A report on South Africa and Eswatini

Migrations that formed the modern Rainbow nation
A 19th-century Swazi container, carved in wood
Mapungubwe Hill, the site of the former capital of the Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias planting the cross at Cape Point after being the first to successfully round the Cape of Good Hope.
Swaziland in Southern Africa, 1896
Charles Davidson Bell's 19th-century painting of Jan van Riebeeck, who founded the first European settlement in South Africa, arrives in Table Bay in 1652
Topographic map of Eswatini
Depiction of a Zulu attack on a Boer camp in February 1838
Landscape in Eswatini
The First Boer War was a rebellion of Boers against the British rule in the Transvaal that re-established their independence.
Grewia villosa
"For use by white persons" – apartheid sign in English and Afrikaans
Mswati III has been king of Eswatini since 1986.
FW de Klerk and Nelson Mandela shake hands in January 1992
Swazi army officers
The Central Plateau edged by the Great Escarpment, and the Cape Fold Belt
A proportional representation of Swazi exports
The thick line traces the Great Escarpment bordering the central plateau; the line's red portion is the Drakensberg. The Escarpment rises to its highest, over 3000 m, where it separates KwaZulu-Natal and Lesotho. No regions on the map have well-defined borders except where the Escarpment or a mountain range forms a clear dividing line
Central Bank in Mbabane
Drakensberg, the eastern and highest portion of the Great Escarpment which surrounds the east, south and western borders of the central plateau of Southern Africa
Eswatini is part of the Southern African Customs Union (green).
Spring flowers in Namaqualand
Eswatini's population in thousands (1950–2021)
Köppen climate types of South Africa
A rural primary school in Eswatini
South African giraffes, Kruger National Park
King Mswati III at the reed dance festival where he will choose his next wife
Subtropical forest near Durban
Princess Sikhanyiso Dlamini (left) and Temtsimba Dlamini (right) at the reed dance (umhlanga) festival 2006
Lowveld vegetation of the Kruger National Park
A traditional Swazi homestead
Cape Floral Region Protected Areas
Swazi warriors at the incwala ceremony
Union Buildings in Pretoria, seat of the executive
Houses of Parliament in Cape Town, seat of the legislature
Constitutional Court in Johannesburg
Soweto Pride 2012 participants protest against violence against lesbians. The country has strong human rights laws but some groups are still discriminated against. It is the first country in Africa to recognise same sex marriage
SANDF soldiers
Provinces of South Africa
Change in per capita GDP of South Africa, 1700–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
Annual per capita personal income by race group in South Africa relative to white levels
A proportional representation of South Africa exports, 2019
The Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) is the largest stock exchange on the African continent
Workers packing pears for export in the Ceres Valley, Western Cape
Mark Shuttleworth in space
Schoolchildren in Mitchell's Plain
Life expectancy in select Southern African countries, 1950–2019. HIV/AIDS has caused a fall in life expectancy.
Rock painting of an eland, Drakensberg
Olive Schreiner
A plate of freshly prepared Babotie, a meat-based meal which originated within South Africa.
Kagiso Rabada, South African cricketer
The Springboks in a bus parade after winning the 2007 Rugby World Cup
A SAAF JAS 39 Gripen the main combat aircraft of the South African Air Force during take off
Zulus in Natal

It is bounded to the south by 2798 km of coastline that stretch along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; to the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe; and to the east and northeast by Mozambique and Eswatini and it surrounds the enclaved country of Lesotho.

- South Africa

It is bordered by Mozambique to its northeast and South Africa to its north, west, south, and southeast.

- Eswatini

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Landlocked country in Southern Africa.

Landlocked country in Southern Africa.

The 'Two Rhino' painting at Tsodilo, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
German map of 1905 still showing the undivided Bechuanaland area
Sechele I who led a Batswana Merafe Coalition against Boers in 1852
3 Dikgosi Monument: Khama III, Sebele I & Bathoen I who negotiated a Protectorate
Postage stamp of British-ruled Bechuanaland from 1960
Botswana map of Köppen climate classification.
Zebras roaming the Okavango Basin
The current president, Mokgweetsi Masisi
High Court of Botswana
Botswana soldiers board a Botswana Defence Force plane to Mozambique, July 2021
New Gaborone Central Business District
Graphical depiction of Botswana's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories.
GDP per capita of Botswana, 1950 to 2018
GDP per capita (current), % of world average, 1960–2012; Zimbabwe, South Africa, Botswana, Zambia, Mozambique
Kazungula Bridge, connecting Botswana and Zambia
Population pyramid 2016
Gaborone Hindu Temple
Unity Dow, author of Far and Beyon, The Screaming of the Innocent and Heavens May Fall
Francistown Stadium
Physicist in a Lab at Botswana International University of Science and Technology
Deaftronics Solar Powered Hearing Aid
Cubesat miniaturized satellite
Scottish Livingstone Hospital in Molepolole
Life expectancy in select Southern African countries, 1950–2019. HIV/AIDS has caused a fall in life expectancy.
Tourist on a safari boat cruise
I-Towers, Gaborone Central Business District
Kazungula Bridge, connecting Botswana and Zambia

It is bordered by South Africa to the south and southeast, Namibia to the west and north, and Zimbabwe to the northeast.

When the Union of South Africa was formed in 1910 from the main British colonies in the region, the High Commission Territories—the Bechuanaland Protectorate, Basutoland (now Lesotho), and Swaziland (now Eswatini)—were not included, but provision was made for their later incorporation.


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Mozambican dhow
Arab-Swahili slave traders and their captives on the Ruvuma River
The Island of Mozambique is a small coral island at the mouth of Mossuril Bay on the Nacala coast of northern Mozambique, first explored by Europeans in the late 15th century.
View of the Central Avenue in Lourenço Marques, now Maputo, ca. 1905
Portuguese language printing and typesetting class, 1930
Portuguese troops during the Portuguese Colonial War, some loading FN FAL and G3
A land mine victim in Mozambique
The geopolitical situation in 1975, nations friendly to the FRELIMO are shown in orange
A US helicopter flying over the flooded Limpopo River during the 2000 Mozambique flood
Satellite image
Mozambique map of Köppen climate classification zones
Incumbent President Filipe Nyusi
Maputo City Hall
A section of the crowd at its final campaign rally for the 2014 election
Mozambique's embassy in Washington, D.C.
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi meets members of Indian community in Mozambique, 7 July 2016
Historical development of real GDP per capita in Mozambique, since 1960
A proportional representation of Mozambique's exports
Traditional sailboat in Ilha de Moçambique
European tourists on the beach, in Inhambane, Mozambique
Vilanculos beach Mozambique
Carrying goods on head in Mozambique
Steam locomotive at Inhambane, 2009
National Mozambican airline, LAM Mozambique
Woman fetching water during the dry season from a polluted source in Machaze District of the Central Manica Province
Ethnic map of Mozambique
Population pyramid 2016
The increase in the number of HIV positive Mozambicans on Antiretroviral treatment, 2003–14
Woman with traditional mask in Mozambique
Island of Mozambique, 2016
Headquarters of Rádio Moçambique in KaMpfumo district of Maputo (photo 2009)
Lebombo Mountains
Gorongosa National Park
Island of Mozambique
Monte Binga
Ponta do Ouro
Pupils in front of their school in Nampula, Mozambique
School children in the classroom

Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique, ; Mozambiki; Msumbiji; Muzambhiki), is a country located in Southeastern Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Eswatini (Swaziland) and South Africa to the southwest.


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King Moshoeshoe I with his Ministers
1959 stamps for the Basutoland National Council
Lesotho mountain village
Embassy in Washington, D.C., United States
The Parliament building in Maseru
Districts and Cities of Lesotho
Topographic map of the region, showing Lesotho situated on the highest peaks of Southern Africa
The Afriski resort in the Maloti Mountains of Lesotho
Hills in Lesotho
Aloe polyphylla
Sani Pass on the border is a popular tourist attraction.
Primary school class
St.Michael's Cathedral
National University of Lesotho
LDF Deputy Commander briefing soldiers
Women wearing Basotho blankets
Shweshwe clothing

Lesotho, officially the Kingdom of Lesotho, is a landlocked country enclaved by South Africa.

"It is a sovereign country like South Africa. We sent envoys to our neighbours – Botswana, Zimbabwe, Swaziland and Lesotho – before we enforced the passport rule. When you travel from Britain to South Africa, don't you expect to use a passport?"

A composite satellite image of Southern Africa

Southern Africa

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Southernmost subregion of the African continent, south of the Congo and Tanzania.

Southernmost subregion of the African continent, south of the Congo and Tanzania.

A composite satellite image of Southern Africa
Waterfall in the Witwatersrand region near Johannesburg
Sandton, Johannesburg, the financial centre of South Africa
Southern Africa (UN subregion and the SACU)
Geographical Southern Africa, including the UN subregion
Southern African Development Community (SADC)
United Nations geoscheme for Africa
Eastern Africa
Middle Africa
Northern Africa
Southern Africa
Western Africa

Countries commonly included in Southern Africa include Angola, Botswana, the Comoros, Eswatini, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Southern African Customs Union

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Evolution of the Southern African Customs Union from 1903 to the present day based on [[:File:Southern African Customs Union.svg |Southern African Customs Union.svg]], and information found in Brief Chronology of Customs Agreements in Southern Africa, 1855-1979 by Derek J. Hudson. The light green area in Zambia represents the extent of the territory of North-western Rhodesia in 1905 when it joined the customs union

The Southern African Customs Union (SACU) is a customs union among five countries of Southern Africa: Botswana, Eswatini (formerly Swaziland), Lesotho, Namibia and South Africa.

Southern African Development Community

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Inter-governmental organization headquartered in Gaborone, Botswana.

Inter-governmental organization headquartered in Gaborone, Botswana.

Flag of the SADCC

Its original members were Botswana, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Eswatini, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe, with Malawi and Seychelles joining later.

Commonwealth of Nations

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Political association of 56 member states, the vast majority of which are former territories of the British Empire.

Political association of 56 member states, the vast majority of which are former territories of the British Empire.

The prime ministers of five members at the 1944 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference. (L-R) Mackenzie King (Canada), Jan Smuts (South Africa), Winston Churchill (United Kingdom), Peter Fraser (New Zealand) and John Curtin (Australia)
Queen Elizabeth II, Head of the Commonwealth
Marlborough House, London, the headquarters of the Commonwealth Secretariat, the Commonwealth's principal intergovernmental institution
The members of the Commonwealth shaded according to their political status. Commonwealth realms are shown in blue, while republics are shaded pink, and members with their own monarchies are displayed in green.
Flags of the members of the Commonwealth in Parliament Square, London
The Commonwealth flag flying at the Parliament of Canada in Ottawa
The Commonwealth Games are the third-largest multi-sport event in the world, bringing together globally popular sports and peculiarly "Commonwealth" sports, such as rugby sevens, shown here at the 2006 Games.
The Commonwealth War Graves Commission serves to commemorate 1.7 million Commonwealth war dead and maintains 2,500 war cemeteries around the world, including this one in Gallipoli.
Draft of the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty, with "British Empire" crossed out and "British Commonwealth of Nations" added by hand.

The position is symbolic, representing the free association of independent members, the majority of which (36) are republics, and five have monarchs of different royal houses (Brunei, Eswatini, Lesotho, Malaysia, and Tonga).

South Africa was barred from continuing as a member after it became a republic in 1961, due to hostility from many members, particularly those in Africa and Asia as well as Canada, to its policy of racial apartheid.

Boer militia at the Battle of Spion Kop

Second Boer War

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Conflict fought between the British Empire and the two Boer Republics (the South African Republic and the Orange Free State) over the Empire's influence in Southern Africa from 1899 to 1902.

Conflict fought between the British Empire and the two Boer Republics (the South African Republic and the Orange Free State) over the Empire's influence in Southern Africa from 1899 to 1902.

Boer militia at the Battle of Spion Kop
Boer militia at the Battle of Spion Kop
A typical British soldier Corporal Alexander Duncan Turnbull of Kitchener's Fighting Scouts
Extent of the British Empire in 1898, prior to the outbreak of the Second Boer War
The geography of the region in 1885, between the First and Second Boer Wars
A sketch showing the arrest of Jameson after the failed raid, in 1896
Paul Kruger, leader of the South African Republic (Transvaal)
Mauser 1895 bolt-action rifle (at the Auckland Museum)
1899 German political cartoon
Boers in a trench at Mafeking, 1899
War theatre in northern Natal
General Redvers Henry Buller launched an offensive against the Boers in the early phases of the war but after several defeats, culminating at the Battle of Colenso, he was replaced by Earl Roberts.
Lord Roberts's arrival at Cape Town
British casualties lie dead on the battlefield after the Battle of Spion Kop, 24 January 1900.
Boer General Piet de Wet, 1900
Siege of Ladysmith
The Relief of Ladysmith. Sir George Stuart White greets Major Hubert Gough on 28 February. Painting by John Henry Frederick Bacon (1868–1914).
General Piet Cronjé as a prisoner of war in Saint Helena, 1900–02. He was captured, along with 4,000 soldiers, after the loss of the Battle of Paardeberg.
A Transit camp for Prisoners of War near Cape Town during the war. Prisoners were then transferred for internment in other parts of the British Empire.
Kitchener succeeded Roberts in November 1900 and launched anti-guerrilla campaigns. 1898 photograph in 1910 magazine.
A surviving blockhouse in South Africa. Blockhouses were constructed by the British to secure supply routes from Boer raids during the war.
One British response to the guerrilla war was a 'scorched earth' policy to deny the guerrillas supplies and refuge. In this image Boer civilians watch their house as it is burned.
Christiaan De Wet was the most formidable leader of the Boer guerrillas. He successfully evaded capture on numerous occasions and was later involved in the negotiations for a peace settlement.
Boer commandos
The end result of the Boer War was the annexation of the Boer Republics to the British Empire in 1902
Peace conference at Vereeniging
C Company returns from Boer War, pictured here in King Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Tents in the Bloemfontein concentration camp
Memorial to soldiers from Quebec who fell in the Second Boer War, Quebec City
Alfred, Lord Milner, was the British High Commissioner of Southern Africa. He was involved from the start of the war and had a role in the peace process and the creation of the Union of South Africa.
Memorial window from St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin by An Túr Gloine. Much of the Irish public sympathised with the Boer side,, rather than the British side on which fought the Royal Irish Regiment.
A horse destined to serve in the war, being offloaded in Port Elizabeth
Stretcher-bearers of the Indian Ambulance Corps during the war, including the future leader Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Middle row, 5th from left)
British and Australian officers in South Africa, c. 1900
The unveiling of the South African War Memorial in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, in 1908
Harold Lothrop Borden – son of the National Minister of Defence and the most famous Canadian casualty of the war
New Zealand troops marching down Wellesley Street, Auckland, to embark for South Africa
The top of the Dunedin Boer War Memorial. The memorial reaffirms New Zealand's dedication to the Empire. As McLean and Phillips said, the New Zealand Boer War Memorials are "tributes to the Empire and outpourings of pride about New Zealand’s place” in the Empire.
Rhodesian volunteers leaving Salisbury for service in the Second Boer War, 1899
Memorial at Plymouth, by Emil Fuchs
A group of British prisoners, with Winston Churchill on the right
Wounded British soldiers
Canadian soldiers en route to South Africa in 1899
Indian Monument at Observatory Ridge

In South Africa, it is officially called the South African War.

Eventually, Botha had to abandon the high veld and retreat to a narrow enclave bordering Swaziland.

South African Republic

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Independent Boer Republic in Southern Africa which existed from 1852 to 1902, when it was annexed into the British Empire as a result of the Second Boer War.

Independent Boer Republic in Southern Africa which existed from 1852 to 1902, when it was annexed into the British Empire as a result of the Second Boer War.

1st ZAR President Marthinus Pretorius
Coat of arms of the South African Republic displayed on Kruger's wagon
President Paul Kruger in 1898
Piet Cronjé's followers delivering up their rifles
All the east–west railways were constructed by the Netherlands-South African Railway Company, while lines were built from the Cape and Natal, and one to Pietersburg was built by a private British company

The land area that was once the ZAR now comprises all or most of the provinces of Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, and North West in the northeastern portion of the modern-day Republic of South Africa.

Seeing this, the Swazis refused to hand over to the Boers any spoils from the battle, thereafter leaving and returning to Swaziland.

Typical veld near Petrified forest in Namibia (2014)


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Type of wide open rural landscape in :Southern Africa.

Type of wide open rural landscape in :Southern Africa.

Typical veld near Petrified forest in Namibia (2014)
Springbok in growing veld; Etosha National Park, Namibia
Springboks in the burned veld; Etosha National Park, Namibia
A map of South Africa showing the Great Escarpment and its relation to the Highveld, Lowveld and Lesotho Highlands. The portion of the Great Escarpment that is colored red is known as the Drakensberg. It forms the only well defined boundary of the Lesotho Highlands and the Low- and Highveld. The west- and southward extents of all three of these areas are arbitrary. The term "Lowveld" is used only in South Africa, Botswana and Zimbabwe. Thus, although the Lowveld is continuous with Mozambique's coastal plain, the term "Lowveld" is not used there, hence it is shown in orange, as opposed to the yellow in the other southern African countries. The term "Lowveld" is also not applied to other low-lying areas in South Africa, Botswana or Zimbabwe.
Highveld in Gauteng Province north of Johannesburg
The Mpumalanga lowveld, as seen from God's Window
A calf in the Sandveld in Botswana
Bakwena Royal Cemetery, Molepolole, in the Hardveld area of southeast Botswana

Particularly, it is a flat area covered in grass or low scrub, especially in the countries of South Africa, Lesotho, Eswatini, Zimbabwe and Botswana.