A report on Euphoria

Playing can induce an intense state of happiness and contentment, like this young girl playing in the snow.
A large dose of methamphetamine causes a drug-induced euphoria.

Experience of pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.

- Euphoria
Playing can induce an intense state of happiness and contentment, like this young girl playing in the snow.

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Cocaine

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Strong central nervous system (CNS) stimulant obtained from the leaves of two Coca species native to South America, Erythroxylum coca and Erythroxylum novogranatense.

Strong central nervous system (CNS) stimulant obtained from the leaves of two Coca species native to South America, Erythroxylum coca and Erythroxylum novogranatense.

Cocaine hydrochloride
Lines of cocaine prepared for snorting
A 2010 study ranking various illegal and legal drugs based on statements by drug-harm experts. Crack cocaine and cocaine was found to be the third and fifth overall most dangerous drugs respectively.
Side effects of chronic cocaine use
A pile of cocaine hydrochloride
A piece of compressed cocaine powder
A woman smoking crack cocaine
"Rocks" of crack cocaine
Biological source of cocaine molecule in the context of the tropane class of molecules. The biological source of each tropane alkaloid is indicated by species, and below that a phylogenetic map is provided.
Biosynthesis of N-methyl-pyrrolinium cation
Biosynthesis of cocaine
Robinson biosynthesis of tropane
Reduction of tropinone
Coca leaf in Bolivia
"Cocaine toothache drops", 1885 advertisement of cocaine for dental pain in children
Advertisement in the January 1896 issue of McClure's Magazine for Burnett's Cocaine "for the hair".
Pope Leo XIII purportedly carried a hip flask of the coca-treated Vin Mariani with him, and awarded a Vatican gold medal to Angelo Mariani.
In this 1904 advice column from the Tacoma Times, "Madame Falloppe" recommended that cold sores be treated with a solution of borax, cocaine, and morphine.
Women purchase cocaine capsules in Berlin, 1929
D.C. Mayor Marion Barry captured on a surveillance camera smoking crack cocaine during a sting operation by the FBI and D.C. Police.
Drug overdoses killed more than 70,200 Americans in 2017, with cocaine overdoses making up 13,942 of those deaths.
United States CBP police inspect a seized shipment of cocaine
The U.S. Coast Guard in Miami offloading confiscated cocaine
Cocaine smuggled in a charango, 2008
Cocaine adulterated with fruit flavoring
Opioid involvement in cocaine overdose deaths. The green line is cocaine and any opioid (top line in 2017). The gray line is cocaine without any opioids (bottom line in 2017). The yellow line is cocaine and other (middle line in 2017).<ref name=NIDA-deaths>{{cite web | url = https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates | title = Overdose Death Rates | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20151128091723/https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates| archive-date=28 November 2015 | work =  By National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) }}</ref>
Delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs based on expert opinion. Cocaine was ranked the 2nd in dependence and physical harm and 3rd in social harm.<ref name="Lancet">{{cite journal|vauthors = Nutt D, King LA, Saulsbury W, Blakemore C|title = Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse|journal = Lancet|volume = 369|issue = 9566|pages = 1047–53|date = March 2007|pmid = 17382831|doi = 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60464-4|s2cid = 5903121|author-link4 = Colin Blakemore|author-link1 = David Nutt }}</ref>
Bottle of cocaine solution, Germany, circa 1915

Mental effects may include an intense feeling of happiness, sexual arousal, loss of contact with reality, or agitation.

Graphical representation of mania, cyclothymia and hypomania

Mania

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Mental and behavioral disorder defined as a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect."

Mental and behavioral disorder defined as a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect."

Graphical representation of mania, cyclothymia and hypomania

Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or dysphoric.

A localized reaction to intravenous morphine caused by histamine release in the veins

Morphine

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Pain medication of the opiate family that is found naturally in opium, a dark brown resin in poppies .

Pain medication of the opiate family that is found naturally in opium, a dark brown resin in poppies .

A localized reaction to intravenous morphine caused by histamine release in the veins
Before the Morphine by Santiago Rusiñol
Morphine Hydrochloride Ampoule for Veterinary Use
Latex bleeding from a freshly-scored seed pod
Morphine biosynthesis in the opium poppy
Chemical structure of morphine. The benzylisoquinoline backbone is shown in green.
Morphine structure showing its standard ring lettering and carbon numbering system.
Same structure, but in a three-dimensional perspective.
First generation production of alkaloids from licit latex-derived opium
Friedrich Sertürner
Advertisement for curing morphine addiction, c. 1900
An ampoule of morphine with integral needle for immediate use. Also known as a "syrette". From WWII. On display at the Army Medical Services Museum.
Example of different morphine tablets
Two capsules (5 mg & 10 mg) of morphine sulfate extended- release
1 milliliter ampoule containing 10 mg of morphine

Activation of the MOR is associated with analgesia, sedation, euphoria, physical dependence, and respiratory depression.

Distilled (concentrated) alcoholic beverages, sometimes called “spirit” or "hard liquor", roughly eight times more alcoholic than beer

Depressant

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Drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.

Drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.

Distilled (concentrated) alcoholic beverages, sometimes called “spirit” or "hard liquor", roughly eight times more alcoholic than beer
Xanax (alprazolam) 2 mg tri-score tablets

When depressants are used, effects often include ataxia, anxiolysis, pain relief, sedation or somnolence, and cognitive or memory impairment, as well as in some instances euphoria, dissociation, muscle relaxation, lowered blood pressure or heart rate, respiratory depression, and anticonvulsant effects.

Bipolar disorder is characterized by episodes of depression and mania.

Bipolar disorder

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Mood disorder characterized by periods of depression and periods of abnormally-elevated happiness that last from days to weeks each.

Mood disorder characterized by periods of depression and periods of abnormally-elevated happiness that last from days to weeks each.

Bipolar disorder is characterized by episodes of depression and mania.
Bipolar mood shifts
An 1892 color lithograph depicting a woman diagnosed with hilarious mania
An 1858 lithograph captioned 'Melancholy passing into mania'
'Melancholy' by William Bagg, after a photograph by Hugh Welch Diamond
Brain imaging studies have revealed differences in the volume of various brain regions between patients with bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects.
Since Emil Kraepelin's distinction between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in the 19th century, researchers have defined a spectrum of different types of bipolar disorder.
Simplified graphical comparison of bipolar I, bipolar II and cyclothymia
Lithium is the only medication approved by the FDA for treating mania in children.
Lithium is often used to treat bipolar disorder and has the best evidence for reducing suicide.
German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin first distinguished between manic–depressive illness and "dementia praecox" (now known as schizophrenia) in the late 19th century.
Singer Rosemary Clooney's public revelation of bipolar disorder made her an early celebrity spokesperson for mental illness.

Mania can present with varying levels of mood disturbance, ranging from euphoria, which is associated with "classic mania", to dysphoria and irritability.

Amphetamine

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Strong central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.

Strong central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.

Amphetamine is also used as an athletic performance enhancer and cognitive enhancer, and recreationally as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant.

Methamphetamine

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Potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.

Potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.

Desoxyn (Methamphetamine Hydrochloride) 100 tablets.
A 2010 study ranking various illegal and legal drugs based on statements by drug-harm experts. Methamphetamine was found to be the fourth most damaging to society.
A suspected case of meth mouth
This diagram depicts the neuroimmune mechanisms that mediate methamphetamine-induced neurodegeneration in the human brain. The NF-κB-mediated neuroimmune response to methamphetamine use which results in the increased permeability of the blood–brain barrier arises through its binding at and activation of sigma receptors, the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), the dysregulation of glutamate transporters (specifically, EAAT1 and EAAT2) and glucose metabolism, and excessive Ca2+ ion influx in glial cells and dopamine neurons.
This illustration depicts the normal operation of the dopaminergic terminal to the left, and the dopaminergic terminal in the presence of methamphetamine to the right. Methamphetamine reverses the action of the dopamine transporter (DAT) by activating TAAR1 (not shown). TAAR1 activation also causes some of the dopamine transporters to move into the presynaptic neuron and cease transport (not shown). At VMAT2 (labeled VMAT), methamphetamine causes dopamine efflux (release).
Shards of pure methamphetamine hydrochloride, also known as crystal meth
Pervitin, a methamphetamine brand used by German soldiers during World War II, was dispensed in these tablet containers.
U.S. drug overdose related fatalities in 2017 were 70,200, including 10,333 of those related to psychostimulants (including methamphetamine).

It is rarely prescribed over concerns involving human neurotoxicity and potential for recreational use as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant, among other concerns, as well as the availability of safer substitute drugs with comparable treatment efficacy such as Adderall and Vyvanse.

Skeletal formula of dopamine

Dopamine

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Neuromodulatory molecule that plays several important roles in cells.

Neuromodulatory molecule that plays several important roles in cells.

Skeletal formula of dopamine
Dopamine processing in a synapse. After release dopamine can either be taken up again by the presynaptic terminal, or broken down by enzymes.
TH: tyrosine hydroxylase
DOPA: L-DOPA
DAT: dopamine transporter
DDC: DOPA decarboxylase
VMAT: vesicular monoamine transporter 2
MAO: Monoamine oxidase
COMT: Catechol-O-methyl transferase
HVA: Homovanillic acid
Major dopamine pathways. As part of the reward pathway, dopamine is manufactured in nerve cell bodies located within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and is released in the nucleus accumbens and the prefrontal cortex. The motor functions of dopamine are linked to a separate pathway, with cell bodies in the substantia nigra that manufacture and release dopamine into the dorsal striatum.
Main circuits of the basal ganglia. The dopaminergic pathway from the substantia nigra pars compacta to the striatum is shown in light blue.
Illustration of dopaminergic reward structures
Dopamine HCl preparation, single dose vial for intravenous administration
Cocaine increases dopamine levels by blocking dopamine transporters (DAT), which transport dopamine back into a synaptic terminal after it has been emitted.
Methamphetamine hydrochloride also known as crystal meth
Dopamine can be found in the peel and fruit pulp of bananas.

A clinical study from January 2019 that assessed the effect of a dopamine precursor (levodopa), dopamine antagonist (risperidone), and a placebo on reward responses to music – including the degree of pleasure experienced during musical chills, as measured by changes in electrodermal activity as well as subjective ratings – found that the manipulation of dopamine neurotransmission bidirectionally regulates pleasure cognition (specifically, the hedonic impact of music) in human subjects.

Alcohol is a widely used and abused psychoactive drug. The global alcoholic drinks market was expected to exceed $1 trillion in 2013. Beer is the third-most popular drink overall, after water and tea.

Psychoactive drug

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Psychoactive_Drugs_Legend.jpg: 1. caffeine

Psychoactive_Drugs_Legend.jpg: 1. caffeine

Alcohol is a widely used and abused psychoactive drug. The global alcoholic drinks market was expected to exceed $1 trillion in 2013. Beer is the third-most popular drink overall, after water and tea.
Zoloft (sertraline) is an SSRI antidepressant.
Timothy Leary was a leading proponent of spiritual hallucinogen use.
Illustration of the major elements of neurotransmission. Depending on its method of action, a psychoactive substance may block the receptors on the post-synaptic neuron (dendrite), or block reuptake or affect neurotransmitter synthesis in the pre-synaptic neuron (axon).
Comparison of the perceived harm for various psychoactive drugs from a poll among medical psychiatrists specialized in addiction treatment (David Nutt et al. 2007).
Historical image of legal heroin bottle

Psychoactive substances often bring about subjective (although these may be objectively observed) changes in consciousness and mood that the user may find rewarding and pleasant (e.g., euphoria or a sense of relaxation) or advantageous in an objectively observable or measurable way (e.g. increased alertness).

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Reward system

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Tuning of appetitive and defensive reactions in the nucleus accumbens shell. (Above) AMPA blockade requires D1 function in order to produce motivated behaviors, regardless of valence, and D2 function to produce defensive behaviors. GABA agonism, on the other hand, does not requires dopamine receptor function.(Below)The expansion of the anatomical regions that produce defensive behaviors under stress, and appetitive behaviors in the home environment produced by AMPA antagonism. This flexibility is less evident with GABA agonism.
Skinner box

The reward system (the mesocorticolimbic circuit) is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., "wanting"; desire or craving for a reward and motivation), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positively-valenced emotions, particularly ones involving pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).