (Balto-Fennic; Baltic Finnic, Baltic Fennic) languages, constitute a branch of the Uralic language family spoken around the Baltic Sea by the Baltic Finnic peoples.

There are around 7 million speakers who live mainly in Finland and Estonia.

The major modern representatives of the family are Finnish and Estonian, the official languages of their respective nation states.

Remnants of Valjala Stronghold


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Remnants of Valjala Stronghold
The 1241 Treaty between Livonian Order, Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek and Oeselians at National Archives of Sweden
Panga Cliff
Shore of Saaremaa, by Estonian artist Konrad Mägi (1913–1914).
The nearly circular main Kaali meteorite crater
Mihkli Farm Museum in Viki village.
A typical road on Western Saaremaa
The cliffs near the village of Panga on the north coast of Saaremaa
Kuressaare Castle in winter
Historic buildings near the center of Kuressaare
Saaremaa countryside
Farmhouse in Järveküla
Tagalaht Bay panorama
Valjala Church
Kihelkonna St. Michael's Church
Karja Church in the village of Linnaka
Angla windmills in Leisi Parish
Kiipsaare leaning lighthouse
Lighthouse at Sõrve Peninsula
Kaarma ring fort
Odalätsi springs
Nasva Club
Women in traditional Saaremaa dress performing a folk dance
Red deer in winter near Leisi

Saaremaa is the largest island in Estonia, measuring 2673 km2.

The island is called Saaremaa in Estonian, and in Finnish Saarenmaa—literally "isle land" or "island land", i.e. the same as the Scandinavian name for the island.

Kõpu Lighthouse is one of the best-known landmarks in Hiiumaa.


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Kõpu Lighthouse is one of the best-known landmarks in Hiiumaa.
Tahkuna Nature Reserve
Beach vegetation on Hiiumaa
2007 Estonia election. Social Democratic Party (Red), Estonian Reform Party (yellow), Estonian Center Party (green), Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica (Blue), People's Union of Estonia (brown)
<center>Tahkuna lighthouse</center>
<center>Church of Kassari</center>
<center>Old farmhouse</center>
<center>Sõru museum</center>
<center>Malvaste chapel</center>
Cars boarding the ferry to mainland at Heltermaa
Coast of Hiiumaa
Tubala windmill
Suuremõisa Manor in Suuremõisa, Pühalepa Parish
Avenue at Suuremõisa Park
Café at Orjaku Harbor
Nature trail near Orjaku

Hiiumaa is the second largest island in Estonia and is part of the West Estonian archipelago, in the Baltic Sea.

Hiiumaa is the main island of Hiiu County, called Hiiumaa or Hiiu maakond in Estonian.

The city of Tartu in 1533


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The city of Tartu in 1533
University of Tartu main building in 1860.
The Stone Bridge and the Old Town in 1860
Tartu Town Hall
AHHAA Science Centre
Emajõe Business Centre
Carl Robert Jakobson
Alar Karis
University of Tartu main building
University of Tartu Botanical Gardens
Kaarsild (Arch Bridge) over the Emajõgi
Kuradisild (Devil's Bridge)
Cathedral ruins and University of Tartu museum
Teller chapel in Tartu, Estonia. Built in 1794
Tartu Art Museum
Song Festival Museum
"Little House" of the Vanemuine theatre
Tartu Town Hall Square
St Peter's Church
Hugo Treffner Gymnasium
Tartu Department Store
Tasku Shopping Centre
Estonian National Museum
Tartu railway station

Tartu is the second-largest city in Estonia after the political and financial capital, Tallinn.

With Estonian independence after World War I, the city officially became known by the Estonian name Tartu.

The university in 1860, during its 'Golden Age'.

University of Tartu

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The university in 1860, during its 'Golden Age'.
Main building of the University of Tartu constructed between 1804 and 1809.
The Old Observatory of Tartu Observatory was completed in 1810. Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve worked here.
The Botanical Garden was founded by Gottfried Albrecht Germann in 1803.
The first Estonian satellite ESTCube-1 was developed mainly by the students from the University of Tartu.
The Baltic German chemist Wilhelm Ostwald received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1909.
Students' Spring Days on river Emajõgi.
University of Tartu Folk Art Ensemble.
Tartu University main building during Christmas (2006)
Faculty of Social Sciences
Institute of Mathematics and Statistics
University track and field
Iuridicum, law building
Chemicum and Physicum
Institute of Technology

The University of Tartu (UT; Tartu Ülikool; Universitas Tartuensis) is a university in the city of Tartu in Estonia.

Since Estonia became independent in 1918, the University of Tartu has been an Estonian-language institution since 1919.

Division of South Estonian languages according to Petri Kallio's language tree from 2021.

South Estonian

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Division of South Estonian languages according to Petri Kallio's language tree from 2021.
Tarto maa rahwa Näddali Leht published in 1807 in Tartu literary South Estonian.
South Estonian today
According to the 2011 Estonia Census there were 101,857 speakers of South Estonian: 87,048 speakers of Võro (including 12,549 Seto speakers), 9,698 Mulgi speakers, 4,109 Tartu language speakers and 1,002 other South Estonian speakers.

South Estonian is spoken in south-eastern Estonia, encompassing the Tartu, Mulgi, Võro and Seto varieties.

There is no academic consensus on its status, as some linguists consider South Estonian a dialect group of Estonian whereas other linguists consider South Estonian an independent Finnic language.

Tools made by Kunda culture, the Estonian History Museum

History of Estonia

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The history of Estonia forms a part of the history of Europe.

The history of Estonia forms a part of the history of Europe.

Tools made by Kunda culture, the Estonian History Museum
Comb Ceramic pottery at the Estonian History Museum
Corded Ware culture pottery and stone axes, at the EHM
Stone cist graves from the Bronze Age in northern Estonia
Europe in the 9th century
Map of Varbola Stronghold by L. A. Mellin
Ancient Estonia until 21 September 1217
Dannebrog falling from the sky during the Battle of Lindanise, 1219
Livonia in 1260
Hermann Castle, Narva, was one of the Teutonic Order's castles in Estonia.
Livonia, as shown in the map of 1573 of Joann Portantius
Outline of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Formation of the Swedish Empire, 1560–1660
Europe in 19th century
Tartu University (Universität Dorpat) in 1860, during its 'Golden Age'
Estonian Declaration of Independence
The Estonian Army High Command in 1920
Victory Column
Vaps Movement meeting in Pärnu, Artur Sirk speaking
Tallinn, 28 August 1941
Jüri Uluots
Soviet prison doors on display in the Museum of Occupations, Tallinn
Flag of the Estonian SSR
Estonian Soviet politician Johannes Käbin led the Estonian Communist Party from 1950 to 1978
Toompea castle – the seat of the Riigikogu
Registration card for Estonian citizenship from 1989
Estonian Song Festival in Tallinn in 2019
Estonian President Kersti Kaljulaid with Russian President Vladimir Putin in April 2019

Humans settled in the region of Estonia near the end of the last glacial era, beginning from around 8500 BC.