Official photo portrait, May 2013
238x238px
Nazarbayev (three rows from left) at the 1992 World Economic Forum chaired by Henry Kissinger in Davos
1993 Kazakh postage stamp of Nazarbayev
Meeting of the leaders of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in Bishkek, 2008. The CIS initiated the lengthy process of Eurasian integration.
Nazarbayev with US President George W. Bush at the White House in September 2006
270px
Nazarbayev with Vladimir Putin and Shavkat Mirziyoyev in October 2018
Current decision-making process of the Eurasian Customs Union and the Single Economic Space
Nazarbayev with Lee Myung-bak in Seoul, 2010
Selection of GDP PPP data (top 10 countries and blocs) in no particular order
Nazarbayev with President of Russia Dmitry Medvedev, President of Finland Tarja Halonen and Prime Minister of Spain José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero in 2011
The Moscow International Business Center is a commercial district in Moscow that is currently under construction. The complex includes some of Europe's tallest skyscrapers.
Kazakhstan 2050 Strategy logo
A silver altyn minted in 1711 during the reign of Peter the Great
During a visit to the central mosque of the Aktobe Region.
The Trans-Siberian Railway is a vital link between the Russian Far East and the rest of Eurasia.
Meeting with the Russian then-president Dmitry Medvedev in 2008 in Astana
The Turkestan–Siberia Railway connects the Central Asian republics to Siberia.
Nazarbayev (center) at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit with Barack Obama (left) and Dmitry Medvedev (right)
A Rye Field by Ivan Shishkin
Nazarbayev with Nikol Pashinyan, Anna Hakobyan, Igor Dodon and Dmitry Medvedev at the FIFA World Cup in Russia
Past and projected GDP (nominal) per capita in EAEU countries.
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry and Nazarbayev in Aqorda, 2 November 2015
Free trade agreements of EEU. Red - EEU. Green - Countries that have FTA with EEU.
Nazarbayev (left) with U.S. President Donald Trump at the Oval Office, 16 January 2018
On 21 May 2014, Russia and China signed a $400 billion gas deal. Starting 2019, Russia plans to provide natural gas to China for the next 30 years.
Nazarbayev (third from the left) with Vladimir Putin at the 2019 Moscow Victory Day Parade
250px
Nursultan Nazarbayev monument, Ankara, Turkey
Ilham Aliyev, Dmitry Medvedev and Serzh Sarkisian hold peace talks in Moscow on 2 November 2008.
Postage stamp with Nazarbayev
Mount Elbrus – Russia
Nursultan Nazarbayev street, Amman
Mountain range – Armenia
Nazarbayev with leaders of China, Russia and India during the Moscow Victory Day Parade, 9 May 2015
Lama River – in the Moscow region of Russia
Postage stamp with Nazarbayev, Barack Obama and Dmitry Medvedev
Sharyn Canyon – Kazakhstan
William Cohen and Nazarbayev in November 1997
On the southern shore of Issyk-Kul lake, Issyk-Kul Region – Kyrgyzstan
Vladimir Putin with Nursultan Nazarbayev in 2000
Winter – Belarus
Nursultan Nazarbayev in 2002
A view of Mount Aragats from Aragatsotn – Armenia
Nazarbayev holding a speech in 2012
A view of Mount Mönkh Saridag – Okinsky District, Russia
Painting of Elbasy Nursultan Nazarbayev in 2014
Lake Ayger – Armenia
Nazarbayev in 2021
Lake Servech – Belarus
Winter in the Altai Krai – Russia
Tian Shan mountain range – Kyrgyzstan
Saint Petersburg, the second-largest city and cultural capital of Russia
Yerevan, the capital and financial hub of Armenia
Business centre in central downtown Nur-Sultan
Almaty, the major commercial and cultural centre of Kazakhstan
Bishkek, the capital and financial hub of Kyrgyzstan
Member States of the Eurasian Economic Union
Observer states
Candidate states

The Soviet Union then fell apart after 1991 Soviet coup d'etat failed, though Nazarbayev went to great lengths to maintain close economic ties with Russia by introducing Kazakhstan into the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and eventually the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU).

- Nursultan Nazarbayev

In 1994, during a speech at Moscow State University, the first President of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, suggested the idea of creating a "Eurasian Union" as a regional trade bloc in order to connect to and profit from the growing economies of Europe and East Asia.

- Eurasian Economic Union
Official photo portrait, May 2013

3 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Commonwealth of Independent States

2 links

Regional intergovernmental organization in Eastern Europe and Asia.

Regional intergovernmental organization in Eastern Europe and Asia.

Signing of the agreement to establish the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), 8 December 1991
The 20–22 June 2000 CIS Summit
Member states:
Meeting of CIS leaders in Bishkek, 2008
The members of the council meeting in Moscow in 2017

Three organizations originated from the CIS, namely the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Eurasian Economic Union (alongside subdivisions, the Eurasian Customs Union and the Eurasian Economic Space); and the Union State.

During a speech at Moscow State University in 1994, the President of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, suggested the idea of creating a "common defense" space within the CIS.

Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987

Dissolution of the Soviet Union

2 links

The process of internal disintegration within the Soviet Union (USSR) which resulted in the end of the country's and its federal government's existence as a sovereign state, thereby resulting in its constituent republics gaining full sovereignty.

The process of internal disintegration within the Soviet Union (USSR) which resulted in the end of the country's and its federal government's existence as a sovereign state, thereby resulting in its constituent republics gaining full sovereignty.

Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987
The first exhibition on the crimes of Stalinism, called "Week of Conscience", was held in Moscow on November 19, 1988
Environmental concerns over the Metsamor nuclear power plant drove initial demonstrations in Yerevan.
Figure of Liberty on the Freedom Monument in Riga, focus of the 1986 Latvian demonstrations
Anti-Soviet rally in Vingis Park of about 250,000 people. Sąjūdis was a movement which led to the restoration of an Independent State of Lithuania.
Andrei Sakharov, formerly exiled to Gorky, was elected to the Congress of People's Deputies in March 1989.
The Eastern Bloc
Baltic Way 1989 demonstration in Šiauliai, Lithuania showing coffins decorated with national flags of the three Baltic republics placed symbolically beneath Soviet and Nazi flags
Photos of victims (mostly young women) of an April 1989 massacre in Tbilisi, Georgia
Meeting in Kurapaty, Belarus, 1989
Nursultan Nazarbayev became leader of the Kazakh SSR in 1989 and later led Kazakhstan to independence.
Lithuania's Vytautas Landsbergis
Estonia's Edgar Savisaar
Latvia's Ivars Godmanis
Azerbaijani stamp with photos of Black January
Viacheslav Chornovil, a prominent Ukrainian dissident and a lead figure of Rukh
Leonid Kravchuk became Ukraine's leader in 1990.
Saparmurat Niyazov, last head of the Turkmen SSR and first president of Turkmenistan
Following Georgia's declaration of independence in 1991, South Ossetia and Abkhazia declared their desire to leave Georgia and remain part of the Soviet Union/Russia.
Boris Yeltsin, Russia's first democratically elected president
Barricade erected in Riga to prevent the Soviet Army from reaching the Latvian Parliament, July 1991
Tanks in Red Square during the 1991 August coup attempt
Signing of the agreement to establish the Commonwealth of Independent States, 8 December
The state emblem of the Soviet Union and the СССР letters (top) in the façade of the Grand Kremlin Palace were replaced by five double-headed Russian eagles (bottom) after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the eagles having been removed by the Bolsheviks after the revolution.
The upper chamber of the Supreme Soviet in its ultimate session, voting the USSR out of existence, December 26
Russian GDP since the end of the Soviet Union (from 2014 are forecasts)
Russian male life expectancy, 1980–2007
Animated map showing independent states and territorial changes to the Soviet Union in chronological order
Pro-Russian separatists in Donetsk celebrate the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany, May 9, 2018
Changes in national boundaries after the end of the Cold War

In the aftermath of the Cold War, several of the former Soviet republics have retained close links with Russia and formed multilateral organizations such as the CIS, the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO), the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), and the Union State, for economic and military cooperation.

With the government and CPSU shocked by the riots, on June 22, 1989, as a result of the riots, Gorbachev removed Gennady Kolbin (the ethnic Russian whose appointment caused riots in December 1986) as First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan for his poor handling of the June events and replaced him with Nursultan Nazarbayev, an ethnic Kazakh who went on to lead Kazakhstan as the Soviet Republic and subsequently to independence.

Kazakhstan

2 links

Transcontinental landlocked country located mainly in Central Asia and partly in Eastern Europe.

Transcontinental landlocked country located mainly in Central Asia and partly in Eastern Europe.

Approximate extent of Scythia within the area of distribution of Eastern Iranian languages (shown in orange) in the 1st century BC
Cuman–Kipchak confederation in Eurasia circa 1200. The Kazakhs are descendants of Kipchaks, Nogais and other Turkic and medieval Mongol tribes
Ural Cossacks skirmish with Kazakhs (the Russians originally called the Kazakhs "Kirgiz")
Map of the Kazakh Territory in 1903
Stanitsa Sofiiskaya, Talgar. 1920s
Young Pioneers at a Young Pioneer camp in Kazakh SSR
The International Conference on Primary Health Care in 1978, known as the Alma-Ata Declaration
The Monument of Independence, Republic Square, Almaty
Satellite image of Kazakhstan (November 2004)
The Kazakh Steppe is part of the Eurasian Steppe Belt (in on the map)
Karaganda Region
Kazakhstan map of Köppen climate classification
Corsac fox
Ak Orda Presidential Palace
Parliament of Kazakhstan
Nur Otan Headquarters in Nur-Sultan
President Nazarbayev with U.S. President Barack Obama and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in 2012
President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev with 
Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2019
Member states of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO)
Kazakhstan Republican Guard
A Kazakhstan Sukhoi Su-27
Downtown Nur-Sultan
GDP per capita development, since 1973
A proportional representation of Kazakhstan exports, 2019
Aktau is Kazakhstan's only seaport on the Caspian Sea
A map of Kazakhstan's imports, 2013
Kazakhstan has the largest proven oil reserves in the Caspian Sea region.
Grain fields near Kokshetau
Map of Kazakhstan railway network
Train 22 Kyzylorda – Semipalatinsk, hauled by a Kazakhstan Temir Zholy 2TE10U diesel locomotive. Picture taken near Aynabulak, Kazakhstan
Borovoe, view from Mount Bolectau
A ski resort in Almaty
Astana Expo 2017 "Nur Alem" Pavilion
Almaty
Trends in research expenditure in Central Asia, as a percentage of GDP, 2001–2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: 2030 (2015), Figure 14.3
Group of Kazakhstan physicists in collaboration with Uzbek researchers working at the ion accelerator DC-60
Baikonur Cosmodrome is the world's oldest and largest operational spaceport
Population pyramid, 2020
Central Asian ethnolinguistic patchwork, 1992
Kazakhstanis on a Lake Jasybay beach, Pavlodar Region
Ascension Cathedral in Almaty
Khazret Sultan Mosque is the biggest mosque in Kazakhstan
Kazakh National University of Arts
A Kazakhstan performer demonstrates the long equestrian heritage as part of the gala concert during the opening ceremonies of the Central Asian Peacekeeping Battalion
Kanysh Satpayev, one of the founders of Soviet era metallogeny, principal advocate and the first president of Kazakhstan Academy of Sciences
1965 Soviet stamp honouring Kazakh essayist and poet Abai Qunanbaiuly
Nowruz on stamp of Kazakhstan
A-Studio was created in 1982 in Almaty, then called Alma-Ata, hence called "Alma-Ata Studio"
Astana Arena opened in 2009
Nikolai Antropov
International Astana Action Film Festival, 2010
Timur Bekmambetov, a notable Kazakh director

Kazakhstan is a member state of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Eurasian Economic Union, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, the Organization of Turkic States, and the International Organization of Turkic Culture.

Kazakhstan's communist-era leader, Nursultan Nazarbayev, became the country's first President.