A report on Russia and Eurasian Economic Union

The Kurgan hypothesis places the Volga-Dnieper region of southern Russia and Ukraine as the urheimat of the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
Meeting of the leaders of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in Bishkek, 2008. The CIS initiated the lengthy process of Eurasian integration.
Kievan Rus' in the 11th century
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Sergius of Radonezh blessing Dmitry Donskoy in Trinity Sergius Lavra, before the Battle of Kulikovo, depicted in a painting by Ernst Lissner
Current decision-making process of the Eurasian Customs Union and the Single Economic Space
Tsar Ivan the Terrible, in an evocation by Viktor Vasnetsov, 1897.
Selection of GDP PPP data (top 10 countries and blocs) in no particular order
Russian expansion and territorial evolution between the 14th and 20th centuries.
The Moscow International Business Center is a commercial district in Moscow that is currently under construction. The complex includes some of Europe's tallest skyscrapers.
Napoleon's retreat from Moscow by Albrecht Adam (1851).
A silver altyn minted in 1711 during the reign of Peter the Great
Emperor Nicholas II of Russia and the Romanovs were executed by the Bolsheviks in 1918.
The Trans-Siberian Railway is a vital link between the Russian Far East and the rest of Eurasia.
Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky during a 1920 speech in Moscow
The Turkestan–Siberia Railway connects the Central Asian republics to Siberia.
Location of the Russian SFSR (red) within the Soviet Union in 1936
A Rye Field by Ivan Shishkin
The Battle of Stalingrad, the largest and bloodiest battle in the history of warfare, ended in 1943 with a decisive Soviet victory against the German Army.
Past and projected GDP (nominal) per capita in EAEU countries.
The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference in February 1945, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin.
Free trade agreements of EEU. Red - EEU. Green - Countries that have FTA with EEU.
Mikhail Gorbachev in one-to-one discussions with Ronald Reagan in the Reykjavík Summit, 1986.
On 21 May 2014, Russia and China signed a $400 billion gas deal. Starting 2019, Russia plans to provide natural gas to China for the next 30 years.
Vladimir Putin takes the oath of office as president on his first inauguration, with Boris Yeltsin looking over, 2000.
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Vladimir Putin (third, left), Sergey Aksyonov (first, left), Vladimir Konstantinov (second, left) and Aleksei Chalyi (right) sign the Treaty on Accession of the Republic of Crimea to Russia in 2014
Ilham Aliyev, Dmitry Medvedev and Serzh Sarkisian hold peace talks in Moscow on 2 November 2008.
Topographic map of Russia
Mount Elbrus – Russia
Köppen climate classification of Russia.
Mountain range – Armenia
Yugyd Va National Park in the Komi Republic is the largest national park in Europe.
Lama River – in the Moscow region of Russia
Chart for the political system of Russia
Sharyn Canyon – Kazakhstan
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On the southern shore of Issyk-Kul lake, Issyk-Kul Region – Kyrgyzstan
Putin with G20 counterparts in Osaka, 2019.
Winter – Belarus
Sukhoi Su-57, a fifth-generation fighter of the Russian Air Force.
A view of Mount Aragats from Aragatsotn – Armenia
Following the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022, anti-war protests broke out across Russia. The protests have been met with widespread repression, leading to roughly 15,000 being arrested.
A view of Mount Mönkh Saridag – Okinsky District, Russia
The Moscow International Business Center in Moscow. The city has one of the world's largest urban economies.
Lake Ayger – Armenia
The Trans-Siberian Railway is the longest railway line in the world, connecting Moscow to Vladivostok.
Lake Servech – Belarus
Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765), polymath scientist, inventor, poet and artist
Winter in the Altai Krai – Russia
Mir, Soviet and Russian space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001.
Tian Shan mountain range – Kyrgyzstan
Peterhof Palace in Saint Petersburg, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Saint Petersburg, the second-largest city and cultural capital of Russia
Saint Basil's Cathedral in Moscow is the most iconic religious architecture of Russia.
Yerevan, the capital and financial hub of Armenia
Moscow State University, the most prestigious educational institution in Russia.
Business centre in central downtown Nur-Sultan
Metallurg, a Soviet-era sanatorium in Sochi.
Almaty, the major commercial and cultural centre of Kazakhstan
The Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, at night.
Bishkek, the capital and financial hub of Kyrgyzstan
The Scarlet Sails being celebrated along the Neva in Saint Petersburg
Member States of the Eurasian Economic Union
Observer states
Candidate states
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840–1893), in a 1893 painting by Nikolai Dmitriyevich Kuznetsov
Kvass is an ancient and traditional Russian beverage.
Ostankino Tower in Moscow, the tallest freestanding structure in Europe.
Maria Sharapova, former world No. 1 tennis player, was the world's highest-paid female athlete for 11 consecutive years.
Wheat in Tomsk Oblast, Siberia

The Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union was signed on 29 May 2014 by the leaders of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia, and came into force on 1 January 2015.

- Eurasian Economic Union

It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the G20, the SCO, BRICS, the APEC, the OSCE and the WTO, as well as the leading member of the CIS, the CSTO, and the EAEU, Russia is also home of 30 UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

- Russia

7 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987

Dissolution of the Soviet Union

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The process of internal disintegration within the Soviet Union (USSR) which resulted in the end of the country's and its federal government's existence as a sovereign state, thereby resulting in its constituent republics gaining full sovereignty.

The process of internal disintegration within the Soviet Union (USSR) which resulted in the end of the country's and its federal government's existence as a sovereign state, thereby resulting in its constituent republics gaining full sovereignty.

Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987
The first exhibition on the crimes of Stalinism, called "Week of Conscience", was held in Moscow on November 19, 1988
Environmental concerns over the Metsamor nuclear power plant drove initial demonstrations in Yerevan.
Figure of Liberty on the Freedom Monument in Riga, focus of the 1986 Latvian demonstrations
Anti-Soviet rally in Vingis Park of about 250,000 people. Sąjūdis was a movement which led to the restoration of an Independent State of Lithuania.
Andrei Sakharov, formerly exiled to Gorky, was elected to the Congress of People's Deputies in March 1989.
The Eastern Bloc
Baltic Way 1989 demonstration in Šiauliai, Lithuania showing coffins decorated with national flags of the three Baltic republics placed symbolically beneath Soviet and Nazi flags
Photos of victims (mostly young women) of an April 1989 massacre in Tbilisi, Georgia
Meeting in Kurapaty, Belarus, 1989
Nursultan Nazarbayev became leader of the Kazakh SSR in 1989 and later led Kazakhstan to independence.
Lithuania's Vytautas Landsbergis
Estonia's Edgar Savisaar
Latvia's Ivars Godmanis
Azerbaijani stamp with photos of Black January
Viacheslav Chornovil, a prominent Ukrainian dissident and a lead figure of Rukh
Leonid Kravchuk became Ukraine's leader in 1990.
Saparmurat Niyazov, last head of the Turkmen SSR and first president of Turkmenistan
Following Georgia's declaration of independence in 1991, South Ossetia and Abkhazia declared their desire to leave Georgia and remain part of the Soviet Union/Russia.
Boris Yeltsin, Russia's first democratically elected president
Barricade erected in Riga to prevent the Soviet Army from reaching the Latvian Parliament, July 1991
Tanks in Red Square during the 1991 August coup attempt
Signing of the agreement to establish the Commonwealth of Independent States, 8 December
The state emblem of the Soviet Union and the СССР letters (top) in the façade of the Grand Kremlin Palace were replaced by five double-headed Russian eagles (bottom) after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the eagles having been removed by the Bolsheviks after the revolution.
The upper chamber of the Supreme Soviet in its ultimate session, voting the USSR out of existence, December 26
Russian GDP since the end of the Soviet Union (from 2014 are forecasts)
Russian male life expectancy, 1980–2007
Animated map showing independent states and territorial changes to the Soviet Union in chronological order
Pro-Russian separatists in Donetsk celebrate the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany, May 9, 2018
Changes in national boundaries after the end of the Cold War

The Belovezh Accords were signed on 8 December by President Boris Yeltsin of Russia, President Kravchuk of Ukraine, and Chairman Shushkevich of Belarus, recognising each other's independence and creating the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) instead of the Soviet Union.

In the aftermath of the Cold War, several of the former Soviet republics have retained close links with Russia and formed multilateral organizations such as the CIS, the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO), the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), and the Union State, for economic and military cooperation.

Commonwealth of Independent States

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Regional intergovernmental organization in Eastern Europe and Asia.

Regional intergovernmental organization in Eastern Europe and Asia.

Signing of the agreement to establish the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), 8 December 1991
The 20–22 June 2000 CIS Summit
Member states:
Meeting of CIS leaders in Bishkek, 2008
The members of the council meeting in Moscow in 2017

Three organizations originated from the CIS, namely the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Eurasian Economic Union (alongside subdivisions, the Eurasian Customs Union and the Eurasian Economic Space); and the Union State.

While the first and the second are military and economic alliances, the third aims to reach a supranational union of Russia and Belarus with a common government, flag, currency and so on.

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Post-Soviet states

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[[File:USSR Republics numbered by alphabet.svg|upright=1.35|thumb|Post-Soviet states in English alphabetical order:

[[File:USSR Republics numbered by alphabet.svg|upright=1.35|thumb|Post-Soviet states in English alphabetical order:

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and OECD
Economical integration blocs in Post-Soviet area: EU, EFTA, CEFTA and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia
NATO/CSTO
Nizhnehopersky Nature Park
People in Donetsk celebrate the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany on 9 May 2018
{{flagicon|ARM}} Armenia
{{flagicon|AZE}} Azerbaijan
{{flagicon|BLR}} Belarus
{{flagicon|EST}} Estonia
{{flagicon|GEO}} Georgia
{{flagicon|KAZ}} Kazakhstan
{{flagicon|KGZ}} Kyrgyzstan
{{flagicon|LAT}} Latvia
{{flagicon|LTU}} Lithuania
{{flagicon|MDA}} Moldova
{{flagicon|RUS}} Russia
{{flagicon|TJK}} Tajikistan
{{flagicon|TKM}} Turkmenistan
{{flagicon|UKR}} Ukraine
{{flagicon|UZB}} Uzbekistan
{{flagicon|ARM}} Armenia
{{flagicon|AZE}} Azerbaijan
{{flagicon|BLR}} Belarus
{{flagicon|EST}} Estonia
{{flagicon|GEO}} Georgia
{{flagicon|KAZ}} Kazakhstan
{{flagicon|KGZ}} Kyrgyzstan
{{flagicon|LAT}} Latvia
{{flagicon|LTU}} Lithuania
{{flagicon|MDA}} Moldova
{{flagicon|RUS}} Russia
{{flagicon|TJK}} Tajikistan
{{flagicon|TKM}} Turkmenistan
{{flagicon|UKR}} Ukraine
{{flagicon|UZB}} Uzbekistan
NATO/CSTO
Community of Democratic Choice
Economic Cooperation Organization
{{flagicon|TKM}} Turkmenistan

11. 🇷🇺 Russia

The Central Asian states of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan (as well as Belarus) are members of the CIS and participate in several regional organizations that have Russia as a primary mover. Such organizations are the Eurasian Economic Community (later merged with Eurasian Economic Union, which Tajikistan and Uzbekistan are not members of), Collective Security Treaty Organization, and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. The last two groups only became distinct once Uzbekistan withdrew from GUAM and sought membership in EurAsEc and CSTO (which it subsequently withdrew from in 2008 and 2012, respectively).

The military situation, during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine




 For a more detailed map, see the Russo-Ukrainian War detailed map

Russo-Ukrainian War

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The military situation, during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine




 For a more detailed map, see the Russo-Ukrainian War detailed map
The blockade of military units of the Armed Forces of Ukraine during the capture of Crimea by Russia in February–March 2014
Russian troops blocking the Ukrainian military base in Perevalne
The Russian military buildup along Ukraine's eastern border in February–March 2014
The Donbas status referendums in May 2014 were not officially recognised by the Ukrainian government or any UN member state.
June–August 2014 progression map
Residents of Kyiv with Sich Battalion volunteers on 26 August 2014
A map of the line of control and buffer zone established by the Minsk Protocol on 5 September 2014
Pro-Russian rebels in Donetsk in May 2015. Ukraine declared the Russia-backed separatist republics from eastern Ukraine to be terrorist organizations.
Casualties of the War in Donbas
Russian-backed separatists in May 2016
The Kerch Strait incident over the passage between the Black and Azov seas
From left, Russian President Vladimir Putin, French President Emmanuel Macron, German Chancellor Angela Merkel and Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy in Paris, France, December 2019
US paratroopers of 2nd Battalion, 503rd Infantry Regiment depart Italy's Aviano Air Base for Latvia, 23 February 2022. Thousands of US troops were deployed to Eastern Europe amid Russia's military build-up.
Ukrainian deputy prime minister Olha Stefanishyna with NATO secretary-general Jens Stoltenberg at a conference on 10 January 2022 regarding a potential Russian invasion
A U.S. intelligence assessment map and imagery on Russian military movement nearby the Ukrainian border, as on 3 December 2021. It assessed that Russia had deployed about 70,000 military personnel mostly about 100 - 200 km from the Ukrainian border, with an assessment this could be increased to 175,000 personnel. Published by The Washington Post.
An animated map of Russia's invasion of Ukraine
Major Russian natural gas pipelines to Europe
Pro-Kremlin TV and radio host Vladimir Solovyov voiced support for his country's invasion of Ukraine.
Following Russia's annexation of Crimea, Ukraine blocked the North Crimean Canal, which provided 85% of Crimea's drinking and irrigation water.
US officials Assistant Secretary Victoria Nuland and Ambassador to Ukraine Geoffrey R. Pyatt greet Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko in Warsaw on 4 June 2014
A U.S. Army convoy in Vilseck, Germany during Operation Atlantic Resolve, NATO's efforts to reassert its military presence in central and eastern Europe that began in April 2014.
U.S. Paratroopers and Ukrainian National Guard during the Fearless Guardian exercise near Yavoriv, Ukraine, 6 June 2015
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry meets with Ukrainian members of parliament, 4 March 2014
Protests in Moscow, 21 September 2014
Pro-Russian supporters in Donetsk, 20 December 2014
Ukrainian refugees in Kraków protest against the war, 6 March 2022

The Russo-Ukrainian War is an ongoing war between Russia (together with pro-Russian separatist forces) and Ukraine.

In November 2013, a wave of large, pro-European Union (EU) protests erupted in response to Yanukovych's sudden decision not to sign the EU–Ukraine Association Agreement, instead choosing closer ties to Russia and the Eurasian Economic Union.

Central Asia

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Expanded definition of Central Asia. Core definition that includes the five post-Soviet states in dark green. Afghanistan, the most commonly added country to Central Asia, in green.
Three sets of possible boundaries for the Central Asia region (which overlap with conceptions of South and East Asia).
On the southern shore of Issyk Kul lake, Issyk Kul Region.
Central Asia map of Köppen climate classification.
Iranian-speaking people circa 170 BC. Eastern Iranian languages are in orange, Western Iranian languages are in red.
Uzbek men from Khiva, ca. 1861–1880
The Chinese Tang dynasty at its greatest extension, controlling large parts of Central Asia.
The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, 1979
Mosque in Petropavlovsk, Kazakhstan
Saadi Shirazi is welcomed by a youth from Kashgar during a forum in Bukhara.
Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi in Hazrat-e Turkestan, Kazakhstan. Timurid architecture consisted of Persian art.
Kazakh man on a horse with golden eagle
GDP growth trends in Central Asia, 2000–2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 14.1
GDP in Central Asia by economic sector, 2005 and 2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030, Figure 14.2
GDP per capita development in Central Asia, since 1973
Trends in research expenditure in Central Asia, as a percentage of GDP, 2001–2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: 2030 (2015), Figure 14.3
Central Asian researchers by sector of employment (HC), 2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 14.5
Central Asian researchers by field of science, 2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 14.4
Scientific publications from Central Asia catalogued by Thomson Reuters' Web of Science, Science Citation Index Expanded, 2005–2014, UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 14.6
Cumulative total of articles by Central Asians between 2008 and 2013, by field of science. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 14.6
Ethnic map of Central Asia.
White areas are thinly-populated semi-desert.
The three northwest-tending lines are the Syr Darya and Amu Darya Rivers flowing from the eastern mountains into the Aral Sea and in the south the irrigated north side of the Kopet Dagh mountains.
Uzbek children in Samarkand
Children in Afghanistan
Tartar prostrating before Qianlong Emperor of China (1757).
Political cartoon from the period of the Great Game showing the Afghan Amir Sher Ali with his "friends" Imperial Russia and the United Kingdom (1878)
Islam Karimov (President, Uzbekistan) in the Pentagon, March 2002

Central Asia is a subregion of Asia that stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north.

Kazakhstan is also one of the three founding members of the Eurasian Economic Union in 2014, along with Belarus and the Russian Federation.

Eurasia

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Largest continental area on Earth, comprising all of Europe and Asia.

Largest continental area on Earth, comprising all of Europe and Asia.

The boundary of the 13th century Mongol Empire and location of today's Mongols in modern Mongolia, Russia and China.
Single markets in European and post-Soviet countries; European Economic Area and Common Economic Space
ASEM Partners
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Area from Lisbon to Vladivostok with all European and CIS countries
Physical map of Asia
Changes in national boundaries after the collapse of the Eastern Bloc

Eurasia covers around 55,000,000 km2, or around 36.2% of the Earth's total land area; and is home to the largest country in the world, Russia.

Similar in concept to the European Union, the Eurasian Union is an economic union established in 2015 including Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and observer members Moldova, Uzbekistan, and Cuba. It is headquartered in Moscow, Russia and Minsk, Belarus. The union promotes economic integration among members and is theoretically open to enlargement to include any country in Europe or Asia.

Union State

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Presidents Alexander Lukashenko and Boris Yeltsin signing the founding treaty of the Russian-Belarusian Union at the Grand Kremlin Palace, Moscow, 2 April 1997
Russian postage stamp commemorating the Treaty between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus establishing the Union on 2 April 1996.

The Union State, officially the Union State of Russia and Belarus, is a supranational organisation consisting of Russia and Belarus, with the stated aim of deepening the relationship between the two states through integration in economic and defense policy.

Then Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev had put forward a similar proposal in 1994, envisioning the founding of a Eurasian union, but this proposal was not adopted until 29 May 2014 with the formation of the Eurasian Economic Union.