Ethics

ethicalmoral philosophyethicunethicalmoralmoral philosophermoralistethical theoryethical issuesethically
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.wikipedia
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Value (ethics)

valuesvaluevalue system
The field of ethics, along with aesthetics, concerns matters of value, and thus comprises the branch of philosophy called axiology.
In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.

Good and evil

goodgood versus evilgoodness
Ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime.
In religion, ethics, philosophy, and psychology "good and evil" is a very common dichotomy.

Justice

justequitycivil justice
Ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime.
The concept of justice is based on numerous fields, and many differing viewpoints and perspectives including the concepts of moral correctness based on ethics, rationality, law, religion, equity and fairness.

Meta-ethics

metaethicsmeta-ethicalmetaethical
Moral skepticism (or moral scepticism) is a class of metaethical theories all members of which entail that no one has any moral knowledge.
Meta-ethics is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature of ethical properties, statements, attitudes, and judgments.

Moral psychology

moral judgment and decision-makingmoral psychologistmoral psychologists
As a field of intellectual inquiry, moral philosophy also is related to the fields of moral psychology, descriptive ethics, and value theory.
More recently however, the term has come to refer more broadly to various topics at the intersection of ethics, psychology, and philosophy of mind.

Value theory

goodvaluemoral value
As a field of intellectual inquiry, moral philosophy also is related to the fields of moral psychology, descriptive ethics, and value theory.
Within philosophy, it can be known as ethics or axiology.

Normative ethics

normativenormative ethicalnormative ethical theories
Normative ethics is the study of ethical action.
Normative ethics is the study of ethical action.

Applied ethics

practical ethicsethicalapplied
Business ethics (also corporate ethics) is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that arise in a business environment, including fields like medical ethics.
It is ethics with respect to real-world actions and their moral considerations in the areas of private and public life, the professions, health, technology, law, and leadership.

Bernard Williams

Sir Bernard WilliamsBernard Arthur Owen WilliamsEthics and the Limits of Philosophy
As the English philosopher Bernard Williams writes, attempting to explain moral philosophy: "What makes an inquiry a philosophical one is reflective generality and a style of argument that claims to be rationally persuasive."
Sir Bernard Arthur Owen Williams, FBA (21 September 1929 – 10 June 2003) was an English moral philosopher.

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
The field of ethics, along with aesthetics, concerns matters of value, and thus comprises the branch of philosophy called axiology. As a field of intellectual inquiry, moral philosophy also is related to the fields of moral psychology, descriptive ethics, and value theory. Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics ("concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being"), epistemology (about the "nature and grounds of knowledge [and]...its limits and validity" ), ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic and philosophy of science.

Moral realism

ethical realismmoral realistmoral realists
Moral skepticism is particularly opposed to moral realism: the view that there are knowable and objective moral truths.
Moral realism (also ethical realism or moral Platonism) is the position that ethical sentences express propositions that refer to objective features of the world (that is, features independent of subjective opinion), some of which may be true to the extent that they report those features accurately.

Philosopher

philosopherssagephilosophical
Earlier, the Scottish philosopher David Hume had put forward a similar view on the difference between facts and values.
In a modern sense, a philosopher is an intellectual who has contributed in one or more branches of philosophy, such as aesthetics, ethics, epistemology, logic, metaphysics, social theory, and political philosophy.

Axiology

axiologicalaxiomevaluative
The field of ethics, along with aesthetics, concerns matters of value, and thus comprises the branch of philosophy called axiology.
It is either the collective term for ethics and aesthetics, philosophical fields that depend crucially on notions of worth, or the foundation for these fields, and thus similar to value theory and meta-ethics.

Socrates

SocraticSokratesSocrate
Virtue ethics describes the character of a moral agent as a driving force for ethical behavior, and it is used to describe the ethics of Socrates, Aristotle, and other early Greek philosophers. Socrates (469–399 BC) was one of the first Greek philosophers to encourage both scholars and the common citizen to turn their attention from the outside world to the condition of humankind.
470 – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher of the Western ethical tradition of thought.

Ancient Greek philosophy

Greek philosophyGreek philosophersGreek philosopher
Socrates (469–399 BC) was one of the first Greek philosophers to encourage both scholars and the common citizen to turn their attention from the outside world to the condition of humankind.
It dealt with a wide variety of subjects, including astronomy, mathematics, political philosophy, ethics, metaphysics, ontology, logic, biology, rhetoric and aesthetics.

Stoicism

StoicStoicsStoic philosophy
The Stoic philosopher Epictetus posited that the greatest good was contentment and serenity.
Stoicism is a philosophy of personal ethics informed by its system of logic and its views on the natural world.

Integrity

wholenesscompetenceDurability
He also stated that sex and sexual desire are to be avoided as the greatest threat to the integrity and equilibrium of a man's mind.
In ethics, integrity is regarded as the honesty and truthfulness or accuracy of one's actions.

Deontological ethics

deontologicaldeontologymoral obligation
Anscombe argues that consequentialist and deontological ethics are only feasible as universal theories if the two schools ground themselves in divine law.
In moral philosophy, deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek δέον, deon, "obligation, duty") is the normative ethical theory that the morality of an action should be based on whether that action itself is right or wrong under a series of rules, rather than based on the consequences of the action.

Courage

braverygallantryvalor
For example, courage is the moderate virtue between the extremes of cowardice and recklessness.
Physical courage is bravery in the face of physical pain, hardship, death or threat of death, while moral courage is the ability to act rightly in the face of popular opposition, shame, scandal, discouragement, or personal loss.

Alasdair MacIntyre

MacIntyreMacIntyre, AlasdairAlasdair C. MacIntyre
Alasdair MacIntyre, who wrote the book After Virtue, was a key contributor and proponent of modern virtue ethics, although some claim that MacIntyre supports a relativistic account of virtue based on cultural norms, not objective standards.
Alasdair Chalmers MacIntyre (born 1929) is a Scottish philosopher, primarily known for his contribution to moral and political philosophy, but also known for his work in history of philosophy and theology.

Wealth

Savingsaffluentwealthy
All other things, such as civic life or wealth, were only made worthwhile and of benefit when employed in the practice of the virtues.
Defining wealth can be a normative process with various ethical implications, since often wealth maximization is seen as a goal or is thought to be a normative principle of its own.

G. E. M. Anscombe

Elizabeth AnscombeG.E.M. AnscombeAnscombe
Modern virtue ethics was popularized during the late 20th century in large part as a response to G.E.M. Anscombe's "Modern Moral Philosophy".
She wrote on the philosophy of mind, philosophy of action, philosophical logic, philosophy of language, and ethics.

Martha Nussbaum

Martha C. NussbaumMartha Craven NussbaumNussbaum, Martha
Martha Nussbaum, a contemporary virtue ethicist, objects to MacIntyre's relativism, among that of others, and responds to relativist objections to form an objective account in her work "Non-Relative Virtues: An Aristotelian Approach".
She has a particular interest in ancient Greek and Roman philosophy, political philosophy, feminism, and ethics, including animal rights.

After Virtue

Alasdair MacIntyre, who wrote the book After Virtue, was a key contributor and proponent of modern virtue ethics, although some claim that MacIntyre supports a relativistic account of virtue based on cultural norms, not objective standards.
He claims that older forms of moral discourse were in better shape, particularly singling out Aristotle's moral philosophy as an exemplar.

Modern Moral Philosophy

Modern virtue ethics was popularized during the late 20th century in large part as a response to G.E.M. Anscombe's "Modern Moral Philosophy".
"Modern Moral Philosophy" is an article on moral philosophy by G. E. M. Anscombe, originally published in the journal Philosophy, vol.