A report on Estonia

Bronze Age stone-cist graves
Iron Age artefacts of a hoard from Kumna
Independent counties of Ancient Estonia in the beginning of the 13th century
Medieval Estonia and Livonia after the crusade
Kuressaare Castle in Saaremaa dates back to the 1380s
"Academia Dorpatensis" (now University of Tartu) was founded in 1632 by King Gustavus as the second university in the kingdom of Sweden. After the king's death it became known as "Academia Gustaviana".
Carl Robert Jakobson played a key role in the Estonian national awakening.
Declaration of Independence in Pärnu on 23 February 1918. One of the first images of the Republic.
Estonian armoured train during the Estonian War of Independence
According to the 23 August 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact "the Baltic States (Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania)" were divided into German and Soviet "spheres of influence" (German copy)
The Red Army troops crossing Soviet-Estonian border in October 1939 after Estonia had been forced to sign the Bases Treaty
The capital Tallinn after bombing by the Soviet Air Force during the war on the Eastern Front in March 1944
Estonian Swedes fleeing the Soviet occupation to Sweden (1944)
The blue-black-white flag of Estonia was raised again on the top of the Pikk Hermann tower on February 24, 1989.
Baltic Way in Estonia
The barn swallow (H. r. rustica) is the national bird of Estonia.
Estonia Endla Nature Reserve 07 Forest
Haanja Nature reserve where violations of Natura 2000 area logging is taking place.
The seat of the Parliament of Estonia in Toompea Castle
Building of the Supreme Court of Estonia in Tartu
US President Barack Obama giving a speech at the Nordea Concert Hall in Tallinn
Foreign ministers of the Nordic and Baltic countries in Riga, 2016
Estonian soldiers during a NATO exercise in 2015
KAPO (Kaitsepolitsei) headquarters in Kassisaba, Kesklinn, Tallinn
An Estonian Patria Pasi XA-180 in Afghanistan
Administrative divisions of Estonia
A proportional representation of Estonia exports, 2019
The central business district of Tallinn
Real GPD per capita development of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
Estonia's GDP growth from 2000 till 2012
The oil shale industry in Estonia is one of the most developed in the world. In 2012, oil shale supplied 70% of Estonia's total primary energy and accounted for 4% of Estonia's gross domestic product.
Rõuste wind farm in Lääneranna Parish
Graphical depiction of Estonia's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories
Population of Estonia 1960–2019. The changes are largely attributed to Soviet immigration and emigration.
Estonian folk dancers
A Russian Old Believer village with a church on Piirissaar island
Ruhnu stave church, built in 1644, is the oldest surviving wooden building in Estonia
Distribution of Finnic languages in Northern Europe
The University of Tartu is one of the oldest universities in Northern Europe and the highest-ranked university in Estonia. According to the Top Universities website, the University of Tartu ranks 285th in the QS Global World Ranking.
Building of the Estonian Students' Society in Tartu. It is considered to be the first example of Estonian national architecture. The Treaty of Tartu between Finland and Soviet Russia was signed in the building in 1920.
ESTCube-1 is the first Estonian satellite.
The Estonian National Museum in Tartu.
The Estonian Song Festival is UNESCO's Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
Arvo Pärt was the world's most performed living composer from 2010 to 2018.
Jaan Kross is the most translated Estonian writer.
A traditional farmhouse built in the Estonian vernacular style
Mulgipuder, a national dish of Estonia made with potatoes, groats, and meat. It is very traditional food in the southern part of Estonia.
Tartu Ski Marathon in 2006

Country in Northern Europe.

- Estonia

331 related topics with Alpha


Illustration of Kalevipoeg by Oskar Kallis, 1914


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Illustration of Kalevipoeg by Oskar Kallis, 1914
The Kalevipoeg sculpture, made by Jaan Kristin, at the Glehni Park in Tallinn in the early 20th century
Kalevipoeg in the Netherworld. Oskar Kallis, 1915.
Kalev proposes marriage to Linda. Kristjan Raud, ca. 1935.
Kalevide's "Stones" at Lake Peipus
Sleeping Kalevipoeg. Kristjan Raud. 1934.
Kalevipoeg Destroying Webs on His Way to Hell ca. 1935. Kristjan Raud.
Kalevipoeg and Sarvik, sculpture by Amandus Adamson (1914)

Kalevipoeg (, Kalev's Son) is a 19th century epic poem by Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald which has since been considered the Estonian national epic.

Corpses found at Klooga concentration camp after liberation

The Holocaust in Estonia

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Corpses found at Klooga concentration camp after liberation
Map titled "Jewish Executions Carried Out by Einsatzgruppe A" from the Stahlecker's report. Marked "Secret Reich Matter," the map shows the number of Jews shot in Ostland, and reads at the bottom: "the estimated number of Jews still on hand is 128,000". Estonia is marked as judenfrei.
Holocaust in Reichskommissariat Ostland (which included Estonia): a map
Holocaust memorial at the site of the former Klooga concentration camp, opened on July 24, 2005
Kiviõli Concentration Camp Holocaust Memorial, northeastern Estonia.

The Holocaust in Estonia refers to the Nazi crimes during the 1941-1944 occupation of Estonia by Nazi Germany.

The university in 1860, during its 'Golden Age'.

University of Tartu

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The university in 1860, during its 'Golden Age'.
Main building of the University of Tartu constructed between 1804 and 1809.
The Old Observatory of Tartu Observatory was completed in 1810. Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve worked here.
The Botanical Garden was founded by Gottfried Albrecht Germann in 1803.
The first Estonian satellite ESTCube-1 was developed mainly by the students from the University of Tartu.
The Baltic German chemist Wilhelm Ostwald received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1909.
Students' Spring Days on river Emajõgi.
University of Tartu Folk Art Ensemble.
Tartu University main building during Christmas (2006)
Faculty of Social Sciences
Institute of Mathematics and Statistics
University track and field
Iuridicum, law building
Chemicum and Physicum
Institute of Technology

The University of Tartu (UT; Tartu Ülikool; Universitas Tartuensis) is a university in the city of Tartu in Estonia.

Official portrait, 2021

Kaja Kallas

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Official portrait, 2021
Kallas met with Finnish Prime Minister Sanna Marin in Helsinki, 2021
Kallas met with U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken in Tallinn, 2022

Kaja Kallas (born 18 June 1977) is an Estonian politician who has been serving as the prime minister of Estonia since 2021.

Baltic German stained glass

Baltic Germans

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Baltic German stained glass
Map of Terra Mariana in 1260.
Citizens (upper panel) and commoners (lower panel) in medieval Livonia, 16th century
Polish-Lithuanian and Swedish lands in the Baltics
Russian Baltic governorates
Duke's Rundāle Palace
The many manors in Estonia and Latvia testify to the former splendor of the Baltic German landowning class. Pictured: Vääna manor, Estonia.
Mežotne Palace in Latvia
Building of the Large Guild in Riga, 1918
Boxed goods of leaving Germans, Riga 1939
Some better preserved tombstones in Riga's Great Cemetery.
Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly. Russia postage stamp, 2011
Nazi plans to "resettle" Baltic Germans in "Warthegau"
At the port
Baltic German resettlers disembark at the Port of Stettin from the ship General Steuben
Resettled Baltic Germans take new home of expelled Poles in "Warthegau"
Newly built village in Reichsgau Wartheland

Baltic Germans (Deutsch-Balten or Deutschbalten, later Baltendeutsche) were ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia.

Jaan Anvelt

1924 Estonian coup d'état attempt

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The 1924 Estonian coup d'état attempt (1.

The 1924 Estonian coup d'état attempt (1.

Jaan Anvelt

detsembri riigipöördekatse), conducted by the Comintern, was a failed coup attempt in Estonia staged by Communists (Bolsheviks) (mostly infiltrated from Soviet Union) on December 1, 1924.

Tallinn offensive

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The Tallinn offensive (Таллинская наступательная операция) was a strategic offensive by the Red Army's 2nd Shock and 8th armies and the Baltic Fleet against the German Army Detachment Narwa and Estonian units in mainland Estonia on the Eastern Front of World War II on 17–26 September 1944.

The pathway of regional integration or separation

Unitary state

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State governed as a single entity in which the central government is the supreme authority.

State governed as a single entity in which the central government is the supreme authority.

The pathway of regional integration or separation
Unitary states
Federal states

🇪🇪 Estonia

Battle of Kirchholm in 1605

Polish–Swedish wars

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The Polish–Swedish Wars were a series of wars between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden.

The Polish–Swedish Wars were a series of wars between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden.

Battle of Kirchholm in 1605
Jan Karol Chodkiewicz painted by Juliusz Kossak
Portrait of hetman Stanisław Koniecpolski
The Swedish army bombarding the fortress of Dunamunde near Riga.
Battle of Warsaw in 1656

Sigismund started his plan in 1599, when he confirmed the pacta conventa, documents with promises he signed when elected as a King of Poland, which stated that the then-Swedish territory of Estonia would now become part of the Commonwealth.

The Finnish Chief of the General Staff Lennart Oesch (left) monitors Estonian army military exercises in October 1938. The Estonian Chief of the General Staff, Nikolai Reek is second from the right.

Finnish–Estonian defence cooperation

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The Finnish Chief of the General Staff Lennart Oesch (left) monitors Estonian army military exercises in October 1938. The Estonian Chief of the General Staff, Nikolai Reek is second from the right.
President of Finland Pehr Evind Svinhufvud (left) and President of Estonia Konstantin Päts (middle) in the city of Narva in 1936. State visits were scheduled every year. The most important negotiating issue was military co-operation.
The Estonian submarines Kalev and Lembit were both manufactured in the United Kingdom and began their service in spring 1937.

Finnish–Estonian defence co-operation began in 1930 with a secret military pact between Finland and Estonia against the threat of the Soviet Union.