Eugenics in the United States

sterilizationAmerican eugenics movementeugenicsUnited Stateseugenics movementAmerican eugenicistseugenicAmerican liberal eugenicismBetter Baby contestsbetter baby" contests
Eugenics, the set of beliefs and practices which aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population, played a significant role in the history and culture of the United States during the Progressive Era, from the late 19th century until US involvement in World War II.wikipedia
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Eugenics

eugenicisteugeniceugenicists
Eugenics, the set of beliefs and practices which aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population, played a significant role in the history and culture of the United States during the Progressive Era, from the late 19th century until US involvement in World War II.
While eugenic principles have been practiced as early as ancient Greece, the contemporary history of eugenics began in the early 20th century, when a popular eugenics movement emerged in the United Kingdom, and then spread to many countries, including the United States, Canada, and most European countries.

Charles Davenport

Charles Benedict DavenportCharles B. DavenportC. B. Davenport
The Eugenics Record Office (ERO) was founded in Cold Spring Harbor, New York in 1911 by the renowned biologist Charles B. Davenport, using money from both the Harriman railroad fortune and the Carnegie Institution.
He was one of the leaders of the American eugenics movement.

Eugenics Record Office

Eugenic Records OfficeEugenics Records Office
The Eugenics Record Office (ERO) was founded in Cold Spring Harbor, New York in 1911 by the renowned biologist Charles B. Davenport, using money from both the Harriman railroad fortune and the Carnegie Institution.
Both its founder, Charles Benedict Davenport, and its director, Harry H. Laughlin, were major contributors to the field of eugenics in the United States.

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
Eugenicists such as Davenport, the psychologist Henry H. Goddard, Harry H. Laughlin, and the conservationist Madison Grant (all of whom were well-respected during their time) began to lobby for various solutions to the problem of the "unfit."
Through the Bureau of Social Hygiene and later funding of Alfred Kinsey, Rockefeller foundations established sex research as a viable discipline in the U.S. Under the influence of the Carnegie-funded Eugenics Record Office, the Draper-funded Pioneer Fund, and other institutions, the eugenics movement also had a significant impact on American psychology; in the 1910s and 1920s, eugenics became a standard topic in psychology classes.

Race Betterment Foundation

In 1906 J.H. Kellogg provided funding to help found the Race Betterment Foundation in Battle Creek, Michigan.
He was the pivotal figure of the American eugenics movement, who made eugenics an underlying principle in many reform crusades of his day through his writing and great influence.

W. E. B. Du Bois

W.E.B. Du BoisW.E.B. DuBoisW. E. B. DuBois
Eugenics was also supported by African American intellectuals such as W. E. B. Du Bois, Thomas Wyatt Turner, and many academics at Tuskegee University, Howard University, and Hampton University; however, they believed the best blacks were as good as the best whites and "The Talented Tenth" of all races should mix.
Also in the 1910s the American eugenics movement was in its infancy, and many leading eugenicists were openly racist, defining Blacks as "a lower race".

David Starr Jordan

D. S. JordanJordanD.S. Jordan
Membership included Alexander Graham Bell, Stanford president David Starr Jordan and Luther Burbank.
He then chaired the first Committee on Eugenics of the American Breeder's Association, from which the California program of forced deportation and sterilization emerged.

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

Cold Spring HarborCold Spring Harbor SymposiumCold Springs Harbor Laboratory
The Eugenics Record Office later became the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory until its closure in 1971.
Between 1910 and 1939, the laboratory was the base of the Eugenics Record Office of biologist Charles B. Davenport and his assistant Harry H. Laughlin, two prominent American eugenicists of the period.

Francis Galton

Sir Francis GaltonGaltonGalton, Francis
The American eugenics movement was rooted in the biological determinist ideas of Sir Francis Galton, which originated in the 1880s.

Rockefeller Foundation

Rockefeller FellowshipRockefellerThe Rockefeller Foundation
The American eugenics movement received extensive funding from various corporate foundations including the Carnegie Institution, Rockefeller Foundation, and the Harriman railroad fortune.

John Harvey Kellogg

Good HealthDr. John Harvey KelloggDr. Kellogg
In 1906 J.H. Kellogg provided funding to help found the Race Betterment Foundation in Battle Creek, Michigan.

Ada Estelle Schweitzer

In Indiana, for example, Ada Estelle Schweitzer, a eugenics advocate and director of the Indiana State Board of Health's Division of Child and Infant Hygiene, organized and supervised the state's Better Baby contests at the Indiana State Fair from 1920 to 1932.
As the director of the Indiana State Board of Health's Division of Child and Infant Hygiene from 1919 to 1933, Schweitzer is best known for organizing and supervising Indiana's Better Baby contests at the Indiana State Fair from 1920 to 1932.

Henry H. Goddard

Henry GoddardH. H. GoddardHenry Herbert Goddard
Eugenicists such as Davenport, the psychologist Henry H. Goddard, Harry H. Laughlin, and the conservationist Madison Grant (all of whom were well-respected during their time) began to lobby for various solutions to the problem of the "unfit."

Immigration Act of 1924

1924Asian Exclusion ActImmigration Act
With the passage of the Immigration Act of 1924, eugenicists for the first time played an important role in the Congressional debate as expert advisers on the threat of "inferior stock" from eastern and southern Europe.
Eugenics was used as justification for the act's restriction of certain races or ethnicities of people in order to prevent the spread of perceived feeblemindedness in American society.

Madison Grant

Grantthis man Goddard
Eugenicists such as Davenport, the psychologist Henry H. Goddard, Harry H. Laughlin, and the conservationist Madison Grant (all of whom were well-respected during their time) began to lobby for various solutions to the problem of the "unfit."

Eugenics in California

California eugenicistsCalifornia's compulsory sterilization lawCalifornia’s 20th century eugenic sterilization program
California eugenicists began producing literature promoting eugenics and sterilization and sending it overseas to German scientists and medical professionals.
Eugenics in California is a notable part of eugenics in America.

American Association for the Study and Prevention of Infant Mortality

The American Association for the Study and Prevention of Infant Mortality was one of the first organizations to begin investigating infant mortality rates in terms of eugenics.
* Eugenics in the United States

Buck v. Bell

Buck vs. BellUS Supreme Court ruling of Buck v. Bell
Sterilization rates across the country were relatively low (California being the sole exception) until the 1927 Supreme Court case Buck v. Bell which legitimized the forced sterilization of patients at a Virginia home for the mentally retarded.

Racial hygiene

racial purityRassenhygienerace hygiene
A Racial Hygiene movement started in Germany in the late 19th century started by Drs.

Harry H. Laughlin

Harry LaughlinHarry Hamilton Laughlin
Eugenicists such as Davenport, the psychologist Henry H. Goddard, Harry H. Laughlin, and the conservationist Madison Grant (all of whom were well-respected during their time) began to lobby for various solutions to the problem of the "unfit." Eugenics researcher Harry H. Laughlin often bragged that his Model Eugenic Sterilization laws had been implemented in the 1935 Nuremberg racial hygiene laws.

Compulsory sterilization

forced sterilizationsterilizationcompulsory sterilisation
In 1907, Indiana passed the first eugenics-based compulsory sterilization law in the world.

Paul Popenoe

Paul B. Popenoe
A favorable report on the results of sterilization in California, the state with the most sterilizations by far, was published in book form by the biologist Paul Popenoe and was widely cited by the Nazi government as evidence that wide-reaching sterilization programs were feasible and humane.

Women of All Red Nations

Women of all Red Nations (WARN)
The organization WARN (Women of All Red Nations) publicized that Native American women were threatened that, if they had more children, they would be denied welfare benefits.
* Eugenics in the United States

Racial Integrity Act of 1924

Racial Integrity Act1924 Racial Integrity Actanti-miscegenation laws
Eugenics researcher Harry H. Laughlin often bragged that his Model Eugenic Sterilization laws had been implemented in the 1935 Nuremberg racial hygiene laws.