Approximate extent of Scythia within the area of distribution of Eastern Iranian languages (shown in orange) in the 1st century BC
Kyrgyz Khaganate
Meeting of the leaders of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in Bishkek, 2008. The CIS initiated the lengthy process of Eurasian integration.
Cuman–Kipchak confederation in Eurasia circa 1200. The Kazakhs are descendants of Kipchaks, Nogais and other Turkic and medieval Mongol tribes
Silk road caravansarai utilized during the Islamic Golden Age
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Ural Cossacks skirmish with Kazakhs (the Russians originally called the Kazakhs "Kirgiz")
Bishkek
Current decision-making process of the Eurasian Customs Union and the Single Economic Space
Map of the Kazakh Territory in 1903
Urial on a Kyrgyzstan stamp
Selection of GDP PPP data (top 10 countries and blocs) in no particular order
Stanitsa Sofiiskaya, Talgar. 1920s
Nomads in Kyrgyzstan
The Moscow International Business Center is a commercial district in Moscow that is currently under construction. The complex includes some of Europe's tallest skyscrapers.
Young Pioneers at a Young Pioneer camp in Kazakh SSR
Kyrgyz family in the village of Sary-Mogol, Osh Region
A silver altyn minted in 1711 during the reign of Peter the Great
The International Conference on Primary Health Care in 1978, known as the Alma-Ata Declaration
Kyrgyzstan's second-largest city, Osh, in 2018
The Trans-Siberian Railway is a vital link between the Russian Far East and the rest of Eurasia.
The Monument of Independence, Republic Square, Almaty
Kyrgyzstan's topography
The Turkestan–Siberia Railway connects the Central Asian republics to Siberia.
Satellite image of Kazakhstan (November 2004)
On the southern shore of Issyk Kul lake, Issyk Kul Region
A Rye Field by Ivan Shishkin
The Kazakh Steppe is part of the Eurasian Steppe Belt (in on the map)
A map of Kyrgyzstan
Past and projected GDP (nominal) per capita in EAEU countries.
Karaganda Region
Kyrgyzstan map of Köppen climate classification
Free trade agreements of EEU. Red - EEU. Green - Countries that have FTA with EEU.
Kazakhstan map of Köppen climate classification
Sadyr Japarov, President of Kyrgyzstan
On 21 May 2014, Russia and China signed a $400 billion gas deal. Starting 2019, Russia plans to provide natural gas to China for the next 30 years.
Corsac fox
Supreme Council building in Bishkek.
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Ak Orda Presidential Palace
Japarov with Vladimir Putin.
Ilham Aliyev, Dmitry Medvedev and Serzh Sarkisian hold peace talks in Moscow on 2 November 2008.
Parliament of Kazakhstan
President Sooronbay Jeenbekov at the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation summit in China, June 2018
Mount Elbrus – Russia
Nur Otan Headquarters in Nur-Sultan
Kyrgyz soldiers conducting mine sweeping exercises.
Mountain range – Armenia
President Nazarbayev with U.S. President Barack Obama and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in 2012
A proportional representation of Kyrgyzstan exports, 2019
Lama River – in the Moscow region of Russia
President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev with 
Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2019
Southern shore of Issyk Kul Lake.
Sharyn Canyon – Kazakhstan
Member states of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO)
Issyk Kul Lake
On the southern shore of Issyk-Kul lake, Issyk-Kul Region – Kyrgyzstan
Kazakhstan Republican Guard
A population pyramid showing Kyrgyzstan's age distribution (2005).
Winter – Belarus
A Kazakhstan Sukhoi Su-27
Population density of Kyrgyzstan, 2015
A view of Mount Aragats from Aragatsotn – Armenia
Downtown Nur-Sultan
Kyrgyz men in Naryn Region
A view of Mount Mönkh Saridag – Okinsky District, Russia
GDP per capita development, since 1973
Uzbeks in Osh
Lake Ayger – Armenia
A proportional representation of Kazakhstan exports, 2019
The name of Kyrgyzstan rendered in the traditional script in use from 13th century to 1920.
Lake Servech – Belarus
Aktau is Kazakhstan's only seaport on the Caspian Sea
Karakol Dungan Mosque
Winter in the Altai Krai – Russia
A map of Kazakhstan's imports, 2013
Bishkek Eastern Orthodox Church
Tian Shan mountain range – Kyrgyzstan
Kazakhstan has the largest proven oil reserves in the Caspian Sea region.
Mosque under construction in Kyrgyzstan
Saint Petersburg, the second-largest city and cultural capital of Russia
Grain fields near Kokshetau
Musicians playing traditional Kyrgyz music.
Yerevan, the capital and financial hub of Armenia
Map of Kazakhstan railway network
A traditional Kyrgyz manaschi performing part of the Epic of Manas at a yurt camp in Karakol
Business centre in central downtown Nur-Sultan
Train 22 Kyzylorda – Semipalatinsk, hauled by a Kazakhstan Temir Zholy 2TE10U diesel locomotive. Picture taken near Aynabulak, Kazakhstan
Hunting with an eagle
Almaty, the major commercial and cultural centre of Kazakhstan
Borovoe, view from Mount Bolectau
Bandy: Kyrgyzstan in red against Japan
Bishkek, the capital and financial hub of Kyrgyzstan
A ski resort in Almaty
Bishkek West Bus Terminal
Member States of the Eurasian Economic Union
Observer states
Candidate states
Astana Expo 2017 "Nur Alem" Pavilion
Street scene in Osh.
Almaty
Trends in research expenditure in Central Asia, as a percentage of GDP, 2001–2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: 2030 (2015), Figure 14.3
Group of Kazakhstan physicists in collaboration with Uzbek researchers working at the ion accelerator DC-60
Baikonur Cosmodrome is the world's oldest and largest operational spaceport
Population pyramid, 2020
Central Asian ethnolinguistic patchwork, 1992
Kazakhstanis on a Lake Jasybay beach, Pavlodar Region
Ascension Cathedral in Almaty
Khazret Sultan Mosque is the biggest mosque in Kazakhstan
Kazakh National University of Arts
A Kazakhstan performer demonstrates the long equestrian heritage as part of the gala concert during the opening ceremonies of the Central Asian Peacekeeping Battalion
Kanysh Satpayev, one of the founders of Soviet era metallogeny, principal advocate and the first president of Kazakhstan Academy of Sciences
1965 Soviet stamp honouring Kazakh essayist and poet Abai Qunanbaiuly
Nowruz on stamp of Kazakhstan
A-Studio was created in 1982 in Almaty, then called Alma-Ata, hence called "Alma-Ata Studio"
Astana Arena opened in 2009
Nikolai Antropov
International Astana Action Film Festival, 2010
Timur Bekmambetov, a notable Kazakh director

It borders Russia to the north and west, China to the east, Kyrgyzstan to the southeast, Uzbekistan to the south, and Turkmenistan to the southwest.

- Kazakhstan

Kyrgyzstan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west, Tajikistan to the south, and the People's Republic of China to the east. Its capital and largest city is Bishkek.

- Kyrgyzstan

The Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union was signed on 29 May 2014 by the leaders of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia, and came into force on 1 January 2015.

- Eurasian Economic Union

Treaties aiming for Armenia's and Kyrgyzstan's accession to the Eurasian Economic Union were signed on 9 October and 23 December 2014, respectively.

- Eurasian Economic Union

Kazakhstan is a member state of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Eurasian Economic Union, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, the Organization of Turkic States, and the International Organization of Turkic Culture.

- Kazakhstan

Kyrgyzstan is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Eurasian Economic Union, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Organisation of Turkic States, the Türksoy community and the United Nations.

- Kyrgyzstan

3 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Commonwealth of Independent States

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Regional intergovernmental organization in Eastern Europe and Asia.

Regional intergovernmental organization in Eastern Europe and Asia.

Signing of the agreement to establish the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), 8 December 1991
The 20–22 June 2000 CIS Summit
Member states:
Meeting of CIS leaders in Bishkek, 2008
The members of the council meeting in Moscow in 2017

Three organizations originated from the CIS, namely the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Eurasian Economic Union (alongside subdivisions, the Eurasian Customs Union and the Eurasian Economic Space); and the Union State.

On 21 December 1991, the leaders of eight additional former Soviet Republics (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) signed the Alma-Ata Protocol which can either be interpreted as expanding the CIS to these states or the proper foundation or foundation date of the CIS, thus bringing the number of participating countries to 11.

Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987

Dissolution of the Soviet Union

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The process of internal disintegration within the Soviet Union (USSR) which resulted in the end of the country's and its federal government's existence as a sovereign state, thereby resulting in its constituent republics gaining full sovereignty.

The process of internal disintegration within the Soviet Union (USSR) which resulted in the end of the country's and its federal government's existence as a sovereign state, thereby resulting in its constituent republics gaining full sovereignty.

Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987
The first exhibition on the crimes of Stalinism, called "Week of Conscience", was held in Moscow on November 19, 1988
Environmental concerns over the Metsamor nuclear power plant drove initial demonstrations in Yerevan.
Figure of Liberty on the Freedom Monument in Riga, focus of the 1986 Latvian demonstrations
Anti-Soviet rally in Vingis Park of about 250,000 people. Sąjūdis was a movement which led to the restoration of an Independent State of Lithuania.
Andrei Sakharov, formerly exiled to Gorky, was elected to the Congress of People's Deputies in March 1989.
The Eastern Bloc
Baltic Way 1989 demonstration in Šiauliai, Lithuania showing coffins decorated with national flags of the three Baltic republics placed symbolically beneath Soviet and Nazi flags
Photos of victims (mostly young women) of an April 1989 massacre in Tbilisi, Georgia
Meeting in Kurapaty, Belarus, 1989
Nursultan Nazarbayev became leader of the Kazakh SSR in 1989 and later led Kazakhstan to independence.
Lithuania's Vytautas Landsbergis
Estonia's Edgar Savisaar
Latvia's Ivars Godmanis
Azerbaijani stamp with photos of Black January
Viacheslav Chornovil, a prominent Ukrainian dissident and a lead figure of Rukh
Leonid Kravchuk became Ukraine's leader in 1990.
Saparmurat Niyazov, last head of the Turkmen SSR and first president of Turkmenistan
Following Georgia's declaration of independence in 1991, South Ossetia and Abkhazia declared their desire to leave Georgia and remain part of the Soviet Union/Russia.
Boris Yeltsin, Russia's first democratically elected president
Barricade erected in Riga to prevent the Soviet Army from reaching the Latvian Parliament, July 1991
Tanks in Red Square during the 1991 August coup attempt
Signing of the agreement to establish the Commonwealth of Independent States, 8 December
The state emblem of the Soviet Union and the СССР letters (top) in the façade of the Grand Kremlin Palace were replaced by five double-headed Russian eagles (bottom) after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the eagles having been removed by the Bolsheviks after the revolution.
The upper chamber of the Supreme Soviet in its ultimate session, voting the USSR out of existence, December 26
Russian GDP since the end of the Soviet Union (from 2014 are forecasts)
Russian male life expectancy, 1980–2007
Animated map showing independent states and territorial changes to the Soviet Union in chronological order
Pro-Russian separatists in Donetsk celebrate the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany, May 9, 2018
Changes in national boundaries after the end of the Cold War

Kazakhstan was the last nation to leave the Union, proclaiming independence on December 16.

In the aftermath of the Cold War, several of the former Soviet republics have retained close links with Russia and formed multilateral organizations such as the CIS, the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO), the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), and the Union State, for economic and military cooperation.

Members of the Unified Team at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona consisted of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.

Central Asia

0 links

Subregion of Asia that stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north.

Subregion of Asia that stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north.

Expanded definition of Central Asia. Core definition that includes the five post-Soviet states in dark green. Afghanistan, the most commonly added country to Central Asia, in green.
Three sets of possible boundaries for the Central Asia region (which overlap with conceptions of South and East Asia).
On the southern shore of Issyk Kul lake, Issyk Kul Region.
Central Asia map of Köppen climate classification.
Iranian-speaking people circa 170 BC. Eastern Iranian languages are in orange, Western Iranian languages are in red.
Uzbek men from Khiva, ca. 1861–1880
The Chinese Tang dynasty at its greatest extension, controlling large parts of Central Asia.
The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, 1979
Mosque in Petropavlovsk, Kazakhstan
Saadi Shirazi is welcomed by a youth from Kashgar during a forum in Bukhara.
Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi in Hazrat-e Turkestan, Kazakhstan. Timurid architecture consisted of Persian art.
Kazakh man on a horse with golden eagle
GDP growth trends in Central Asia, 2000–2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 14.1
GDP in Central Asia by economic sector, 2005 and 2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030, Figure 14.2
GDP per capita development in Central Asia, since 1973
Trends in research expenditure in Central Asia, as a percentage of GDP, 2001–2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: 2030 (2015), Figure 14.3
Central Asian researchers by sector of employment (HC), 2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 14.5
Central Asian researchers by field of science, 2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 14.4
Scientific publications from Central Asia catalogued by Thomson Reuters' Web of Science, Science Citation Index Expanded, 2005–2014, UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 14.6
Cumulative total of articles by Central Asians between 2008 and 2013, by field of science. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 14.6
Ethnic map of Central Asia.
White areas are thinly-populated semi-desert.
The three northwest-tending lines are the Syr Darya and Amu Darya Rivers flowing from the eastern mountains into the Aral Sea and in the south the irrigated north side of the Kopet Dagh mountains.
Uzbek children in Samarkand
Children in Afghanistan
Tartar prostrating before Qianlong Emperor of China (1757).
Political cartoon from the period of the Great Game showing the Afghan Amir Sher Ali with his "friends" Imperial Russia and the United Kingdom (1878)
Islam Karimov (President, Uzbekistan) in the Pentagon, March 2002

The region consists of the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.

Kazakhstan is also one of the three founding members of the Eurasian Economic Union in 2014, along with Belarus and the Russian Federation.