Estonian language

Estonian grammar published in Reval in 1637 by Heinrich Stahl
An 1885 ABC-book in Võro written by Johann Hurt: "Wastne Võro keeli ABD raamat"

Finnic language, written in the Latin script.

- Estonian language
Estonian grammar published in Reval in 1637 by Heinrich Stahl

500 related topics

Relevance

Subjects 1.1

Subject–verb–object word order

Sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.

Sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.

Subjects 1.1

Languages regarded as SVO include: All Bantu languages, Albanian, Arabic dialects, Assyrian, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Chinese, English, Estonian, Finnish (but see below), French, Greek, Hausa, Icelandic (with the V2 restriction), Igbo, Italian, Javanese, Khmer, Latvian, Macedonian, Malay (Indonesian, Malaysian), Modern Hebrew, Norwegian (with the V2 restriction), Polish, Portuguese, Quiché, Reo Rapa, Romanian, Russian (but see below), Slovene, Spanish, Swedish (with the V2 restriction), Thai, Toki Pona, and Lao, Ukrainian (but see below), Vietnamese and Yoruba.

Areas in Southern Sweden with a Finnish-speaking population (2005)

Finnish language

Uralic language of the Finnic branch, spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside of Finland.

Uralic language of the Finnic branch, spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside of Finland.

Areas in Southern Sweden with a Finnish-speaking population (2005)
Birch bark letter no. 292 is the oldest known document in any Finnic language.
Mikael Agricola, a 19th-century drawing by Albert Edelfelt
Elias Lönnrot as depicted in a 19th-century caricature – Lönnrot made several journeys to Karelia and Eastern Finland to collect folklore, from which he compiled the Kalevala.
Map of Finnish dialects and forms of speech
The Turku dialect is famous for its seemingly inverted questions. For example, "Ei me mittä kaffelle men?" looks like it means "So we don't go for coffees?" but actually means "Shall we go for coffees?"
A sign in Savonian dialect: "You don't get cognac here, but proper wheat made buns and good strong Juhla Mokka-brand coffee you will have. Welcome."
Example of a participle construction
Suomalaisen Sana-Lugun Coetus (1745) by Daniel Juslenius was the first comprehensive dictionary of the Finnish language with 16,000 entries.
The first page of Abckiria (1543), the first book written in the Finnish language. The spelling of Finnish in the book had many inconsistencies: for example, the sound could be represented by c, k or even g; the long u and the long i were represented by w and ij respectively, and ä was represented by e.

The Finnic group also includes Estonian and a few minority languages spoken around the Baltic Sea and in Russia's Republic of Karelia.

Kõpu Lighthouse is one of the best-known landmarks in Hiiumaa.

Hiiumaa

Second largest island in Estonia and is part of the West Estonian archipelago, in the Baltic Sea.

Second largest island in Estonia and is part of the West Estonian archipelago, in the Baltic Sea.

Kõpu Lighthouse is one of the best-known landmarks in Hiiumaa.
Tahkuna Nature Reserve
Beach vegetation on Hiiumaa
2007 Estonia election. Social Democratic Party (Red), Estonian Reform Party (yellow), Estonian Center Party (green), Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica (Blue), People's Union of Estonia (brown)
<center>Tahkuna lighthouse</center>
<center>Church of Kassari</center>
<center>Old farmhouse</center>
<center>Sõru museum</center>
<center>Malvaste chapel</center>
Cars boarding the ferry to mainland at Heltermaa
Coast of Hiiumaa
Tubala windmill
Suuremõisa Manor in Suuremõisa, Pühalepa Parish
Avenue at Suuremõisa Park
Café at Orjaku Harbor
Nature trail near Orjaku

Hiiumaa is the main island of Hiiu County, called Hiiumaa or Hiiu maakond in Estonian.

Remnants of Valjala Stronghold

Saaremaa

Largest island in Estonia, measuring 2673 km2.

Largest island in Estonia, measuring 2673 km2.

Remnants of Valjala Stronghold
The 1241 Treaty between Livonian Order, Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek and Oeselians at National Archives of Sweden
Panga Cliff
Shore of Saaremaa, by Estonian artist Konrad Mägi (1913–1914).
The nearly circular main Kaali meteorite crater
Mihkli Farm Museum in Viki village.
A typical road on Western Saaremaa
The cliffs near the village of Panga on the north coast of Saaremaa
Kuressaare Castle in winter
Historic buildings near the center of Kuressaare
Saaremaa countryside
Farmhouse in Järveküla
Tagalaht Bay panorama
Valjala Church
Kihelkonna St. Michael's Church
Karja Church in the village of Linnaka
Angla windmills in Leisi Parish
Kiipsaare leaning lighthouse
Lighthouse at Sõrve Peninsula
Kaarma ring fort
Odalätsi springs
Nasva Club

The island is called Saaremaa in Estonian, and in Finnish Saarenmaa—literally "isle land" or "island land", i.e. the same as the Scandinavian name for the island.

Uralic languages (Meänkieli, Kven and Ludic can be regarded as either languages or dialects)

Finnic languages

The Finnic (Fennic), or more precisely Balto-Finnic (Balto-Fennic; Baltic Finnic, Baltic Fennic) languages, constitute a branch of the Uralic language family spoken around the Baltic Sea by the Baltic Finnic peoples.

The Finnic (Fennic), or more precisely Balto-Finnic (Balto-Fennic; Baltic Finnic, Baltic Fennic) languages, constitute a branch of the Uralic language family spoken around the Baltic Sea by the Baltic Finnic peoples.

Uralic languages (Meänkieli, Kven and Ludic can be regarded as either languages or dialects)

The major modern representatives of the family are Finnish and Estonian, the official languages of their respective nation states.

Northern coast of Muhu

Muhu

Northern coast of Muhu
Muhu Stronghold, site of the native Estonian surrender to crusaders in 1227
Monument in the center of the Muhu Stronghold
Üügu cliffs
Muhu St. Catherine's Church
Pädaste Manor
Tooma farm, part of Muhu museum and birthplace of writer Juhan Smuul
Students and teachers in traditional clothing march in a procession in Liiva
Old village school
In Mõega village
Koguva harbour
Windmill in Koguva
Flag of Muhu Parish
Coat of Arms of Muhu Parish

Muhu (also called Muhumaa in Estonian), is an island in the West Estonian archipelago of the Baltic Sea.

De chalcographiae inventione (1541, Mainz) with the 23 letters. J, U and W are missing.

Latin script

Alphabetic writing system based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet used by the Etruscans.

Alphabetic writing system based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet used by the Etruscans.

De chalcographiae inventione (1541, Mainz) with the 23 letters. J, U and W are missing.
Jeton from Nuremberg, c. 1553
The distribution of the Latin script. The dark green areas show the countries where the Latin script is the sole main script. Light green shows countries where Latin co-exists with other scripts. Latin-script alphabets are sometimes extensively used in areas coloured grey due to the use of unofficial second languages, such as French in Algeria and English in Egypt, and to Latin transliteration of the official script, such as pinyin in China.
The letter with an acute diacritic

With the spread of Western Christianity during the Middle Ages, the Latin alphabet was gradually adopted by the peoples of Northern Europe who spoke Celtic languages (displacing the Ogham alphabet) or Germanic languages (displacing earlier Runic alphabets) or Baltic languages, as well as by the speakers of several Uralic languages, most notably Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian.

The university in 1860, during its 'Golden Age'.

University of Tartu

University in the city of Tartu in Estonia.

University in the city of Tartu in Estonia.

The university in 1860, during its 'Golden Age'.
Main building of the University of Tartu constructed between 1804 and 1809.
The Old Observatory of Tartu Observatory was completed in 1810. Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve worked here.
The Botanical Garden was founded by Gottfried Albrecht Germann in 1803.
The first Estonian satellite ESTCube-1 was developed mainly by the students from the University of Tartu.
The Baltic German chemist Wilhelm Ostwald received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1909.
Students' Spring Days on river Emajõgi.
University of Tartu Folk Art Ensemble.
Tartu University main building during Christmas (2006)
Faculty of Social Sciences
Institute of Mathematics and Statistics
University track and field
Iuridicum, law building
Chemicum and Physicum
Institute of Technology

Since Estonia became independent in 1918, the University of Tartu has been an Estonian-language institution since 1919.

Estonian grammar (1637) by Heinrich Stahl

Estonian literature

Estonian grammar (1637) by Heinrich Stahl
Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald
Indrek Hargla has created Apothecary Melchior series, where Melchior Wakenstede solves crimes in medieval Tallinn. Märten Metsaviir has portraid Melchior in films

Estonian literature (eesti kirjandus) is literature written in the Estonian language (c.

Uralic languages (Meänkieli, Kven and Ludic can be regarded as either languages or dialects)

Uralic languages

The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages ) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.

The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages ) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.

Uralic languages (Meänkieli, Kven and Ludic can be regarded as either languages or dialects)
The Uralic/Siberian origin of Hungarians was long hypothesized by European scholars. Here, Sigismund von Herberstein's 1549 map of Moscovia shows in the top right "Yugra from where the Hungarians originated" (Iuhra inde Ungaroru[m] origo), east of the Ob River. The Ural Mountains in the middle of the maps are labeled Montes dicti Cingulus Terræ ("The mountains called the Girdle of the Earth")
Uralic languages in the Russian Empire (Russian Census of 1897; the census was not held in Finland because it was an autonomous area)
frameless

The Uralic languages with the most native speakers are Hungarian (which alone accounts for more than half of the family's speakers), Finnish, and Estonian.