Ethereum

EtherETHETH blockchainEthereum Enterprise AllianceEthereum Virtual MachineEthereum Virtual Machine (EVM)Ethereum-basedEVM bytecode
Ethereum is an open-source, public, blockchain-based distributed computing platform and operating system featuring smart contract (scripting) functionality.wikipedia
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Vitalik Buterin

Ethereum was proposed in late 2013 by Vitalik Buterin, a cryptocurrency researcher and programmer.
Vitalik Buterin (Виталий Дмитриевич Бутерин - Vitaly Dmitriyevich Buterin; born January 31, 1994) is a Russian-Canadian programmer and writer primarily known as a co-founder of Ethereum and as a co-founder of Bitcoin Magazine.

The DAO (organization)

The DAODAO
In 2016, as a result of the exploitation of a flaw in The DAO project's smart contract software, and subsequent theft of $50 million worth of Ether, Ethereum was split into two separate blockchains – the new separate version became Ethereum (ETH) with the theft reversed, and the original continued as Ethereum Classic (ETC). In 2016 a decentralized autonomous organization called The DAO, a set of smart contracts developed on the platform, raised a record US$150 million in a crowdsale to fund the project.
It was instantiated on the Ethereum blockchain, and had no conventional management structure or board of directors.

Joseph Lubin (entrepreneur)

Joseph LubinEthereum Switzerland GmbH
Formal development of the Ethereum software project began in early 2014 through a Swiss company, Ethereum Switzerland GmbH (EthSuisse).
He has founded and co-founded several companies including the Swiss-based EthSuisse, contributing heavily to Ethereum, the decentralized cryptocurrency platform.

Ethereum Classic

Ethereum Classic (ETC)
In 2016, as a result of the exploitation of a flaw in The DAO project's smart contract software, and subsequent theft of $50 million worth of Ether, Ethereum was split into two separate blockchains – the new separate version became Ethereum (ETH) with the theft reversed, and the original continued as Ethereum Classic (ETC).
In May 2016, a venture capital fund called The DAO built on Ethereum raised around $168 million, with the intention of investing in projects using smart contracts.

ConsenSys

ConsenSys, Inc
By May, the nonprofit organization had 116 enterprise members—including ConsenSys, CME Group, Cornell University's research group, Toyota Research Institute, Samsung SDS, Microsoft, Intel, J. P. Morgan, Cooley LLP, Merck KGaA, DTCC, Deloitte, Accenture, Banco Santander, BNY Mellon, ING, and National Bank of Canada.
decentralized software services and applications that operate on the Ethereum blockchain.

Smart contract

smart contractsDigital contractscontracts
In 2016, as a result of the exploitation of a flaw in The DAO project's smart contract software, and subsequent theft of $50 million worth of Ether, Ethereum was split into two separate blockchains – the new separate version became Ethereum (ETH) with the theft reversed, and the original continued as Ethereum Classic (ETC). Ethereum is an open-source, public, blockchain-based distributed computing platform and operating system featuring smart contract (scripting) functionality. In 2016 a decentralized autonomous organization called The DAO, a set of smart contracts developed on the platform, raised a record US$150 million in a crowdsale to fund the project.
Ethereum implements a nearly Turing-complete language on its blockchain, a prominent smart contract framework.

Deloitte

Deloitte & ToucheDeloitte and ToucheTouche Ross
By May, the nonprofit organization had 116 enterprise members—including ConsenSys, CME Group, Cornell University's research group, Toyota Research Institute, Samsung SDS, Microsoft, Intel, J. P. Morgan, Cooley LLP, Merck KGaA, DTCC, Deloitte, Accenture, Banco Santander, BNY Mellon, ING, and National Bank of Canada. Interested parties include Microsoft, IBM, JPMorgan Chase, Deloitte, R3, Innovate UK (cross-border payments prototype).
Deloitte became a member of the Ethereum Enterprise Alliance and the Hyperledger Project sponsored by the Linux Foundation in May 2017.

Decentralized autonomous organization

decentralized autonomous corporationblockchainDAO
In 2016 a decentralized autonomous organization called The DAO, a set of smart contracts developed on the platform, raised a record US$150 million in a crowdsale to fund the project.
This hack was reversed in the following weeks, and the money restored, via a hard fork of the Ethereum blockchain.

Ethash

For proof-of-work, it uses the Ethash algorithm which reduces the advantage of specialized ASICs in mining.
Ethash is the proof-of-work function in Ethereum-based blockchain currencies.

Crowdfunding

crowdfundedcrowd fundingcrowdfund
In 2016 a decentralized autonomous organization called The DAO, a set of smart contracts developed on the platform, raised a record US$150 million in a crowdsale to fund the project. Development was funded by an online crowdsale that took place between July and August 2014.
Examples of such crowdsales are Augur decentralized, distributed prediction market software which raised from more than 3500 participants; Ethereum blockchain; Digix/DigixDAO;

Fork (blockchain)

hard forkforkfork referring to a blockchain
Protocol upgrades are accomplished by means of a soft fork of the open source code base.
Forks (in the sense of protocol changes) have been used in order to add new features to a blockchain, to reverse the effects of hacking or catastrophic bugs on a blockchain as was the case with the bitcoin fork on 6 August 2010 or the fork between Ethereum and Ethereum Classic.

Xi (letter)

XiΞξ
It is listed under the code ETH and traded on cryptocurrency exchanges, and the Greek uppercase Xi character is generally used for its currency symbol.
Monetary units of the cryptocurrency Ether, equal to 10 18 Wei

Merkle tree

hash treeMerkle hash treeTiger Tree Hash
State is not stored on the blockchain, it is stored in a separate Merkle Patricia tree.
Hash trees are also used in the IPFS, Btrfs and ZFS file systems (to counter data degradation ); Dat protocol; Apache Wave protocol ; Git and Mercurial distributed revision control systems; the Tahoe-LAFS backup system; Zeronet; the Bitcoin and Ethereum peer-to-peer networks ; the Certificate Transparency framework; and a number of NoSQL systems such as Apache Cassandra, Riak, and Dynamo.

Solidity

They can be written in Solidity (a language library with similarities to C and JavaScript), Serpent (similar to Python, but deprecated), LLL (a low-level Lisp-like language), and Mutan (Go-based, but deprecated).
It was developed by Gavin Wood, Christian Reitwiessner, Alex Beregszaszi, Liana Husikyan, Yoichi Hirai and several former Ethereum core contributors to enable writing smart contracts on blockchain platforms such as Ethereum.

Initial coin offering

ICOinitial coin offeringsICOs
Ethereum is (as of 2017) the leading blockchain platform for initial coin offering projects, with over 50% market share.
In an ICO, a quantity of cryptocurrency is sold in the form of "tokens" ("coins") to speculators or investors, in exchange for legal tender or other cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin or Ethereum.

Cryptocurrency

cryptocurrenciescrypto-currencyaltcoin
It is listed under the code ETH and traded on cryptocurrency exchanges, and the Greek uppercase Xi character is generally used for its currency symbol. Ether is a cryptocurrency whose blockchain is generated by the Ethereum platform.
For ether, transaction fees differ by computational complexity, bandwidth use, and storage needs, while bitcoin transaction fees differ by transaction size and whether the transaction uses SegWit.

Decentralized application

decentralizeddecentralized applicationsdecentralized apps
Ethereum blockchain applications are usually referred to as DApps (decentralized application), since they are based on the decentralized Ethereum Virtual Machine, and its smart contracts.
DApps have been mostly popularized by distributed ledger technologies (DLT), namely the Ethereum Blockchain, where DApps are often refereed to as smart contracts.

Go (programming language)

GoGo programming languageGolang
They can be written in Solidity (a language library with similarities to C and JavaScript), Serpent (similar to Python, but deprecated), LLL (a low-level Lisp-like language), and Mutan (Go-based, but deprecated). Ethereum Virtual Machines have been implemented in C++, Go, Haskell, Java, JavaScript, Python, Ruby, Rust, and WebAssembly (currently under development).
Ethereum, The go-ethereum implementation of the Ethereum Virtual Machine blockchain for the Ether cryptocurrency

JPMorgan Chase

JP MorganJPMorganJ.P. Morgan
Interested parties include Microsoft, IBM, JPMorgan Chase, Deloitte, R3, Innovate UK (cross-border payments prototype).
In September 2016, JPMorgan announced that they had been working on a private, permissioned version of the Ethereum network called Quorum.

Blockchain

Blockchainsblockchain technologyblock
Ethereum is an open-source, public, blockchain-based distributed computing platform and operating system featuring smart contract (scripting) functionality. Ethereum is (as of 2017) the leading blockchain platform for initial coin offering projects, with over 50% market share.
The block time for Ethereum is set to between 14 and 15 seconds, while for bitcoin it is 10 minutes.

CryptoKitties

The Ethereum network has at times faced congestion problems, for example, congestion occurred during late 2017 in relation to Cryptokitties.
The game's popularity in December 2017 congested the Ethereum network, causing it to reach an all-time high in transactions and slow down significantly.

ERC-20

EIP-20 (ERC-20 Token Standard)
A few notable decisions were made in the process of EIP, such as EIP-160 (EXP cost increase caused by Spurious Dragon Hardfork) and EIP-20 (ERC-20 Token Standard).
ERC-20 is a technical standard used for smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain for implementing tokens.

SHA-3

KeccakKangarooTwelveKeccak-256
Ethereum addresses are composed of the prefix "0x", a common identifier for hexadecimal, concatenated with the rightmost 20 bytes of the Keccak-256 hash (big endian) of the ECDSA public key.
* Ethereum#Ether

Ponzi scheme

PonziPonzi Schemescollective investment schemes
Izabella Kaminska, the editor of FT Alphaville, has pointed out that criminals are using Ethereum to run Ponzi schemes and other forms of investment fraud.
For example, misuse of initial coin offerings, or "ICOs," on the Ethereum blockchain platform have been one such method, known as "smart Ponzis" per the Financial Times. The novelty of ICOs means that there is currently a lack of regulatory clarity on the classification of these financial devices, allowing scammers wide leeway to develop Ponzi schemes using these assets.

R3 (company)

R3CordaR3 CEV
Interested parties include Microsoft, IBM, JPMorgan Chase, Deloitte, R3, Innovate UK (cross-border payments prototype).
This was a follow-on to an 11-bank trial conducted earlier in January which used Ethereum hosted on Microsoft Azure.