Eugenics

eugenicisteugeniceugenicistseugenics movementEugenics Societyeugenistnegative eugenicseugenismpositive eugenicsbreeding program
Eugenics (from Greek εὐγενής eugenes 'well-born' from εὖ eu, 'good, well' and γένος genos, 'race, stock, kin') is a set of beliefs and practices that aim to improve the genetic quality of a human population by excluding (through a variety of morally criticized means) certain genetic groups judged to be inferior, and promoting other genetic groups judged to be superior.wikipedia
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Francis Galton

Sir Francis GaltonGaltonGalton, Francis
The definition of eugenics has been a matter of debate since the term was coined by Francis Galton in 1883.
Sir Francis Galton, FRS (16 February 1822 – 17 January 1911) was an English Victorian era statistician, polymath, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, and psychometrician.

History of eugenics

Eugenics
While eugenic principles have been practiced as early as ancient Greece, the contemporary history of eugenics began in the early 20th century, when a popular eugenics movement emerged in the United Kingdom, and then spread to many countries, including the United States, Canada, and most European countries.
The history of eugenics is the study of development and advocacy of ideas related to eugenics around the world.

Eugenics in the United States

sterilizationAmerican eugenics movementeugenics
While eugenic principles have been practiced as early as ancient Greece, the contemporary history of eugenics began in the early 20th century, when a popular eugenics movement emerged in the United Kingdom, and then spread to many countries, including the United States, Canada, and most European countries. The eugenics movement became associated with Nazi Germany and the Holocaust when many of the defendants at the Nuremberg trials attempted to justify their human rights abuses by claiming there was little difference between the Nazi eugenics programs and the U.S. eugenics programs.
Eugenics, the set of beliefs and practices which aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population, played a significant role in the history and culture of the United States during the Progressive Era, from the late 19th century until US involvement in World War II.

Compulsory sterilization

forced sterilizationsterilizationcompulsory sterilisation
Such programs included both positive measures, such as encouraging individuals deemed particularly "fit" to reproduce, and negative measures, such as marriage prohibitions and forced sterilization of people deemed unfit for reproduction. In the decades following World War II, with more emphasis on human rights, many countries began to abandon eugenics policies, although some Western countries, including the United States, Canada, and Sweden among them, continued to carry out forced sterilizations. Later, in the 1920s and 1930s, the eugenic policy of sterilizing certain mental patients was implemented in other countries including Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Japan and Sweden.
In the first half of the 20th century, several such programs were instituted in countries around the world, usually as part of eugenics programs intended to prevent the reproduction of members of the population considered to be carriers of defective genetic traits.

Nazi eugenics

eugenicseugeniceugenics programme
The eugenics movement became associated with Nazi Germany and the Holocaust when many of the defendants at the Nuremberg trials attempted to justify their human rights abuses by claiming there was little difference between the Nazi eugenics programs and the U.S. eugenics programs.
Nazi eugenics (Nationalsozialistische Rassenhygiene, "National Socialist racial hygiene") were Nazi Germany's racially based social policies that placed the biological improvement of the Aryan race or Germanic "Übermenschen" master race through eugenics at the center of Nazi ideology.

New eugenics

Modern bioethicists who advocate new eugenics describe it as a way of enhancing individual traits, regardless of group membership.
New eugenics references eugenics, an ideology that promotes the genetic improvement of a given population by encouraging people with traits that are socially beneficial to reproduce more, and discouraging people who have socially detrimental traits from reproducing.

Compulsory sterilization in Canada

compulsory sterilizationCanadacompulsory sterilization of indigenous peoples
In the decades following World War II, with more emphasis on human rights, many countries began to abandon eugenics policies, although some Western countries, including the United States, Canada, and Sweden among them, continued to carry out forced sterilizations. Later, in the 1920s and 1930s, the eugenic policy of sterilizing certain mental patients was implemented in other countries including Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Japan and Sweden.
Eugenics movements bounced up in many European and American jurisdictions in response to historical, social, scientific, economic, and political processes occurring at the time.

Intelligence quotient

IQIQ testI.Q.
Those deemed "unfit to reproduce" often included people with mental or physical disabilities, people who scored in the low ranges on different IQ tests, criminals and "deviants," and members of disfavored minority groups.
Eugenics, the set of beliefs and practices which aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population, played a significant role in the history and culture of the United States during the Progressive Era, from the late 19th century until US involvement in World War II.

Society for Biodemography and Social Biology

American Eugenics SocietySociety for the Study of Social Biology
Organizations were formed to win public support and sway opinion towards responsible eugenic values in parenthood, including the British Eugenics Education Society of 1907 and the American Eugenics Society of 1921.
The Society formed after the success of the Second International Congress on Eugenics (New York, 1921).

Galton Institute

Eugenics SocietyEugenics Education SocietyBritish Eugenics Society
Organizations were formed to win public support and sway opinion towards responsible eugenic values in parenthood, including the British Eugenics Education Society of 1907 and the American Eugenics Society of 1921.
It was founded by Sybil Gotto in 1907 as the Eugenics Education Society, with the aim of promoting the research and understanding of eugenics.

Biological determinism

genetic determinismbiologismbiological determinist
With the introduction of genetics, eugenics became associated with genetic determinism, the belief that human character is entirely or in the majority caused by genes, unaffected by education or living conditions.
It has been associated with movements in science and society including eugenics, scientific racism, and the debates around the heritability of IQ, the basis of sexual orientation, and sociobiology.

Madison Grant

Grantthis man Goddard
The book The Passing of the Great Race (Or, The Racial Basis of European History) by American eugenicist, lawyer, and amateur anthropologist Madison Grant was published in 1916.
Madison Grant (November 19, 1865 – May 30, 1937) was an American lawyer, writer, and zoologist known primarily for his work as a eugenicist and conservationist as one of the leading thinkers and activists of the Progressive Era.

The Passing of the Great Race

Passing of the Great RaceThe Passing of the Great Race, or the Racial Basis of European HistoryThe Passing of the Great Race; or, The Racial Basis of European History
The book The Passing of the Great Race (Or, The Racial Basis of European History) by American eugenicist, lawyer, and amateur anthropologist Madison Grant was published in 1916.
The Passing of the Great Race: Or, The Racial Basis of European History is a 1916 book by American eugenicist, lawyer, and amateur anthropologist Madison Grant.

International Eugenics Conference

First International Eugenics ConferenceInternational Eugenics Congress Third International Eugenics Congress
Inge was an invited speaker at the 1921 International Eugenics Conference, which was also endorsed by the Roman Catholic Archbishop of New York Patrick Joseph Hayes.
Could not the undesirables be got rid of and the desirables multiplied?” This concept of eugenics - a term he introduced - soon won many adherents, notably in North America and England.

Frederick Osborn

Frederick Henry OsbornFrederick H. Osborn
Frederick Osborn's 1937 journal article "Development of a Eugenic Philosophy" framed it as a social philosophy—a philosophy with implications for social order.
He was a founder of several organizations and played a central part in reorienting eugenics in the years following World War II away from the race- and class-consciousness of earlier periods.

Scientific racism

biological racismscientific racistrace science
In modern usage, the term Eugenics has close ties to scientific racism and white supremacism.
At the 19th century's end, scientific racism conflated Græco–Roman eugenicism with Francis Galton's concept of voluntary eugenics to produce a form of coercive, anti-immigrant government programs influenced by other socio-political discourses and events.

International Federation of Eugenics Organizations

IFEOInternational Federation of Eugenic Organization
In addition to being practiced in a number of countries, eugenics was internationally organized through the International Federation of Eugenics Organizations.
The International Federation of Eugenic Organizations (IFEO) was an international organization of groups and individuals focused on eugenics.

Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics

Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of AnthropologyKWI of Anthropology, Human Heredity and EugenicsKWI-A
Its scientific aspects were carried on through research bodies such as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics, the Cold Spring Harbour Carnegie Institution for Experimental Evolution, and the Eugenics Record Office.
The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics was founded in 1927 in Berlin, Germany.

Halliday Sutherland

Dr Halliday Sutherland
Early critics of the philosophy of eugenics included the American sociologist Lester Frank Ward, the English writer G. K. Chesterton, the German-American anthropologist Franz Boas, who argued that advocates of eugenics greatly over-estimate the influence of biology, and Scottish tuberculosis pioneer and author Halliday Sutherland.
Halliday Gibson Sutherland (1882–1960) was a British physician, author, opponent of eugenics and the producer of Britain's first public health education cinema film in 1911.

Eugenics in Japan

eugenicseugenic improvementsEugenic Protection Act
Later, in the 1920s and 1930s, the eugenic policy of sterilizing certain mental patients was implemented in other countries including Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Japan and Sweden.
Popularity of the pure-blood eugenics theory came from a homegrown racial purity or monoculture national belief that has been part of Japanese society since ancient times.

Marie Stopes

Marie C. StopesMarie Charlotte Carmichael StopesM. C. Stopes
Sutherland identified eugenists as a major obstacle to the eradication and cure of tuberculosis in his 1917 address "Consumption: Its Cause and Cure", and criticism of eugenists and Neo-Malthusians in his 1921 book Birth Control led to a writ for libel from the eugenist Marie Stopes.
Marie Charlotte Carmichael Stopes (15 October 1880 – 2 October 1958) was a British author, palaeobotanist and campaigner for eugenics and women's rights.

Eugenics Record Office

Eugenic Records OfficeEugenics Records Office
Its scientific aspects were carried on through research bodies such as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics, the Cold Spring Harbour Carnegie Institution for Experimental Evolution, and the Eugenics Record Office.
The Eugenics Record Office (ERO), located in Cold Spring Harbor, New York, United States, was a research institute that gathered biological and social information about the American population, serving as a center for eugenics and human heredity research from 1910 to 1939.

Nazi Germany

Third ReichGermanGermany
The eugenics movement became associated with Nazi Germany and the Holocaust when many of the defendants at the Nuremberg trials attempted to justify their human rights abuses by claiming there was little difference between the Nazi eugenics programs and the U.S. eugenics programs.
Nazi ideology brought together elements of antisemitism, racial hygiene, and eugenics, and combined them with pan-Germanism and territorial expansionism with the goal of obtaining more Lebensraum for the Germanic people.

Lancelot Hogben

Lancelot Thomas HogbenHogben, LancelotHogben
Several biologists were also antagonistic to the eugenics movement, including Lancelot Hogben.
He developed the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) as a model organism for biological research in his early career, attacked the eugenics movement in the middle of his career, and popularised books on science, mathematics and language in his later career.

Compulsory sterilisation in Sweden

compulsory sterilizationits lawSweden
Later, in the 1920s and 1930s, the eugenic policy of sterilizing certain mental patients was implemented in other countries including Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Japan and Sweden.
Compulsory sterilisation in Sweden were sterilisations which were carried out in Sweden, without a valid consent of the subject, during the years 1906–1975 on eugenic, medical and social grounds.