A report on Estonia

Bronze Age stone-cist graves
Iron Age artefacts of a hoard from Kumna
Independent counties of Ancient Estonia in the beginning of the 13th century
Medieval Estonia and Livonia after the crusade
Kuressaare Castle in Saaremaa dates back to the 1380s
"Academia Dorpatensis" (now University of Tartu) was founded in 1632 by King Gustavus as the second university in the kingdom of Sweden. After the king's death it became known as "Academia Gustaviana".
Carl Robert Jakobson played a key role in the Estonian national awakening.
Declaration of Independence in Pärnu on 23 February 1918. One of the first images of the Republic.
Estonian armoured train during the Estonian War of Independence
According to the 23 August 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact "the Baltic States (Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania)" were divided into German and Soviet "spheres of influence" (German copy)
The Red Army troops crossing Soviet-Estonian border in October 1939 after Estonia had been forced to sign the Bases Treaty
The capital Tallinn after bombing by the Soviet Air Force during the war on the Eastern Front in March 1944
Estonian Swedes fleeing the Soviet occupation to Sweden (1944)
The blue-black-white flag of Estonia was raised again on the top of the Pikk Hermann tower on February 24, 1989.
Baltic Way in Estonia
The barn swallow (H. r. rustica) is the national bird of Estonia.
Estonia Endla Nature Reserve 07 Forest
Haanja Nature reserve where violations of Natura 2000 area logging is taking place.
The seat of the Parliament of Estonia in Toompea Castle
Building of the Supreme Court of Estonia in Tartu
US President Barack Obama giving a speech at the Nordea Concert Hall in Tallinn
Foreign ministers of the Nordic and Baltic countries in Riga, 2016
Estonian soldiers during a NATO exercise in 2015
KAPO (Kaitsepolitsei) headquarters in Kassisaba, Kesklinn, Tallinn
An Estonian Patria Pasi XA-180 in Afghanistan
Administrative divisions of Estonia
A proportional representation of Estonia exports, 2019
The central business district of Tallinn
Real GPD per capita development of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
Estonia's GDP growth from 2000 till 2012
The oil shale industry in Estonia is one of the most developed in the world. In 2012, oil shale supplied 70% of Estonia's total primary energy and accounted for 4% of Estonia's gross domestic product.
Rõuste wind farm in Lääneranna Parish
Graphical depiction of Estonia's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories
Population of Estonia 1960–2019. The changes are largely attributed to Soviet immigration and emigration.
Estonian folk dancers
A Russian Old Believer village with a church on Piirissaar island
Ruhnu stave church, built in 1644, is the oldest surviving wooden building in Estonia
Distribution of Finnic languages in Northern Europe
The University of Tartu is one of the oldest universities in Northern Europe and the highest-ranked university in Estonia. According to the Top Universities website, the University of Tartu ranks 285th in the QS Global World Ranking.
Building of the Estonian Students' Society in Tartu. It is considered to be the first example of Estonian national architecture. The Treaty of Tartu between Finland and Soviet Russia was signed in the building in 1920.
ESTCube-1 is the first Estonian satellite.
The Estonian National Museum in Tartu.
The Estonian Song Festival is UNESCO's Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
Arvo Pärt was the world's most performed living composer from 2010 to 2018.
Jaan Kross is the most translated Estonian writer.
A traditional farmhouse built in the Estonian vernacular style
Mulgipuder, a national dish of Estonia made with potatoes, groats, and meat. It is very traditional food in the southern part of Estonia.
Tartu Ski Marathon in 2006

Country in Northern Europe.

- Estonia

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Overall

Pärnu in 1554

Pärnu

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Pärnu in 1554
Rüütli street in Pärnu.
Memorial monument of Lydia Koidula (1843–1886), the national poet of Estonia, created by Amandus Adamson.
thumb|Pärnu beach promenade
thumb|Nikolai street with St. Elizabeth's Church
thumb|left|Sunset in Pärnu beach.
thumb|Pärnu mud baths

Pärnu is the fourth largest city in Estonia.

Carl Robert Jakobson

Estonian national awakening

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Period in history where Estonians came to acknowledge themselves as a nation deserving the right to govern themselves.

Period in history where Estonians came to acknowledge themselves as a nation deserving the right to govern themselves.

Carl Robert Jakobson
Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald reads the manuscript of Kalevipoeg. Painting by Johann Köler.

This period is considered to begin in the 1850s with greater rights being granted to commoners and to end with the declaration of the Republic of Estonia in 1918.

Governorate of Livonia

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Location in the Russian Empire
Livonian Governorate
Location in the Russian Empire
Map of Riga and Reval Lieutenancies, 1783

The Governorate of Livonia, also known as the Livonia Governorate, (pre-reform Russian: Лифля́ндская губе́рнія, tr. Liflyándskaya gubérniya; Livländisches Gouvernement; Vidzemes guberņa, after the Latvian inhabited Vidzeme region; Liivimaa kubermang) was a Baltic governorate of the Russian Empire, now divided between Latvia and Estonia.

Viljandi

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St. John's church (Jaani kirik)
St. Paul's church (Pauluse kirik)
Viljandi manor main building
Lossi tänav in the Viljandi centre
Viljandi Town Hall
Viljandi Culture School
Lake Paala (previously called the Valuoja reservoir) in Viljandi
The Old Water Tower
Viljandi Railway Station
Viljandi castle. Ruins at the southern end of the hill with Lake Viljandi in the background
Viljandi Folk Music Festival held annually within the castle ruins
Viljandi Town Heritage Conservation Area
Ugala Theatre
Main building of University of Tartu Viljandi Culture Academy on Tallinna tänav 16 in Viljandi
Main building of Viljandi Gümnaasium
Grand Hotel Viljandi
Viljandi shopping centre at night

Viljandi (, Fellin) is a town and municipality in southern Estonia with a population of 17,407 in 2019.

Flag

NATO

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Intergovernmental military alliance between 30 member states – 28 European and two North American.

Intergovernmental military alliance between 30 member states – 28 European and two North American.

Flag
Flag
West Germany joined NATO in 1955, which led to the formation of the rival Warsaw Pact during the Cold War.
The Fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 marked a turning point in NATO's role in Europe, and a section of the wall is now displayed outside NATO Headquarters.
NATO planes engaging in aerial bombardments during Operation Deliberate Force after the Srebrenica massacre
German KFOR soldiers on patrol in southern Kosovo in 1999
KFOR-MSU Carabinieri Patrols in front of the Ibar Bridge in Mitrovica, Kosovo, 2019
The September 11 attacks in the United States caused NATO to invoke its collective defence article for the first time.
General Austin S. Miller (right) became commander of U.S. and NATO forces in Afghanistan in September 2018 and oversaw the withdrawal until July 2021.
USS Farragut (DDG-99) destroying a Somali pirate skiff in March 2010
Libyan Army Palmaria howitzers destroyed by the French Air Force near Benghazi in March 2011
Partnership for Peace conducts multinational military exercises like Cooperative Archer, which took place in Tbilisi in July 2007 with 500 servicemen from four NATO members, eight PfP members, and Jordan, a Mediterranean Dialogue participant.
The North Atlantic Council convening in 2010 with a defence/foreign minister configuration
Protestors at a February 2022 rally against Russia's invasion of Ukraine march past the statue of Tsar Alexander II in Senate Square in Helsinki

These plans governed the addition of new alliance members: Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia in 2004, Albania and Croatia in 2009, Montenegro in 2017, and North Macedonia in 2020.

Counties with new borders after the Administrative Reform October 2017

Counties of Estonia

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Counties with new borders after the Administrative Reform October 2017
Map of south Baltic region circa 1705.

Counties (maakond, plural maakonnad) are the first-level administrative subdivisions of Estonia.

A Teutonic Knight on the left and a Swordbrother on the right.

Livonian Brothers of the Sword

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Catholic military order established in 1202 during the Livonian Crusade by Albert, the third bishop of Riga (or possibly by Theoderich von Treyden).

Catholic military order established in 1202 during the Livonian Crusade by Albert, the third bishop of Riga (or possibly by Theoderich von Treyden).

A Teutonic Knight on the left and a Swordbrother on the right.
The Livonian Confederation in 1260.
The Mecklenburgian swordbrother Helmold III. von Plesse.

The membership of the crusading order comprised warrior monks, mostly from northern Germany, who fought Baltic and Finnic "pagans" in the area of modern-day Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

Pskov

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View of the Pskov Kremlin from the Velikaya River in 2014
Krom (or Kremlin) in Pskov
Siege of Pskov by Stephen Báthory, by Karl Bryullov
Pskov in 1661
Pskov Krom, view from the Velikaya River
City bus in Pskov
A Russian coin commemorating Pskov's 1,100th anniversary

Pskov (see also names in other languages) is a city in northwestern Russia and the administrative center of Pskov Oblast, located about 20 km east of the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River.

Landsat satellite photo

Lake Peipus

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Landsat satellite photo
Map of pools of Narva and Lake Peipsi
European perch
Carp bream
Roach
Pike-perch

Lake Peipus (Peipsi-Pihkva järv; Чудско-Псковское озеро, Псковско-Чудское озеро); is the largest trans-boundary lake in Europe, lying on the border between Estonia and Russia.

Governorate of Estonia

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Governorate in the Baltic region, along with the Livonian and Courland Governorates.

Governorate in the Baltic region, along with the Livonian and Courland Governorates.

Location in the Russian Empire
German and Russian map of the Governorate of Estonia
Location in the Russian Empire

It is a part of the Imperial Russian administration (guberniya), which is located in modern-day northern Estonia and some islands in the West Estonian archipelago, including the islands of Hiiumaa (Dagö) and Vormsi (Worms).