Eugenics in the United States

American eugenics movementeugenicseugenics movementUnited StateseugenicAmerican eugenicistsAmerican liberal eugenicismBetter Baby contestsbetter baby" contestseugenic policies
Eugenics, the set of beliefs and practices which aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population, played a significant role in the history and culture of the United States prior to its involvement in World War II.wikipedia
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Eugenics

eugenicisteugeniceugenicists
Eugenics, the set of beliefs and practices which aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population, played a significant role in the history and culture of the United States prior to its involvement in World War II.
While eugenic principles have been practiced as far back in world history as ancient Greece, the modern history of eugenics began in the early 20th century when a popular eugenics movement emerged in the United Kingdom and spread to many countries including the United States, Canada and most European countries.

Charles Davenport

Charles Benedict DavenportCharlesDavenport
The Eugenics Record Office (ERO) was founded in Cold Spring Harbor, New York in 1911 by the renowned biologist Charles B. Davenport, using money from both the Harriman railroad fortune and the Carnegie Institution.
He was one of the leaders of the American eugenics movement.

Eugenics Record Office

Eugenics Records Office
The Eugenics Record Office (ERO) was founded in Cold Spring Harbor, New York in 1911 by the renowned biologist Charles B. Davenport, using money from both the Harriman railroad fortune and the Carnegie Institution.
Both its founder, Charles Benedict Davenport, and its director, Harry H. Laughlin, were major contributors to the field of eugenics in the United States.

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
Eugenicists such as Davenport, the psychologist Henry H. Goddard, Harry H. Laughlin, and the conservationist Madison Grant (all well respected in their time) began to lobby for various solutions to the problem of the "unfit".
Through the Bureau of Social Hygiene and later funding of Alfred Kinsey, Rockefeller foundations established sex research as a viable discipline in the U.S. Under the influence of the Carnegie-funded Eugenics Record Office, the Draper-funded Pioneer Fund, and other institutions, the eugenics movement also had a significant impact on American psychology; in the 1910s and 1920s, eugenics became a standard topic in psychology classes.

W. E. B. Du Bois

W.E.B. Du BoisW.E.B. DuBoisDu Bois
Eugenics was also supported by African American intellectuals such as W. E. B. Du Bois, Thomas Wyatt Turner, and many academics at Tuskegee University, Howard University, and Hampton University; however, they believed the best blacks were as good as the best whites and "The Talented Tenth" of all races should mix.
Also in the 1910s the American eugenics movement was in its infancy, and many leading eugenicists were openly racist, defining Blacks as "a lower race".

David Starr Jordan

D. S. JordanJordanD.S. Jordan
Membership included Alexander Graham Bell, Stanford president David Starr Jordan and Luther Burbank.
He then chaired the first Committee on Eugenics of the American Breeder's Association, from which the California program of forced deportation and sterilization emerged.

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

Cold Spring HarborCSHLCold Spring Harbor Biological Laboratory
The Eugenics Record Office later became the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.
Between 1910 and 1939, the laboratory was the base of the Eugenics Record Office of biologist Charles B. Davenport and his assistant Harry H. Laughlin, two prominent American eugenicists of the period.

Francis Galton

Sir Francis GaltonGaltonGalton, Francis
The American eugenics movement was rooted in the biological determinist ideas of Sir Francis Galton, which originated in the 1880s.
Eugenics in the United States

Rockefeller Foundation

RockefellerRockefeller FellowshipRockefeller Fellow
The American eugenics movement received extensive funding from various corporate foundations including the Carnegie Institution, Rockefeller Foundation, and the Harriman railroad fortune.
Eugenics in the United States

John Harvey Kellogg

Dr. John Harvey KelloggDr. KelloggJ. H. Kellogg
In 1906 J.H. Kellogg provided funding to help found the Race Betterment Foundation in Battle Creek, Michigan.
Eugenics in the United States

Ada Estelle Schweitzer

In Indiana, for example, Ada Estelle Schweitzer, a eugenics advocate and director of the Indiana State Board of Health's Division of Child and Infant Hygiene, organized and supervised the state's Better Baby contests at the Indiana State Fair from 1920 to 1932.
As the director of the Indiana State Board of Health's Division of Child and Infant Hygiene from 1919 to 1933, Schweitzer is best known for organizing and supervising Indiana's Better Baby contests at the Indiana State Fair from 1920 to 1932.

Henry H. Goddard

Henry GoddardH.H. Goddard
Eugenicists such as Davenport, the psychologist Henry H. Goddard, Harry H. Laughlin, and the conservationist Madison Grant (all well respected in their time) began to lobby for various solutions to the problem of the "unfit".
Eugenics in the United States

Madison Grant

Grantthis man Goddard
Eugenicists such as Davenport, the psychologist Henry H. Goddard, Harry H. Laughlin, and the conservationist Madison Grant (all well respected in their time) began to lobby for various solutions to the problem of the "unfit".
Eugenics in the United States

Eugenics in California

California eugenicistsCalifornia’s 20th century eugenic sterilization programeugenic forced sterilizations
California eugenicists began producing literature promoting eugenics and sterilization and sending it overseas to German scientists and medical professionals.
Eugenics in California is a notable part of eugenics in America.

American Association for the Study and Prevention of Infant Mortality

The American Association for the Study and Prevention of Infant Mortality was one of the first organizations to begin investigating infant mortality rates in terms of eugenics.
* Eugenics in the United States

Buck v. Bell

US Supreme Court ruling of Buck v. Bell
Sterilization rates across the country were relatively low (California being the sole exception) until the 1927 Supreme Court case Buck v. Bell which legitimized the forced sterilization of patients at a Virginia home for the mentally retarded.
Eugenics in the United States

Immigration Act of 1924

19241924 Immigration ActImmigration Act
With the passage of the Immigration Act of 1924, eugenicists for the first time played an important role in the Congressional debate as expert advisers on the threat of "inferior stock" from eastern and southern Europe.
Eugenics in the United States

Harry H. Laughlin

Harry Laughlin
Eugenicists such as Davenport, the psychologist Henry H. Goddard, Harry H. Laughlin, and the conservationist Madison Grant (all well respected in their time) began to lobby for various solutions to the problem of the "unfit". Eugenics researcher Harry H. Laughlin often bragged that his Model Eugenic Sterilization laws had been implemented in the 1935 Nuremberg racial hygiene laws.
Eugenics in the United States

Compulsory sterilization

forced sterilizationsterilizationcompulsory sterilisation
In 1907, Indiana passed the first eugenics-based compulsory sterilization law in the world.
Eugenics in the United States

Paul Popenoe

Paul and Betty Popenoe
A favorable report on the results of sterilization in California, the state with the most sterilizations by far, was published in book form by the biologist Paul Popenoe and was widely cited by the Nazi government as evidence that wide-reaching sterilization programs were feasible and humane.
Eugenics in the United States

Women of All Red Nations

Women of all Red Nations (WARN)
The organization WARN (Women of All Red Nations) publicized that Native American women were threatened that, if they had more children, they would be denied welfare benefits.
* Eugenics in the United States

Racial Integrity Act of 1924

Racial Integrity Act1924 Racial Integrity Actanti-miscegenation laws
Eugenics researcher Harry H. Laughlin often bragged that his Model Eugenic Sterilization laws had been implemented in the 1935 Nuremberg racial hygiene laws.
Eugenics in the United States

Society for Biodemography and Social Biology

American Eugenics Society
Society for Biodemography and Social Biology
Eugenics in the United States

Unethical human experimentation in the United States

human experimentationmedical experimentationunethical human experimentation
Unethical human experimentation in the United States
Eugenics in the United States