A Homo sapiens idaltu hominid skull
Kibish has the site of oldest fossil of human bones believed to be 195,000 years old along with Omo River. The skull remains are 40,000 older than in Herto, Ethiopia
The Obelisk of Axum dates from the 4th century
Aksumite currency of the Aksumite king called Endubis, 227–35, at the British Museum. The inscriptions in Ancient Greek read "ΑΧΩΜΙΤΩ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ" ("King of Axum") and "ΕΝΔΥΒΙΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ" ("King Endubis"), the Greek language was the lingua franca by that time so its use in coins simplified foreign trade.
The Kingdom of Aksum at its peak in the 6th century
Manuscript illustration by Rashi ad-Din's "World History", depicting the King of Axum rejecting Meccan delegation to yield Muslims in the kingdom
Church of Saint George is one of amongst 11 rock-hewn churches of Zagwe's King Lalibela achievement
Emperor Yekuno Amlak portrait allegedly from the 18th century
Emperor Dawit II (r. 1507–1540), a member of the Solomonic dynasty
The Sultan of Adal (right) and his troops battling Emperor Yagbea-Sion and his men.
Emperor Susenyos I was the first emperor converted to Roman Catholic in 1622, stressing the populace attitude of Orthodox Tewahedo Christianity
Emperor Tewodros II ((r. 1855 – 1868)) brought an end of Zemene Mesafint
The conquests of Emperor Yohannes IV, Negus Menelik and general Ras Alula in 1879–1889
Haile Selassie at his study in Jubilee Palace (1942)
Ethiopian cavalry during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War in 1936
Ras Seyoum Mengesha, Ras Getachew Abate and Ras Kebede Gubret with Benito Mussolini on 6 February 1937 in Rome, Italy, after the Italian occupation of Ethiopia
The Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party (EPRP) clashed with the Derg during the Red Terror
Ethiopian leader Mengistu Haile Mariam (left) with fellow Derg members Tafari Benti (middle) and Atnafu Abate (right). Mengistu was sentenced to death in Ethiopia for crimes committed during his government, which killed up to 500,000 people; he lived in exile in Zimbabwe as of 2018.
Former Prime Minister Meles Zenawi at the 2012 World Economic Forum annual meeting
Former Prime Minister of Ethiopia Hailemariam Desalegn meeting with former US Deputy Secretary of Defense Ash Carter in Addis Ababa.
Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo in 2019
House of People's Representatives is the lower house of the Ethiopian Federal Parliamentary Assembly
Former Foreign Minister of Ethiopia Tedros Adhanom with former U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry
Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed with Israeli President Reuven Rivlin in May 2018
The Ethiopian National Defense Force soldiers during ceremony in Baidoa, Somalia to mark the inclusion of Ethiopia into the African Union peace keeping mission in the country on 22 January 2014
The Ethiopian Federal Police Marching Band performing on annual festival in Meskel Square, Addis Ababa on 16 September 2017
Karo people in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region
Map of regions and zones of Ethiopia
Wonchi Lake at the crossroads between Ambo and Waliso in Oromia Region
Köppen climate classification of Ethiopia
Mountain nyalas in Bale Mountains National Park, one of several wildlife reserves in Ethiopia
Development of GDP per capita
A proportional representation of Ethiopia exports, 2019
Layout of the Grand Renaissance Dam
Tef field near Mojo
Ethiopia Export Treemap from MIT–Harvard Economic Complexity Observatory
Ethiopian Blessed Coffee branded bags in the United States. Coffee is one of main exports of Ethiopia.
Light rail in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
A Boeing 787-8 of Ethiopian Airlines
The subterranean rock-hewn Church of Saint George in Lalibela is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Orthodox priests dancing during the celebration of Timkat
A mosque in Bahir Dar
Street in Addis Ababa
Gondar skyline
Rural area in the Simien Mountains National Park
Street scene in Adigrat
Declining child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa and Ethiopia since 1950
An Ethiopian girl about to receive her measles vaccine
Community health care workers
Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital
Entrance of Addis Ababa University
An Ethiopian woman roasting coffee bean in coffee house. Coffee serving ceremony is the most important course in Ethiopia.
Alwan Codex 27 – Ethiopian biblical manuscript
Illustration showing two Aksumite scribes
The Royal Enclosure at Fasil Ghebbi, Gondar
Giyorgis of Segla, prolific religious author in the Late Middle Ages
Tsegaye Gebre-Medhin in 1980s
Model commemorating the Obelisk of Aksum's return to Ethiopia from Italy, showing the date of its departure and return according to the Ethiopian calendar
Typical Ethiopian cuisine: injera (pancake-like bread) and several kinds of wat (stew)
Meskel commemorates the discovery of True Cross by Roman queen Helena in 326 AD
The Ethiopian Broadcasting Corporation headquarter in Addis Ababa
Aksumite composer Yared credited with forebear of traditional music for both Ethiopia and Eritrea
Mahmoud Ahmed performing in 2005
Hager Fikir Theatre in April 2006
Kenenisa Bekele in 2012. Track and field athletics often prosper Ethiopia to participate in Olympics
Emperor Yekuno Amlak portrait allegedly from the 18th century
Emperor Fasilides (r. 1632–1667) was a major figure of Gondarine period
Emperor Iyoas I (r. 1755–1769) prematurely murdered at his reign by Ras Mikael Sehul in 1769
Semien Mountains landscape, 2009
Genzebe Dibaba middle- and long-distance runner. A 1500 metres 2016 Rio Olympics silver medalist, she won a gold medal in this event and a bronze in the 5000 metres at the 2015 World Championships.

Landlocked country in the Horn of Africa.

- Ethiopia

500 related topics


Kingdom of Aksum

Kingdom centered in Northeast Africa and South Arabia from Classical antiquity to the Early Middle Ages.

The Kingdom of Aksum at its greatest extent in the 6th century.
An Axumite jar spout
The Kingdom of Aksum at its greatest extent in the 6th century.
The King Ezana's Stela, an Aksumite obelisk in Axum, Ethiopia
A 1907 reproduction of the damaged painting Painting of the Six Kings depicting the Ethiopian Emperor of Axum, created by an Umayyad Caliphate painter in the 8th century AD.
The Ezana Stone records negus Ezana's conversion to Christianity and his subjugation of various peoples nearby, including Meroë
Axumite Menhir in Balaw Kalaw (Metera) near Senafe
Fresco of the war of Persian king Khosrow I against Masruq Abraha in Yemen
14th century illustration showing the king of Aksum declining the request of a Meccan delegation to yield up the Muslims. It is also known as First Hegira
Aksum was an important participant in international trade from the 1st century AD (Periplus of the Erythraean Sea) until circa the later part of the 1st millennium when it succumbed to a long decline against pressures from the various Islamic powers leagued against it.
The economically important northern Silk Road and southern Spice (Eastern) trade routes. The sea routes around the horn of Africa and the Indian sub-continent made Aksum an important trading port for nearly a millennium.
An Ethiopian illuminated Evangelist portrait of Mark the Evangelist, from the Ethiopian Garima Gospels, 6th century, Kingdom of Aksum, influenced by Eastern Roman art
Ruins of Al–Qalis Church cathedral built by Abraha in Sana'a between 527 and 560
Typical Aksumite architecture – the monastery of Debre Damo.
Coins of king Endybis, 227–235 AD. British Museum. The left one reads ΑΞΩΜΙΤΩ BICIΔΑΧΥ, possily "man of Dachu, (king) of Axumites", linguistically mixed(?). The right one reads in Greek ΕΝΔΥΒΙC ΒΑCΙΛΕΥC, "King Endybis".
Silver coin of Ezana.
Ruins of the Dungur palace in Axum.
Reconstruction of Dungur
The largest Aksumite stele, broken where it fell.
Aksumite-era Amphora from Asmara.
The Obelisk of Aksum after being returned to Ethiopia.
Model of the Ta'akha Maryam palace.
Aksumite water-spouts in the shape of lion heads.
Aksumite jar with figural spout.
Tombs beneath the stele field.
Entrance to the Tomb Of The False Door.
The Stelae Park in Aksum.
Small stelae in the Gudit Stelae Field
Another stelae field in Aksum.
A Zagwe church at Lalibela in a clear Aksumite style.
Aksumite gold coins.
Aksum stelle and ruins
Aksum stelle in desert
Map of the Axumite holdings in South Arabia, 230 AD
Istifanos Monastery in Hayk.

Based primarily in what is now northern Ethiopia, and spanning modern-day Eritrea, Djibouti and eastern Sudan, it extended at its height into much of modern day southern Arabia during the reign of King Kaleb.

East African Rift

Active continental rift zone in East Africa.

A map of East Africa showing some of the historically active volcanoes (as red triangles) and the Afar Triangle (shaded at the center), which is a so-called triple junction (or triple point) where three plates are pulling away from one another: the Arabian Plate and two parts of the African Plate—the Nubian and Somali—splitting along the East African Rift Zone
Main rift faults, plates, plate boundaries, GPS plate velocities between adjacent blocks and minimum horizontal stress directions
The northeast corner of Jacob's Ford in Israel visualizes the drift of the Arabian Plate against the Nubian Plate
An artificial rendering of the Albertine Rift, which forms the western branch of the East African Rift. Visible features include (from background to foreground): Lake Albert, the Rwenzori Mountains, Lake Edward, the volcanic Virunga Mountains, Lake Kivu, and the northern part of Lake Tanganyika

The EAR transects through Ethiopia, Kenya, Congo DR, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Zambia, Tanzania, Malawi and Mozambique.

Islam in Ethiopia

Second-largest religion in Ethiopia after Christianity, with 31.3 to 35.9 percent of the total population of 117 million people professing the religion as of 2020.

A mosque in Jimma.
Many diverse forms of Islam are practised in Ethiopia.
A traditional home in Harar with a niche adorned with Islamic calligraphy.
A mosque in Mekelle.
Harar, Ethiopia
Gojjam, Ethiopia
A mosque in Bahir Dar.

The Kingdom of Aksum in Ethiopia was the first foreign country to accept Islam when it was unknown in most parts of the world.

Horn of Africa

Large peninsula in East Africa.

The Greater Horn of Africa consist of more than the typical four countries, including also Kenya, Uganda, Sudan and South Sudan.
King Ezana's Stela at Aksum, symbol of the Aksumite civilization.
Ancient trading centers in the Horn of Africa and the Arabian peninsula according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
The citadel in Gondershe, an important city in the medieval Ajuran Sultanate
The Lalibela churches carved by the Zagwe dynasty in the 12th century.
King Fasilides's Castle in Gondar
The Sultanate of Hobyo's cavalry and fort
Map of Africa in 1909. The Horn region is the easternmost projection of the African continent.
Haile Selassie's reign as emperor of Ethiopia is the best known and perhaps most influential in the nation's history.
Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia since 1886.
The Horn of Africa as seen from the NASA Space Shuttle in May 1993. The orange and tan colors in this image indicate a largely arid to semiarid climate.
The Horn of Africa. NASA image
Oryx beisa beisa is found throughout the Horn of Africa
Myrrh, a common resin in the Horn
A woman from Ethiopia carrying her earthenware water jugs
Coffee beans from Ethiopia

It is composed of Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, and Djibouti; broader definitions also include parts or all of Kenya, Sudan, South Sudan, and Uganda.

Northeast Africa

Known in the past, is a geographic regional term used to refer to the countries of Africa situated in and around the Red Sea.

Northeast Africa

The region is intermediate between North Africa and East Africa, and mainly encompasses the Horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Djibouti) and the Sudans (Sudan and South Sudan) as well as Egypt.

Ethiopian Empire

A Kingdom of Aksum jar spout
Contemporary portrait of Yekuno Amlak, founder of the Ethiopian empire
Abyssinian King Yagbea-Sion and his forces (left) battling the Sultan of Adal and his troops (Le Livre des Merveilles, 15th century)
Fasilides Palace
Emperor Tewodros II's rise to the throne marked the end of the Zemene Mesafint.
Menelik II observes the Battle of Adwa against the Italian invasion army in 1896. Le Petit Journal, 1898.
The Emperor's palace, 1934
Haile Selassie was the last Emperor of the Ethiopian Empire.

The Ethiopian Empire, also formerly known by the exonym Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic al-Habash), or just simply known as Ethiopia (Amharic and Tigrinya: ኢትዮጵያ ʾĪtyōṗṗyā, , Oromo: Itoophiyaa, Somali: Itoobiya, Afar: Itiyoophiyaa), was an empire that historically spanned the geographical area of present-day Ethiopia and Eritrea.

Ethiopia–Sudan border

Southeastern delimitation of the border in 1907

The Ethiopia–Sudan border (الحدود الإثيوبية السودانية; የኢትዮ ሱዳን ድንበር ye’ītiyo sudani diniberi) is a disputed border between the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and the Republic of the Sudan since the 19th century.

Tewodros II

Emperor of Ethiopia from 1855 until his death in 1868.

Tewodros II depicted in Histoire de l'Ethiopie d'Axoum à la révolution.
Tewodros II depicted in Histoire de l'Ethiopie d'Axoum à la révolution.
Emperor Tewodros II supervising crossing of the Blue Nile river
Theodore giving audience, surrounded by lions.
The Cross of Emperor Tewodros II.
Ethiopian insurgents paying homage to Emperor Tewodros, circa 1868
European prisoners in Magdala
Departure of the British expeditionary force from Magdala (The Illustrated London News, 1868)
The End of King Tewodros II (The Illustrated London News, 1868)
Emperor Tewodros in the 1860s
Italian depiction of Ras Kassa c. 1850
Location of the four main battles of Ras Kassa from 1853 to 1855
Tewodros on his death bed

His rule is often placed as the beginning of modern Ethiopia and brought an end to the decentralized Zemene Mesafint (Era of the Princes).


Country in the Horn of Africa region of Eastern Africa, with its capital and largest city at Asmara.

Deka Rock Art in Deka Arbaa, Debub region of Eritrea dated to 100,000 years ago
Pre-Axumite monolithic columns in Qohaito
Bronze oil lamp excavated at Matara, dating from the Kingdom of Dʿmt (first century BC or earlier)
Bahta Hagos was an important leader of the Eritrean resistance to foreign domination, specifically against northern Ethiopian and Italian colonialism.
Postcard of the Carabinieri sent from Italian Eritrea in 1907
Piazza Roma in Italian Asmara
Eritrean War of Independence against Ethiopia 1961–1991
A view over Asmara
Map of Eritrea
The Dahlak Archipelago
Pelicans in a pond near Asmara
Eritrean landscape near road to Massawa
President Isaias Afewerki with U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, December 2002
The 23d ISCOE East Africa Conference in Asmara in 2019
Independence Day is one of the most important public holidays in Eritrea.
A map of Eritrea regions. 1.Northern Red Sea, 2.Anseba, 3.Gash-Barka, 4.Central (to right), 5.Southern, 6.Southern Red Sea
Eritrean mountain road
Steam train outside Asmara on the Eritrean Railway
Eritrea's main exports, 2013
A woman and a man in Barentu wearing traditional clothes
Population pyramid of Eritrea 2016
Building of regional administration in Asmara
Asmara, Eritrea in 2015
Traditional Eritrean agudo/tukul huts in a village near Barentu
The Eritrea Institute of Technology
Eritrean pupils in uniform
Eritrean injera with various stews
Eritrean artist Helen Meles
Tour of Eritrea cycling competition in Asmara, Eritrea.

It is bordered by Ethiopia in the south, Sudan in the west, and Djibouti in the southeast.


Country located in the Horn of Africa.

Geometric design pottery found in Asa Koma
Prehistoric rock art and tombs in Djibouti
Queen Ati, wife of King Perahu of Punt, as depicted on Pharaoh Hatshepsut's temple at Deir el-Bahri
Approximate extension of the Kingdom of Adal
The Ifat Sultanate's realm in the 14th century
The Sultan of Adal (right) and his troops battling King Yagbea-Sion and his men
The Ottoman Eyalet in 1566
Map of the French Somali Coast and neighboring regions in 1870
Referendum demonstration in Djibouti in 1967
An aerial view of Djibouti City, the capital of Djibouti
The Front de Libération de la Côte des Somalis (FLCS)
Ahmed Dini Ahmed proclaiming the Djibouti Declaration of Independence on 27 June 1977
President of Djibouti, Ismaïl Omar Guelleh
Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed, Prime Minister of Djibouti
The Djibouti National Assembly in Djibouti City
Maryama base during a martial exercise in the Arta Region
Grand Bara desert in 2017
A map of Djibouti's regions
Djibouti map of Köppen climate classification.
The Djibouti francolin, a critically endangered species living only in Djibouti
Plant species on the Forêt du Day National Park
Djibouti GDP by sector
A proportional representation of Djibouti's exports
Djibouti's gross domestic product expanded by an average of more than 6 percent per year, from US$341 million in 1985 to US$1.5 billion in 2015
Main Terminal at Djibouti–Ambouli International Airport
The Djibouti Telecom headquarters in Djibouti City
Arta Plage on the Gulf of Tadjoura
Entrance to the ISSS Faculty of Medicine in Djibouti City
Djiboutian women participating in the Global Pulse educational initiative (2010)
Traditional wood-carved jar from Oue'a in the Tadjourah region
The oud is a common instrument in traditional Djibouti music.
El Hadj Hassan Gouled Aptidon Stadium in Djibouti City
A plate of sambusas, a popular traditional snack
Lake Assal
Traditional houses on the Mabla Mountains
Lake Abbe
The mountains near Dasbiyo
thumb|Beach south of Djibouti City, overlooking the Gulf of Aden

It is bordered by Somalia in the south, Ethiopia in the southwest, Eritrea in the north, and the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden in the east.