Eukaryote

EukaryotaeukaryoticeukaryotesEukaryaeukaryotic cellseukaryotic cellanimal celleukaryotic organismscelleucaryote
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea), which have no membrane-bound organelles.wikipedia
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Archaea

archaeonarcheaarchaebacteria
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea), which have no membrane-bound organelles.
Archaeal cells have unique properties separating them from the other two domains, Bacteria and Eukaryota.

Biological membrane

membranemembranesbiological membranes
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea), which have no membrane-bound organelles.
Biological membranes, in the form of eukaryotic cell membranes, consist of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded, integral and peripheral proteins used in communication and transportation of chemicals and ions.

Golgi apparatus

GolgiGolgi complextrans-Golgi network
Eukaryotic cells also contain other membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus, and in addition, some cells of plants and algae contain chloroplasts.
The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.

Prokaryote

prokaryoticprokaryotesprokaryotic cells
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea), which have no membrane-bound organelles.
Species with nuclei and organelles are placed in the third domain, Eukaryota.

Organelle

organellescell organellescell organelle
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea), which have no membrane-bound organelles.
There are many types of organelles, particularly in eukaryotic cells.

Unicellular organism

unicellularsingle-celled organismsingle-celled
Unlike unicellular archaea and bacteria, eukaryotes may also be multicellular and include organisms consisting of many cell types forming different kinds of tissue.
Unicellular organisms fall into two general categories: prokaryotic organisms and eukaryotic organisms.

Chloroplast

chloroplastschloroplast stromaplastoglobuli
Eukaryotic cells also contain other membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus, and in addition, some cells of plants and algae contain chloroplasts.
Chloroplasts, like mitochondria, contain their own DNA, which is thought to be inherited from their ancestor—a photosynthetic cyanobacterium that was engulfed by an early eukaryotic cell.

Chromosome

chromosomeschromosomalChromosomal number
Each gamete has just one set of chromosomes, each a unique mix of the corresponding pair of parental chromosomes resulting from genetic recombination during meiosis.
Most eukaryotic chromosomes include packaging proteins which, aided by chaperone proteins, bind to and condense the DNA molecule to prevent it from becoming an unmanageable tangle.

Genetic recombination

recombinationmeiotic recombinationDNA recombination
Each gamete has just one set of chromosomes, each a unique mix of the corresponding pair of parental chromosomes resulting from genetic recombination during meiosis.
In eukaryotes, genetic recombination during meiosis can lead to a novel set of genetic information that can be passed on from the parents to the offspring.

Organism

organismsflora and faunaliving organisms
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea), which have no membrane-bound organelles.
An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote.

Bacteria

bacteriumbacterialEubacteria
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea), which have no membrane-bound organelles.
Unlike cells of animals and other eukaryotes, bacterial cells do not contain a nucleus and rarely harbour membrane-bound organelles.

Meiosis

meioticsyzygymeiosis I
Eukaryotes can reproduce both asexually through mitosis and sexually through meiosis and gamete fusion.
This process occurs in all sexually reproducing single-celled and multicellular eukaryotes, including animals, plants, and fungi.

Cell division

divisiondaughter cellcellular division
In meiosis, DNA replication is followed by two rounds of cell division to produce four haploid daughter cells.
In eukaryotes, there are two distinct types of cell division: a vegetative division, whereby each daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell (mitosis), and a reproductive cell division, whereby the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells is reduced by half to produce haploid gametes (meiosis).

Cyanobacteria

blue-green algaecyanobacteriumblue green algae
In 1905 and 1910, the Russian biologist Konstantin Mereschkowski (1855–1921) argued that plastids were reduced cyanobacteria in a symbiosis with a non-photosynthetic (heterotrophic) host that was itself formed by symbiosis between an amoeba-like host and a bacterium-like cell that formed the nucleus.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum consisting of free-living bacteria and the endosymbiotic plastids, a sister group to Gloeomargarita, that are present in some eukaryotes.

Mitosis

mitoticmitosesmitotic division
Eukaryotes can reproduce both asexually through mitosis and sexually through meiosis and gamete fusion.
Mitosis occurs only in eukaryotic cells.

Plastid

plastidsproplastidproplastids
In 1905 and 1910, the Russian biologist Konstantin Mereschkowski (1855–1921) argued that plastids were reduced cyanobacteria in a symbiosis with a non-photosynthetic (heterotrophic) host that was itself formed by symbiosis between an amoeba-like host and a bacterium-like cell that formed the nucleus.
The plastid (Greek: πλαστός; plastós: formed, molded – plural plastids) is a membrane-bound organelle found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms.

Lynn Margulis

MargulisDr. Lynn MargulisLyn Margulis
In 1967, Lynn Margulis provided microbiological evidence for endosymbiosis as the origin of chloroplasts and mitochondria in eukaryotic cells in her paper, On the origin of mitosing cells. In the 1970s, Carl Woese explored microbial phylogenetics, studying variations in 16S ribosomal RNA.
In particular, Margulis transformed and fundamentally framed current understanding of the evolution of cells with nuclei – an event Ernst Mayr called "perhaps the most important and dramatic event in the history of life" – by proposing it to have been the result of symbiotic mergers of bacteria.

Cell nucleus

nucleusnucleinuclear
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea), which have no membrane-bound organelles.
nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

Domain (biology)

domaindomainsdomains of life
Eukaryotes belong to the domain Eukaryota or Eukarya.
According to this system, the tree of life consists of three domains: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya.

Three-domain system

three domainsdomainsthree domains of life
The domain Eukaryota is monophyletic and makes up one of the domains of life in the three-domain system.
The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese et al. in 1990 that divides cellular life forms into archaea, bacteria, and eukaryote domains.

Multicellular organism

multicellularmulticellular organismsmulticellularity
Unlike unicellular archaea and bacteria, eukaryotes may also be multicellular and include organisms consisting of many cell types forming different kinds of tissue.
However, complex multicellular organisms evolved only in six eukaryotic groups: animals, fungi, brown algae, red algae, green algae, and land plants.

Endoplasmic reticulum

rough endoplasmic reticulumERsmooth endoplasmic reticulum
In 1987 and later papers, Thomas Cavalier-Smith proposed instead that the membranes of the nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum first formed by infolding a prokaryote's plasma membrane.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.

Asexual reproduction

asexualasexuallyreproduce asexually
Eukaryotes can reproduce both asexually through mitosis and sexually through meiosis and gamete fusion.
Eukaryotes (such as protists and unicellular fungi) may reproduce in a functionally similar manner by mitosis; most of these are also capable of sexual reproduction.

Microtubule

microtubulesmicrotubularmicrotubular-based
They have a variety of internal membrane-bound structures, called organelles, and a cytoskeleton composed of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments, which play an important role in defining the cell's organization and shape.
Microtubules are polymers of tubulin that form part of the cytoskeleton and provide structure and shape to eukaryotic cells.

Microfilament

actin filamentsmicrofilamentsactin filament
They have a variety of internal membrane-bound structures, called organelles, and a cytoskeleton composed of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments, which play an important role in defining the cell's organization and shape.
Microfilaments, also called actin filaments, are filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that form part of the cytoskeleton and are primarily composed of polymers of actin, but in cells are modified by and interact with numerous other proteins.