Etymology

etymologicaletymologicallyetymologiesetymologistderivedetymonoriginEtymologistsderivesorigins
Etymology is the study of the history of words.wikipedia
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Semantics

semanticsemanticallymeaning
For languages with a long written history, etymologists make use of texts, and texts about the language, to gather knowledge about how words were used during earlier periods, how they developed in meaning and form, or when and how they entered the language.
The formal study of semantics intersects with many other fields of inquiry, including lexicology, syntax, pragmatics, etymology and others.

Loanword

loanwordsloan wordborrowed
For languages with a long written history, etymologists make use of texts, and texts about the language, to gather knowledge about how words were used during earlier periods, how they developed in meaning and form, or when and how they entered the language.
This is in contrast to cognates, which are words in two or more languages that are similar because they share an etymological origin, and calques, which involve translation.

Semantic change

semantic shiftsemantic driftpejoration
Semantic change may also occur.
The study of semantic change can be seen as part of etymology, onomasiology, semasiology, and semantics.

Historical linguistics

diachronichistorical linguistshistorical linguist
''However, language change has eroded many grammatical elements, such as the noun case system, which is greatly simplified in modern English, and certain elements of vocabulary, some of which are borrowed from French.
Etymology is the study of the history of words: when they entered a language, from what source, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.

Comparative linguistics

comparative philologycomparativecomparative grammar
Etymologists also apply the methods of comparative linguistics to reconstruct information about forms that are too old for any direct information to be available.

Root (linguistics)

rootrootsroot word
In this way, word roots in European languages, for example, can be traced all the way back to the origin of the Indo-European language family.
Roots and reconstructed roots can become the stock-in-trade of etymology.

Cognate

cognatescognationequivalent
derives from one or more South-East Asia and East Indies words for fish sauce or soy sauce, likely by way of Chinese, though the precise path is unclear: Malay, Indonesian, Chinese Min Nan kê-chiap and cognates in other Chinese dialects.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.

Etymologiae

EtymologiesOriginesencyclopedia
Isidore of Seville's Etymologiae was an encyclopedic tracing of "first things" that remained uncritically in use in Europe until the sixteenth century.
Etymology, the origins of words, is prominent, but the work covers among other things grammar, rhetoric, mathematics, geometry, music, astronomy, medicine, law, the Roman Catholic Church and heretical sects, pagan philosophers, languages, cities, animals and birds, the physical world, geography, public buildings, roads, metals, rocks, agriculture, ships, clothes, food and tools.

Isidore of Seville

IsidoreSt. Isidore of SevilleSt. Isidore
Isidore of Seville's Etymologiae was an encyclopedic tracing of "first things" that remained uncritically in use in Europe until the sixteenth century.
His fame after his death was based on his Etymologiae, an etymological encyclopedia which assembled extracts of many books from classical antiquity that would have otherwise been lost.

Encyclopedia

encyclopaediaencyclopedistencyclopedic
Etymologicum genuinum is a grammatical encyclopedia edited at Constantinople in the ninth century, one of several similar Byzantine works.
Generally speaking, unlike dictionary entries—which focus on linguistic information about words, such as their etymology, meaning, pronunciation, use, and grammatical forms—encyclopedia articles focus on factual information concerning the subject named in the article's title.

German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speaking
The Old English roots may be seen in the similarity of numbers in English and German, particularly seven/sieben, eight/acht, nine/neun, and ten/zehn. Pronouns are also cognate: I/mine/me and ich/mein/mich; thou/thine/thee and du/dein/dich; we/wir and us/uns; ''she/sie; your/ihr.
, it is in its 27th edition and in 12 volumes, each covering different aspects such as loanwords, etymology, pronunciation, synonyms, and so forth.

Philology

philologistphilologicalgrammarian
Even though etymological research originally grew from the philological tradition, much current etymological research is done on language families where little or no early documentation is available, such as Uralic and Austronesian.

Yāska

YaskaYasaka
Yaska is the author of the Nirukta, a technical treatise on etymology, lexical category and the semantics of Sanskrit words.

Urdu

Urdu languageUrdu:Hindi
,,,, and come from Urdu, Hindi and ultimately Sanskrit; from Tamil;,, and from Japanese;,,, and from Cantonese.
The etymology of the word used in the Urdu language for the most part decides how polite or refined one's speech is.

Nirukta

nairuktaNirukataNirukta-Nighantu
The analyses of Sanskrit grammar done by the previously mentioned linguists involved extensive studies on the etymology (called Nirukta or Vyutpatti in Sanskrit) of Sanskrit words, because the ancient Indo-Aryans considered sound and speech itself to be sacred and, for them, the words of the sacred Vedas contained deep encoding of the mysteries of the soul and God.
Nirukta covers etymology, and is the study concerned with correct interpretation of Sanskrit words in the Vedas.

Etymological dictionary

etymological dictionarieshistorical dictionary
An etymological dictionary discusses the etymology of the words listed.

Deutsches Wörterbuch

German DictionaryDictionary of GermanGrimm's dictionary
The study of etymology in Germanic philology was introduced by Rasmus Christian Rask in the early 19th century and elevated to a high standard with the German Dictionary of the Brothers Grimm.
Entries cover the etymology, meanings, attested forms, synonyms, usage peculiarities, and regional differences of words found throughout the German speaking world.

False etymology

popular etymologyfalse etymologiesfolk etymology
Such etymologies often have the feel of urban legends, and can be much more colorful and fanciful than the typical etymologies found in dictionaries, often involving stories of unusual practices in particular subcultures (e.g. Oxford students from non-noble families being supposedly forced to write sine nobilitate by their name, soon abbreviated to s.nob., hence the word snob).

Suppletion

suppletivesuppletivismtwo distinct stems
In linguistics and etymology, suppletion is traditionally understood as the use of one word as the inflected form of another word when the two words are not cognate.

Folk etymology

folk etymologiesfolk-etymologicalfolk etymological
The technical term "folk etymology" refers to a change in the form of a word caused by erroneous popular beliefs about its etymology.

Excursus

The thirteenth-century Legenda Aurea, as written by Jacobus de Vorgagine, begins each vita of a saint with a fanciful excursus in the form of an etymology.
Sometimes detailed or fanciful etymologies are used as excursuses.

Bongo-Bongo (linguistics)

Bongo-BongoBongo bongo in linguistics
It is most commonly invoked in etymological studies to conceptualize random similarities between unrelated languages.

Yakov Malkiel

Malkiel, Yakov
Yakov Malkiel (July 22, 1914 – April 24, 1998) was a U.S. (Russian-born) Romance etymologist and philologist.

Phono-semantic matching

a combination of the twodifferent to the original wordGhil'ad Zuckermann
He urges lexicographers and etymologists to recognize the widespread phenomena of camouflaged borrowing and multisourced neologization and not to force one source on multi-parental lexical items.