Etching

etcheretchingsetchedrelief etchingetchsoft-ground etchingengraverilluminated printingcopperplate etchingcopperplates
Etching is traditionally the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio (incised) in the metal.wikipedia
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Printmaking

printmakerprintsprint
As a method of printmaking, it is, along with engraving, the most important technique for old master prints, and remains in wide use today.
Common types of matrices include: metal plates, usually copper or zinc, or polymer plates and other thicker plastic sheets for engraving or etching; stone, aluminum, or polymer for lithography; blocks of wood for woodcuts and wood engravings; and linoleum for linocuts.

Intaglio (printmaking)

intagliocopperplateintaglio printing
Etching is traditionally the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio (incised) in the metal. Etching has often been combined with other intaglio techniques such as engraving (e.g., Rembrandt) or aquatint (e.g., Francisco Goya).
Normally, copper or zinc plates are used as a surface or matrix, and the incisions are created by etching, engraving, drypoint, aquatint or mezzotint.

Engraving

engraverengravedengravings
As a method of printmaking, it is, along with engraving, the most important technique for old master prints, and remains in wide use today. Etching has often been combined with other intaglio techniques such as engraving (e.g., Rembrandt) or aquatint (e.g., Francisco Goya).
It has long been replaced by various photographic processes in its commercial applications and, partly because of the difficulty of learning the technique, is much less common in printmaking, where it has been largely replaced by etching and other techniques.

Aquatint

aquatinting
Etching has often been combined with other intaglio techniques such as engraving (e.g., Rembrandt) or aquatint (e.g., Francisco Goya).
Aquatint is an intaglio printmaking technique, a variant of etching that only produces areas of tone rather than lines.

Rembrandt

Rembrandt van RijnRembrandt Harmenszoon van RijnRembrandt Harmensz van Rijn
Etching has often been combined with other intaglio techniques such as engraving (e.g., Rembrandt) or aquatint (e.g., Francisco Goya). The 17th century was the great age of etching, with Rembrandt, Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione and many other masters.
His reputation as the greatest etcher in the history of the medium was established in his lifetime and never questioned since.

Ground (acid or mordant resist)

ground
In traditional pure etching, a metal (usually copper, zinc or steel) plate is covered with a waxy ground which is resistant to acid.
A ground is waxy material applied to the surface of a metal etching plate (sheet).

Daniel Hopfer

Daniello HopferHopfer family
The process as applied to printmaking is believed to have been invented by Daniel Hopfer (circa 1470–1536) of Augsburg, Germany.
Daniel Hopfer (circa 1470 in Kaufbeuren – 1536 in Augsburg) was a German artist who is widely believed to have been the first to use etching in printmaking, at the end of the fifteenth century.

Woodcut

woodcutswoodblockxylography
An Augsburg horse armour in the German Historical Museum, Berlin, dating to between 1512 and 1515, is decorated with motifs from Hopfer's etchings and woodcuts, but this is no evidence that Hopfer himself worked on it, as his decorative prints were largely produced as patterns for other craftsmen in various media.
Compared to intaglio techniques like etching and engraving, only low pressure is required to print.

Giovanni Battista Piranesi

PiranesiGiambattista PiranesiPiranesian
In the 18th century, Piranesi, Tiepolo and Daniel Chodowiecki were the best of a smaller number of fine etchers.
Giovanni Battista (or Giambattista) Piranesi (also known as simply Piranesi; 4 October 1720 – 9 November 1778) was an Italian artist famous for his etchings of Rome and of fictitious and atmospheric "prisons" (Le Carceri d'Invenzione).

Abraham Bosse

Abramo BosseBosse
One of his followers, the Parisian Abraham Bosse, spread Callot's innovations all over Europe with the first published manual of etching, which was translated into Italian, Dutch, German and English.
Abraham Bosse (1604 – 14 February 1676) was a French artist, mainly as a printmaker in etching, but also in watercolour.

Jacques Callot

CallotJacopo Callot
Jacques Callot (1592–1635) from Nancy in Lorraine (now part of France) made important technical advances in etching technique.
He made more than 1,400 etchings that chronicled the life of his period, featuring soldiers, clowns, drunkards, Gypsies, beggars, as well as court life.

Etching revival

Print Revival
In the 19th and early 20th century, the Etching revival produced a host of lesser artists, but no really major figures.
The Etching Revival is the re-emergence and invigoration of etching as an original form of printmaking during a period of time stretching approximately from 1850 to 1930.

Daniel Chodowiecki

ChodowieckiChodowieckeChodowiecky
In the 18th century, Piranesi, Tiepolo and Daniel Chodowiecki were the best of a smaller number of fine etchers.
Daniel Niklaus Chodowiecki (16 October 1726 – 7 February 1801) was a German painter and printmaker with Huguenot ancestry, who is most famous as an etcher.

Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione

CastiglioneGrechettoB. Castiglione
The 17th century was the great age of etching, with Rembrandt, Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione and many other masters.
He is best known now for his etchings, and as the inventor of the printmaking technique of monotyping.

Albrecht Dürer

DürerDurerAlbrecht Durer
The oldest dated etching is by Albrecht Dürer in 1515, although he returned to engraving after six etchings instead of developing the craft.
His only experiments with etching came in this period, producing five 1515–1516 and a sixth 1518; a technique he may have abandoned as unsuited to his aesthetic of methodical, classical form.

State (printmaking)

statestatesproof states
The work on the plate can be added to or repaired by re-waxing and further etching; such an etching (plate) may have been used in more than one state.
A wholesale example is Daniel Hopfer, the inventor of etching as a printmaking technique (c.

All Religions are One

its original form
Relief etching was invented by William Blake in about 1788, and he has been almost the only artist to use it in its original form.
Etching was also commonly used for layering in such aspects as landscape and background.

Francisco Goya

GoyaFrancisco de GoyaFrancisco José de Goya y Lucientes
Etching has often been combined with other intaglio techniques such as engraving (e.g., Rembrandt) or aquatint (e.g., Francisco Goya).
He began the series of aquatinted etchings, published in 1799 as the Caprichos—completed in parallel with the more official commissions of portraits and religious paintings.

William Blake

BlakeBlakeanW. Blake
Relief etching was invented by William Blake in about 1788, and he has been almost the only artist to use it in its original form.
In 1788, aged 31, Blake experimented with relief etching, a method he used to produce most of his books, paintings, pamphlets and poems.

Hohokam

Hohokam cultureancient IndianHohokam Puebloans
Prior to 1100 AD, the New World Hohokam independently utilized the technique of acid etching in marine shell designs.
By about AD 1000, the Hohokam are credited with being the first culture to master acid etching.

Relief printing

relief printreliefrelief prints
A similar process to etching, but printed as a relief print, so it is the "white" background areas which are exposed to the acid, and the areas to print "black" which are covered with ground.
The relief family of techniques includes woodcut, metalcut, wood engraving, relief etching, linocut, rubber stamp, foam printing, potato printing, and some types of collagraph.

Drypoint

pointdry pointdry-point
Once the photo-etching process is complete, the plate can be worked further as a normal intaglio plate, using drypoint, further etching, engraving, etc. The final result is an intaglio plate which is printed like any other.
Like etching, drypoint is easier to master than engraving for an artist trained in drawing because the technique of using the needle is closer to using a pencil than the engraver's burin.

Old master print

printsprintold master prints
As a method of printmaking, it is, along with engraving, the most important technique for old master prints, and remains in wide use today.
The main techniques used, in order of their introduction, are woodcut, engraving, etching, mezzotint and aquatint, although there are others.

List of printmakers

Key to Techniques: En = Engraver (includes Drypoint), Et = Etcher, Wo = Mezzotint, Mo = Monotype, Aq = Aquatint, Li = Lithography, We = Wood engraving, Sc = Screen-printing, St = Stipple, Di = digital.

Electroetching

electrochemically etched
Electroetching is a metal etching process that involves the use of a solution of an electrolyte, an anode, and a cathode.