Eurasia

The boundary of the 13th century Mongol Empire and location of today's Mongols in modern Mongolia, Russia and China.
Single markets in European and post-Soviet countries; European Economic Area and Common Economic Space
ASEM Partners
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Area from Lisbon to Vladivostok with all European and CIS countries
Physical map of Asia
Changes in national boundaries after the collapse of the Eastern Bloc

Largest continental area on Earth, comprising all of Europe and Asia.

- Eurasia

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Arctic Ocean

Smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.

The Arctic Ocean, with borders as delineated by the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), including Hudson Bay (some of which is south of 57°N latitude, off the map).
Decrease of old Arctic Sea ice 1982–2007
Thule archaeological site
Emanuel Bowen's 1780s map of the Arctic features a "Northern Ocean".
The Arctic region showing the Northeast Passage, the Northern Sea Route within it, and the Northwest Passage.
A bathymetric/topographic map of the Arctic Ocean and the surrounding lands.
The Arctic region; of note, the region's southerly border on this map is depicted by a red isotherm, with all territory to the north having an average temperature of less than 10 C in July.
Distribution of the major water mass in the Arctic Ocean. The section sketches the different water masses along a vertical section from Bering Strait over the geographic North Pole to Fram Strait. As the stratification is stable, deeper water masses are denser than the layers above.
Density structure of the upper 1200 m in the Arctic Ocean. Profiles of temperature and salinity for the Amundsen Basin, the Canadian Basin and the Greenland Sea are sketched.
A copepod
The Kennedy Channel.
Sea cover in the Arctic Ocean, showing the median, 2005 and 2007 coverage
Three polar bears approach USS Honolulu near the North Pole.
Minke whale
Walruses on Arctic ice floe

The Arctic Ocean is surrounded by Eurasia and North America, and the borders follow topographic features: the Bering Strait on the Pacific side and the Greenland Scotland Ridge on the Atlantic side.

Europe

Statue representing Europa at Palazzo Ferreria, in Valletta, Malta
First map of the world according to Anaximander (6th century BC)
A medieval T and O map printed by Günther Zainer in 1472, showing the three continents as domains of the sons of Noah — Asia to Sem (Shem), Europe to Iafeth (Japheth) and Africa to Cham (Ham)
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A New Map of Europe According to the Newest Observations (1721) by Hermann Moll draws the eastern boundary of Europe along the Don River flowing south-west and the Tobol, Irtysh and Ob rivers flowing north
1916 political map of Europe showing most of Moll's waterways replaced by von Strahlenberg's Ural Mountains and Freshfield's Caucasus Crest, land features of a type that normally defines a subcontinent
Paleolithic cave paintings from Lascaux in France ( 15,000 BCE)
Stonehenge in the United Kingdom (Late Neolithic from 3000 to 2000 BCE).
The Parthenon in Athens (432 BCE)
Animation showing the growth and division of the Roman Empire (years CE)
Viking raids and division of the Frankish Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843
The maritime republics of medieval Italy reestablished contacts between Europe, Asia and Africa with extensive trade networks and colonies across the Mediterranean, and had an essential role in the Crusades.
Tancred of Sicily and Philip II of France, during the Third Crusade (1189–1192)
The sacking of Suzdal by Batu Khan in 1238, during the Mongol invasion of Europe.
The School of Athens by Raphael (1511): Contemporaries, such as Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci (centre), are portrayed as classical scholars of the Renaissance.
Habsburg dominions in the centuries following their partition by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. The principal military base of Philip II in Europe was the Spanish road stretching from the Netherlands to the Duchy of Milan.
The national boundaries within Europe set by the Congress of Vienna
Marshall's Temple Works (1840), the Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain
Map of European colonial empires throughout the world in 1914.
Map depicting the military alliances of World War I in 1914–1918
Serbian war efforts (1914–1918) cost the country one quarter of its population.
Nazi Germany began a devastating World War II in Europe by its leader, Adolf Hitler. Here Hitler, on the right, with his closest ally, the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, in 1940
Bombed and burned-out buildings in Hamburg, 1944/45
The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference in 1945; seated (from the left): Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin
The Schuman Declaration led to the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community. It began the integration process of the European Union (9 May 1950, at the French Foreign Ministry).
Flag of Europe, adopted by the Council of Europe in 1955 as the flag for the whole of Europe
Map of populous Europe and surrounding regions showing physical, political and population characteristics, as per 2018
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Europe.
The Volga, as seen in Yaroslavl. It flows from Central Russia and into the Caspian Sea and is the longest river in Europe.
Mount Elbrus in Southern Russia, is the highest mountain in Europe.
Europa Point as seen from the Strait of Gibraltar, which separates the continents of Europe and Africa, also being between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
The Danube, as seen in Đerdap National Park. It flows from the Black Forest and into the Black Sea and is the second-longest river in Europe, which also passes through the largest number of countries in the world at 10.
Sutjeska National Park contains Perućica, which is one of the last remaining primeval forests in Europe.
Land use map of Europe with arable farmland (yellow), forest (dark green), pasture (light green) and tundra, or bogs, in the north (dark yellow)
Floristic regions of Europe and neighbouring areas, according to Wolfgang Frey and Rainer Lösch
Biogeographic regions of Europe and bordering regions
A brown bear near the Russian border in the forests of Kainuu, Finland
Once roaming the great temperate forests of Eurasia, European bison now live in nature preserves in Białowieża Forest, on the border between Poland and Belarus.
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Fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989.
Eurozone (blue colour)
One of Kosovo's main economical sources is mining, because it has large reserves of lead, zinc, silver, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron and bauxite. Miners at the Trepča Mines in Mitrovica, Kosovo in 2011.
Population growth in and around Europe in 2021
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Map purportedly displaying the European continent split along cultural and state borders as proposed by the German organization Ständiger Ausschuss für geographische Namen (StAGN).
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Tallinn, the medieval capital of Estonia in the Baltic States, is a mixture of Western and Eastern architectural cultures.
Surficial geology of Europe

Europe is a continent, also recognised as a part of Eurasia, located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

Russian Empire

A painting depicting the Battle of Narva (1700) in the Great Northern War
Peter the Great officially renamed the Tsardom of Russia as the Russian Empire in 1721 and became its first emperor. He instituted sweeping reforms and oversaw the transformation of Russia into a major European power. (Painting made after 1717.)
Empress Catherine the Great, who reigned from 1762 to 1796, continued the empire's expansion and modernization. Considering herself an enlightened absolutist, she played a key role in the Russian Enlightenment. (Painted in the 1780s.)
Catherine II Sestroretsk Rouble (1771) is made of solid copper measuring 77 mm (diameter), 26 mm (thickness), and weighs 1.022 kg.
An 1843 painting imagining Russian general Pyotr Bagration, giving orders during the Battle of Borodino (1812) while wounded
The Imperial Standard of the Tsar between from 1858 to 1917. Previous variations of the black eagle on gold background were used as far back as Peter the Great's time.
Franz Roubaud's 1893 painting of the Erivan Fortress siege in 1827 by the Russian forces under leadership of Ivan Paskevich during the Russo-Persian War (1826–28)
The eleven-month siege of a Russian naval base at Sevastopol during the Crimean War
Russian troops taking Samarkand (8 June 1868)
Russian troops entering Khiva in 1873
Capturing of the Ottoman Turkish redoubt during the Siege of Plevna (1877)
Russian troops fighting against Ottoman troops at the Battle of Shipka Pass (1877)
A scene from the First Russian Revolution, by Ilya Repin
Russian soldiers in combat against Japanese at Mukden (inside China), during the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905)
Patriarch Tikhon of Moscow in 1917
Map of the Russian Empire in 1912
Ethnic map of European Russia before World War I
Map of governorates of the western Russian Empire in 1910
Map showing subdivisions of the Russian Empire in 1914
1814 artwork depicting the Russian warship Neva and the Russian settlement of St. Paul's Harbor (present-day Kodiak town), Kodiak Island
Nicholas II was the last Emperor of Russia, reigning from 1894 to 1917.
This painting from circa 1847 depicts the building on Palace Square opposite the Winter Palace, which was the headquarters of the Army General Staff. Today, it houses the headquarters of the Western Military District/Joint Strategic Command West.
The Catherine Palace, located at Tsarskoe Selo, was the summer residence of the imperial family. It is named after Empress Catherine I, who reigned from 1725 to 1727. (Watercolor painting from the 19th century.)
The Senate and Synod headquarters – today the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation on Senate Square in Saint Petersburg
Residence of the Governor of Moscow (1778–82) as seen in 2015
The Moscow City Duma circa 1900 (colorized photograph)
100 ruble banknote (1910)
Russian and US equities, 1865 to 1917
Watercolor-tinted lithgraph, from the 1840s, depicting the arrival of the first Tsarskoye Selo Railway train at Tsarskoye Selo from St. Petersburg on 30 October 1837.
The Kazan Cathedral in Saint Petersburg was constructed between 1801 and 1811, and prior to the construction of Saint Isaac's Cathedral was the main Orthodox Church in Imperial Russia.
Map of subdivisions of the Russian Empire by largest ethnolinguistic group (1897)
Contemporary painting of the procession of Emperor Alexander II into Dormition Cathedral in Moscow during his coronation in 1856
This 1892 painting imagines a scene of Russian troops forming a bridge with their bodies, moving equipment to prepare for invading Persian forces during the Russo-Persian War (1804–13), which occurred contemporaneously with the French invasion of Russia.
1892 painting depicting Imperial Russian Navy Brig "Mercury" Attacked by Two Turkish Ships in a scene from the Russo-Turkish War (1828–29), by Ivan Aivazovsky
1856 painting imagining the announcement of the coronation of Alexander II that year.
The 1916 painting Maslenitsa by Boris Kustodiev, depicting a Russian city in winter
Young Russian peasant women in front of a traditional wooden house (c. 1909 to 1915), photograph taken by Prokudin-Gorskii
Peasants in Russia (photograph taken by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky in 1909)

The Russian Empire, also known as Imperial Russia, was an empire that extended across Eurasia from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War.

Baltica

Outline of Baltica
1.1 Ga Baltica was located in what is now the South Pacific. (Current location of Australia added for reference.)
550 million years ago Baltica (green) was an isolated continent located near the South Pole.

Baltica is a paleocontinent that formed in the Paleoproterozoic and now constitutes northwestern Eurasia, or Europe north of the Trans-European Suture Zone and west of the Ural Mountains.

Iberian Peninsula

Iberian Peninsula and southern France, satellite photo on a cloudless day in March 2014
Northeast Iberian script from Huesca
A model recreating the Chalcolithic settlement of Los Millares
Iberia before the Carthaginian conquests circa 300 BC.
An instance of the Southwest Paleohispanic script inscribed in the Abóbada I stele.
Roman conquest: 220 BC - 19 BC
Germanic and Byzantine rule c. undefined 560
Islamic rule: al-Andalus c. undefined 1000
Two warriors embrace before the siege of Chincoya Castle (Cantigas de Santa Maria).
Map of the Iberian Peninsula and Northern Africa (inverted) by Fra Mauro (ca. 1450)
Iberian Kingdoms in 1400
Expelling of the moriscos in the Port of Denia
An anonymous picture depicting Lisbon, the centre of the slave trade, by the late 16th century.
Physical map of the Iberian Peninsula
Discharge of the Douro into the Atlantic Ocean near Porto
The Mulhacén, the highest peak in the Iberian Peninsula
Major Geologic Units of the Iberian Peninsula
Köppen climate types of Iberia
Satellite image of Iberia at night
An Iberian lynx

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is a peninsula in southwestern Europe, defining the westernmost edge of Eurasia.

Asia

Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

Map of the most populous part of Asia showing physical, political and population characteristics, as per 2018
Definitions used for the boundary between Europe and Asia in different periods of History. The commonly accepted modern definition mostly fits with the lines "B" and "F" in this image.
Afro-Eurasia shown in green
Ptolemy's Asia
The province of Asia highlighted (in red) within the Roman Empire.
The Silk Road connected civilizations across Asia
The Mongol Empire at its greatest extent. The gray area is the later Timurid Empire.
The Himalayan range is home to some of the planet's highest peaks.
Division of Asia into regions by the UNSD
Graph showing temperature change in Asia from 1901 to 2021. Climate change is having major impacts on many countries in the continent.
Singapore has one of the busiest container ports in the world and is the world's fourth largest foreign exchange trading center.
Mumbai is one of the most populous cities on the continent. The city is an infrastructure and tourism hub, and plays a crucial role in the economy of India.
Wat Phra Kaew in the Grand Palace is among Bangkok's major tourist attractions.
Graph showing population by continent as a percentage of world population (1750–2005)
The Western Wall and the Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem
The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem
Pilgrims in the annual Hajj at the Kaabah in Mecca.
The Swaminarayan Akshardham Temple in Delhi, according to the Guinness World Records is the World's Largest Comprehensive Hindu Temple
The Hindu-Buddhist temple of Angkor Wat in Cambodia, the largest religious monument in the world
A refugee special train in Ambala, Punjab during the partition of India in 1947
US forces drop Napalm on suspected Viet Cong positions in 1965
Wounded civilians arrive at a hospital in Aleppo during the Syrian Civil War, October 2012
Demonstrations in Hong Kong against the Extradition bill began in March 2019 and turned into continuing mass movements, drawing around 2 million protesters by June
Indian polymath Rabindranath Tagore was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913, and became Asia's first Nobel laureate.
From 1841 to 1997, Hong Kong was a British colony.
The threefold division of the Old World into Europe, Asia and Africa has been in use since the 6th century BC, due to Greek geographers such as Anaximander and Hecataeus.
1825 map of Asia by Sidney Edwards Morse.
Map of western, southern, and central Asia in 1885<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.wdl.org/en/item/11753/#institution=library-of-congress&page=17 |title=A Map of the Countries between Constantinople and Calcutta: Including Turkey in Asia, Persia, Afghanistan and Turkestan |website=Wdl.org |access-date=9 November 2017 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171017220525/https://www.wdl.org/en/item/11753/#institution=library-of-congress&page=17 |archive-date=17 October 2017 |year=1885 }}</ref>
The map of Asia in 1796, which also included the continent of Australia (then known as New Holland).
1890 map of Asia
Kerala backwaters
Mongolian steppe
South China Karst
Altai Mountains
Hunza Valley
Atolls of the Maldives
Wadi Rum in Jordan
Japanese wedding at the Meiji Shrine
Hindu festival celebrated by Singapore's Tamil community
Bar mitzvah at the Western Wall in Jerusalem
Catholic procession of the Black Nazarene in Manila
Druze dignitaries celebrating the Ziyarat al-Nabi Shu'ayb festival at the tomb of the prophet in Hittin
Christian Armenians praying at the Etchmiadzin Cathedral in Vagharshapat
Muslim men praying at the Ortaköy Mosque in Istanbul
Buddhist Monks performing traditional Sand mandala made from coloured sand

It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe, and the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with Africa and Europe.

Eurasian Economic Union

Meeting of the leaders of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in Bishkek, 2008. The CIS initiated the lengthy process of Eurasian integration.
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Current decision-making process of the Eurasian Customs Union and the Single Economic Space
Selection of GDP PPP data (top 10 countries and blocs) in no particular order
The Moscow International Business Center is a commercial district in Moscow that is currently under construction. The complex includes some of Europe's tallest skyscrapers.
A silver altyn minted in 1711 during the reign of Peter the Great
The Trans-Siberian Railway is a vital link between the Russian Far East and the rest of Eurasia.
The Turkestan–Siberia Railway connects the Central Asian republics to Siberia.
A Rye Field by Ivan Shishkin
Past and projected GDP (nominal) per capita in EAEU countries.
Free trade agreements of EEU. Red - EEU. Green - Countries that have FTA with EEU.
On 21 May 2014, Russia and China signed a $400 billion gas deal. Starting 2019, Russia plans to provide natural gas to China for the next 30 years.
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Ilham Aliyev, Dmitry Medvedev and Serzh Sarkisian hold peace talks in Moscow on 2 November 2008.
Mount Elbrus – Russia
Mountain range – Armenia
Lama River – in the Moscow region of Russia
Sharyn Canyon – Kazakhstan
On the southern shore of Issyk-Kul lake, Issyk-Kul Region – Kyrgyzstan
Winter – Belarus
A view of Mount Aragats from Aragatsotn – Armenia
A view of Mount Mönkh Saridag – Okinsky District, Russia
Lake Ayger – Armenia
Lake Servech – Belarus
Winter in the Altai Krai – Russia
Tian Shan mountain range – Kyrgyzstan
Saint Petersburg, the second-largest city and cultural capital of Russia
Yerevan, the capital and financial hub of Armenia
Business centre in central downtown Nur-Sultan
Almaty, the major commercial and cultural centre of Kazakhstan
Bishkek, the capital and financial hub of Kyrgyzstan

The Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU or EEU) is an economic union of some post-Soviet states located in Eurasia.

Collective Security Treaty Organization

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The CSTO meeting in Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan, 8 November 2018
Stamp of Kazakhstan, 2012

The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO; Организация Договора о коллективной безопасности; ОДКБ) is an intergovernmental military alliance in Eurasia.

Continent

Any of several large landmasses.

Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. Depending on the convention and model, some continents may be consolidated or subdivided: for example, Eurasia is most often subdivided into Asia and Europe (red shades), while North and South America are sometimes recognised as one American continent (green shades)
Map of island countries: these states are often grouped geographically with a neighbouring continental landmass
Reconstruction of the supercontinent Pangaea approximately 200 million years ago.
The Indian subcontinent
The Ancient Greek geographer Strabo holding a globe showing Europa and Asia
Medieval T and O map showing the three continents as domains of the sons of Noah—Asia to Sem (Shem), Europe to Iafeth (Japheth), and Africa to Cham (Ham).
Universalis Cosmographia, Waldseemüller's 1507 world map—the first to show the Americas separate from Asia
Hollandia Nova, 1659 map prepared by Joan Blaeu based on voyages by Abel Tasman and Willem Jansz, this image shows a French edition of 1663
Principal tectonic plates of the continents and the floor of the oceans

Variations with fewer continents may merge some of these, for example some systems include Afro-Eurasia, the Americas or Eurasia as single continents.

Eastern Hemisphere

Half of Earth which is east of the prime meridian and west of the antimeridian (which crosses the Pacific Ocean and relatively little land from pole to pole).

Eastern Hemisphere

It is also used to refer to Afro-Eurasia (Africa and Eurasia) and Australia, in contrast with the Western Hemisphere, which includes mainly North and South America.