Europe

Statue representing Europa at Palazzo Ferreria, in Valletta, Malta
First map of the world according to Anaximander (6th century BC)
A medieval T and O map printed by Günther Zainer in 1472, showing the three continents as domains of the sons of Noah — Asia to Sem (Shem), Europe to Iafeth (Japheth) and Africa to Cham (Ham)
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A New Map of Europe According to the Newest Observations (1721) by Hermann Moll draws the eastern boundary of Europe along the Don River flowing south-west and the Tobol, Irtysh and Ob rivers flowing north
1916 political map of Europe showing most of Moll's waterways replaced by von Strahlenberg's Ural Mountains and Freshfield's Caucasus Crest, land features of a type that normally defines a subcontinent
Paleolithic cave paintings from Lascaux in France ( 15,000 BCE)
Stonehenge in the United Kingdom (Late Neolithic from 3000 to 2000 BCE).
The Parthenon in Athens (432 BCE)
Animation showing the growth and division of the Roman Empire (years CE)
Viking raids and division of the Frankish Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843
The maritime republics of medieval Italy reestablished contacts between Europe, Asia and Africa with extensive trade networks and colonies across the Mediterranean, and had an essential role in the Crusades.
Tancred of Sicily and Philip II of France, during the Third Crusade (1189–1192)
The sacking of Suzdal by Batu Khan in 1238, during the Mongol invasion of Europe.
The School of Athens by Raphael (1511): Contemporaries, such as Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci (centre), are portrayed as classical scholars of the Renaissance.
Habsburg dominions in the centuries following their partition by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. The principal military base of Philip II in Europe was the Spanish road stretching from the Netherlands to the Duchy of Milan.
The national boundaries within Europe set by the Congress of Vienna
Marshall's Temple Works (1840), the Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain
Map of European colonial empires throughout the world in 1914.
Map depicting the military alliances of World War I in 1914–1918
Serbian war efforts (1914–1918) cost the country one quarter of its population.
Nazi Germany began a devastating World War II in Europe by its leader, Adolf Hitler. Here Hitler, on the right, with his closest ally, the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, in 1940
Bombed and burned-out buildings in Hamburg, 1944/45
The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference in 1945; seated (from the left): Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin
The Schuman Declaration led to the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community. It began the integration process of the European Union (9 May 1950, at the French Foreign Ministry).
Flag of Europe, adopted by the Council of Europe in 1955 as the flag for the whole of Europe
Map of populous Europe and surrounding regions showing physical, political and population characteristics, as per 2018
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Europe.
The Volga, as seen in Yaroslavl. It flows from Central Russia and into the Caspian Sea and is the longest river in Europe.
Mount Elbrus in Southern Russia, is the highest mountain in Europe.
Europa Point as seen from the Strait of Gibraltar, which separates the continents of Europe and Africa, also being between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
The Danube, as seen in Đerdap National Park. It flows from the Black Forest and into the Black Sea and is the second-longest river in Europe, which also passes through the largest number of countries in the world at 10.
Sutjeska National Park contains Perućica, which is one of the last remaining primeval forests in Europe.
Land use map of Europe with arable farmland (yellow), forest (dark green), pasture (light green) and tundra, or bogs, in the north (dark yellow)
Floristic regions of Europe and neighbouring areas, according to Wolfgang Frey and Rainer Lösch
Biogeographic regions of Europe and bordering regions
A brown bear near the Russian border in the forests of Kainuu, Finland
Once roaming the great temperate forests of Eurasia, European bison now live in nature preserves in Białowieża Forest, on the border between Poland and Belarus.
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Fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989.
Eurozone (blue colour)
One of Kosovo's main economical sources is mining, because it has large reserves of lead, zinc, silver, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron and bauxite. Miners at the Trepča Mines in Mitrovica, Kosovo in 2011.
Population growth in and around Europe in 2021
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Map purportedly displaying the European continent split along cultural and state borders as proposed by the German organization Ständiger Ausschuss für geographische Namen (StAGN).
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Tallinn, the medieval capital of Estonia in the Baltic States, is a mixture of Western and Eastern architectural cultures.
Surficial geology of Europe

Continent, also recognised as a part of Eurasia, located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Ural Mountains

The Ural Mountains (Урал тауҙары, Ural tauźarı) or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the river Ural and northwestern Kazakhstan.

A fragment of von Herberstein's map
Verkhoturye in 1910
Wooded Ural Mountains
Map including the Ural Mountains
Yugyd Va National Park
Ural Mountains in summer
A mine in the Ural Mountains, early colour photograph by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, 1910
Wooded Ural Mountains in winter
Chusovaya River
Cloudberry
Mount Iremel
Mount Iremel
Mount Iremel peak
Mount Yamantau
View from mount Yamantau second peak (Bolshaya Yamantau)
Forest around mount Yamantau
View of the two-peak mount Taganay
Mount Otkliknoy Greben
Taganay national park
Sunrise on Taganay

The mountain range forms part of the conventional boundary between the regions of Europe and Asia.

Black Sea

The location of the Black Sea
The estuary of the Veleka in the Black Sea. Longshore drift has deposited sediment along the shoreline which has led to the formation of a spit. Sinemorets, Bulgaria
Black Sea coast of western Georgia, with the skyline of Batumi on the horizon
Swallow's Nest in Crimea
Coastline of Samsun in Turkey
A sanatorium in Sochi, Russia
Coast of the Black Sea at Ordu
Kapchik Cape in Crimea
The Black Sea near Constanța, Romania
Ice on the Gulf of Odessa
The bay of Sudak, Crimea
The Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey, crosses the Bosporus strait near its entrance to the Black Sea. Connecting Europe and Asia, it is one of the tallest suspension bridges in the world.
This SeaWiFS view reveals the colorful interplay of currents on the sea's surface.
Black Sea coast in Ordu, Turkey
The port of Poti, Georgia
Phytoplankton blooms and plumes of sediment form the bright blue swirls that ring the Black Sea in this 2004 image.
The Bosporus, taken from the International Space Station
Map of the Dardanelles
A 16th-century map of the Black Sea by Diogo Homem
Greek colonies (8th–3rd century BCE) of the Black Sea (Euxine, or "hospitable" sea)
Ivan Aivazovsky. Black Sea Fleet in the Bay of Theodosia, just before the Crimean War
Yalta, Crimea
Amasra, Turkey, is located on a small island in the Black Sea.
Black Sea beach in Zatoka, Ukraine
Soviet frigate Bezzavetny (right) bumping the USS Yorktown during the 1988 Black Sea bumping incident
Ukrainian Navy artillery boat U170 in the Bay of Sevastopol
Jellyfish
Actinia
Actinia
Goby
Stingray
Goat fish
Hermit crab, Diogenes pugilator
Blue sponge
Spiny dogfish
Seahorse
Black Sea common dolphins with a kite-surfer off Sochi

The Black Sea is a marginal mediterranean sea of the Atlantic Ocean lying between Europe and Asia, east of the Balkans, south of the East European Plain, west of the Caucasus, and north of Anatolia.

List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe

Political map of Europe and the surrounding region

The list below includes all entities falling even partially under any of the various common definitions of Europe, geographical or political.

Afro-Eurasia

Afro-Eurasia on a cylindrical projection, with the contiguous "World Island" landmass in dark green and islands in light green

Afro-Eurasia (also Afroeurasia or Eurafrasia ) is a landmass comprising the continents of Africa, Asia, and Europe.

Mediterranean Sea

Sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.

Map of the Mediterranean Sea
Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity c. the 6th century BC
The Roman Empire at its farthest extent in AD 117
The Battle of Lepanto, 1571, ended in victory for the European Holy League against the Ottoman Turks.
The bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet in support of an ultimatum to release European slaves, August 1816
Borders of the Mediterranean Sea
Approximate extent of the Mediterranean drainage basin (dark green). Nile basin only partially shown
Map of the Mediterranean Sea from open Natural Earth data, 2020
Alexandria, the largest city on the Mediterranean
Barcelona, the second largest metropolitan area on the Mediterranean Sea (after Alexandria) and the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean
The Acropolis of Athens with the Mediterranean Sea in the background
The ancient port of Jaffa (now in Tel Aviv-Yafo), from which the biblical Jonah set sail before being swallowed by a whale
Catania, Sicily, Italy, with Mount Etna in the background
İzmir, the third metropolis of Turkey (after Istanbul and Ankara)
Africa (left, on horizon) and Europe (right), as seen from Gibraltar
Positano, Italy, Tyrrhenian Sea
View of the Saint George Bay, and snow-capped Mount Sannine from a tower in the Beirut Central District
The Port of Marseille seen from L'Estaque
Sarandë, Albania, stands on an open-sea gulf of the Ionian sea in the central Mediterranean.
The two biggest islands of the Mediterranean: Sicily and Sardinia (Italy)
Predominant surface currents for June
A submarine karst spring, called vrulja, near Omiš; observed through several ripplings of an otherwise calm sea surface.
Messinian salinity crisis before the Zanclean flood
The thermonuclear bomb that fell into the sea recovered off Palomares, Almería, 1966
Stromboli volcano in Italy
The reticulate whipray is one of the species that colonised the Eastern Mediterranean through the Suez Canal as part of the ongoing Lessepsian migration.
A cargo ship cruises towards the Strait of Messina
Port of Trieste
Kemer Beach in Antalya on the Turkish Riviera (Turquoise Coast). In 2019, Turkey ranked sixth in the world in terms of the number of international tourist arrivals, with 51.2 million foreign tourists visiting the country.
Coast of Alexandria, view From Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt
Beach of Hammamet, Tunisia
The beach of la Courtade in the Îles d'Hyères, France
Sardinia's south coast, Italy
Pretty Bay, Malta
Panoramic view of Piran, Slovenia
Panoramic view of Cavtat, Croatia
View of Neum, Bosnia and Herzegovina
A view of Sveti Stefan, Montenegro
Ksamil Islands, Albania
Navagio, Greece
Ölüdeniz, Turquoise Coast, Turkey
Paphos, Cyprus
Burj Islam Beach, Latakia, Syria
A view of Raouché off the coast of Beirut, Lebanon
A view of Haifa, Israel
Old city of Ibiza Town, Spain
Les Aiguades near Béjaïa, Algeria
El Jebha, a port town in Morocco
Europa Point, Gibraltar
Panoramic view of La Condamine, Monaco
Sunset at the Deir al-Balah beach, Gaza Strip

The Mediterranean Sea covers an area of about 2500000 km2, representing 0.7% of the global ocean surface, but its connection to the Atlantic via the Strait of Gibraltar—the narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates the Iberian Peninsula in Europe from Morocco in Africa—is only 14 km wide.

Russia

Transcontinental country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia.

The Kurgan hypothesis places the Volga-Dnieper region of southern Russia and Ukraine as the urheimat of the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
Kievan Rus' in the 11th century
Sergius of Radonezh blessing Dmitry Donskoy in Trinity Sergius Lavra, before the Battle of Kulikovo, depicted in a painting by Ernst Lissner
Tsar Ivan the Terrible, in an evocation by Viktor Vasnetsov, 1897.
Russian expansion and territorial evolution between the 14th and 20th centuries.
Napoleon's retreat from Moscow by Albrecht Adam (1851).
Emperor Nicholas II of Russia and the Romanovs were executed by the Bolsheviks in 1918.
Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky during a 1920 speech in Moscow
Location of the Russian SFSR (red) within the Soviet Union in 1936
The Battle of Stalingrad, the largest and bloodiest battle in the history of warfare, ended in 1943 with a decisive Soviet victory against the German Army.
The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference in February 1945, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin.
Mikhail Gorbachev in one-to-one discussions with Ronald Reagan in the Reykjavík Summit, 1986.
Vladimir Putin takes the oath of office as president on his first inauguration, with Boris Yeltsin looking over, 2000.
Vladimir Putin (third, left), Sergey Aksyonov (first, left), Vladimir Konstantinov (second, left) and Aleksei Chalyi (right) sign the Treaty on Accession of the Republic of Crimea to Russia in 2014
Topographic map of Russia
Köppen climate classification of Russia.
Yugyd Va National Park in the Komi Republic is the largest national park in Europe.
Chart for the political system of Russia
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Putin with G20 counterparts in Osaka, 2019.
Sukhoi Su-57, a fifth-generation fighter of the Russian Air Force.
Following the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022, anti-war protests broke out across Russia. The protests have been met with widespread repression, leading to roughly 15,000 being arrested.
The Moscow International Business Center in Moscow. The city has one of the world's largest urban economies.
The Trans-Siberian Railway is the longest railway line in the world, connecting Moscow to Vladivostok.
Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765), polymath scientist, inventor, poet and artist
Mir, Soviet and Russian space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001.
Peterhof Palace in Saint Petersburg, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Saint Basil's Cathedral in Moscow is the most iconic religious architecture of Russia.
Moscow State University, the most prestigious educational institution in Russia.
Metallurg, a Soviet-era sanatorium in Sochi.
The Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, at night.
The Scarlet Sails being celebrated along the Neva in Saint Petersburg
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840–1893), in a 1893 painting by Nikolai Dmitriyevich Kuznetsov
Kvass is an ancient and traditional Russian beverage.
Ostankino Tower in Moscow, the tallest freestanding structure in Europe.
Maria Sharapova, former world No. 1 tennis player, was the world's highest-paid female athlete for 11 consecutive years.

It is the ninth-most populous country and the most populous country in Europe, with a population of 145.5 million.

Western culture

Heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems, artifacts and technologies of the Western world.

The Western world based-on Samuel P. Huntington's 1996 Clash of Civilizations. In turquoise are Latin America and the Orthodox World, which are either a part of the West or distinct civilizations intimately related to the West.
Alexander the Great
Representation of Jesus of Nazareth, central figure of Christianity.
The Maison Carrée in Nîmes, one of the best-preserved Roman temples.
The Roman Empire (red) and its client states (pink) at its greatest extent in 117 AD under emperor Trajan.
Mosaic of Justinian I with his court, circa 547–549, Basilica of San Vitale (Ravenna, Italy)
Two main symbols of the medieval Western civilization on one picture: the gothic St. Martin's cathedral in Spišské Podhradie (Slovakia) and the Spiš Castle behind the cathedral
Stone bas-relief of Jesus, from the Vézelay Abbey (Burgundy, France)
Notre-Dame, the most iconic Gothic cathedral, built between 1163 and 1345
Thomas Aquinas, a Catholic philosopher of the Middle Ages, revived and developed natural law from ancient Greek philosophy
Christopher Columbus arrives at the New World.
The United States Constitution
A Watt steam engine. The steam engine, made of iron and fueled primarily by coal, propelled the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain and the world.
Detail of the Bayeux Tapestry showing William the Conqueror (centre), his half-brothers Robert, Count of Mortain (right) and Odo, Bishop of Bayeux in the Duchy of Normandy (left). The Bayeux tapestry is one of the supreme achievements of the Norman Romanesque.
Classical music, opera and ballet: Swan Lake pictured
The Divine Comedy is an epic poem by Dante Alighieri. Engraving by Gustave Doré
Medieval Christians believed that to seek the geometric, physical and mathematical principles that govern the world was to seek and worship God. Detail of a scene in the bowl of the letter 'P' with a woman with a set-square and dividers; using a compass to measure distances on a diagram. In her left hand she holds a square, an implement for testing or drawing right angles. She is watched by a group of students. In the Middle Ages, it is unusual to see women represented as teachers, in particular when the students appear to be monks. She is most likely the personification of Geometry, based on Martianus Capella's famous book De Nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii [5th c.], a standard source for allegorical imagery of the seven liberal arts. Illustration at the beginning of Euclid's Elementa, in the translation attributed to Adelard of Bath.
A doctor of philosophy of the University of Oxford, in full academic dress. The typical dress for graduation are gowns and hoods or hats adapted from the daily dress of university staff in the Middle Ages, which was in turn based on the attire worn by medieval clergy.
The Greek Antikythera mechanism is generally referred to as the first known analogue computer.
Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin, Apollo Lunar Module pilot of the first crewed mission to land on the Moon, poses for a photograph beside the deployed United States flag during his Extravehicular Activity (EVA) on the lunar surface.
Euler was one of the greatest mathematicians in history
The Bull-Leaping Fresco from the Great Palace at Knossos, Crete. Sport has been an important part of Western cultural expression since Classical Antiquity.
Baron Pierre de Coubertin, founder of the International Olympic Committee, and considered father of the modern Olympic Games.
A Madonna and Child painting by an anonymous Italian from the first half of the 19th century, oil on canvas.
Claudio Monteverdi, 1567–1643
Antonio Lucio Vivaldi, 1678–1741
George Frideric Handel, 1685-1759
Johann Sebastian Bach, 1685-1750
Franz Joseph Haydn, 1732-1809
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, 1756–1791
Ludwig van Beethoven, 1770–1827
Frédéric François Chopin, 1810-1849
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, 1840–1893
Restoration of a fresco from an Ancient Roman villa bedroom, circa 50-40 BC, dimensions of the room: 265.4 x 334 x 583.9 cm, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, circa 1503–1506, perhaps continuing until circa 1517, oil on poplar panel, 77 cm × 53 cm, Louvre, (Paris)
Las Meninas, by Diego Velázquez, 1656, oil on canvas, 318 cm × 276 cm, El Prado (Madrid)
Dance at Le moulin de la Galette, by Pierre-Auguste Renoir, 1876, oil on canvas, height: 131 cm, Musée d'Orsay (Paris)
Photo of the interior of the apartment of Eugène Atget, taken in 1910 in Paris
The Parthenon under restoration in 2008, the most iconic Classical building, built from 447 BC to 432 BC, located in Athens
Stained glass windows of the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris, completed in 1248, mostly constructed between 1194 and 1220
Saint Basil's Cathedral, built from 1555 to 1561, in the Red Square of Moscow, with its extraordinary onion-shaped domes, painted in bright colors
The Palais Garnier in Paris, built between 1861 and 1875, a Beaux-Arts masterpiece
Borgund Stave Church, built between 1180 and 1250 AD, displays a common palisade church building constructions once common in north-western Europe. Similar constructions are known from buildings from the Viking Age.
The facade of Angoulême Cathedral was built between 1110 and 1128 in the Romanesque style
The Palazzo Farnese, in Rome, built from 1534 to 1545, was designed by Sangallo and Michelangelo and is an important example of renaissance architecture

The term applies beyond Europe to countries and cultures whose histories are strongly connected to Europe by immigration, colonization or influence.

Eurasia

The boundary of the 13th century Mongol Empire and location of today's Mongols in modern Mongolia, Russia and China.
Single markets in European and post-Soviet countries; European Economic Area and Common Economic Space
ASEM Partners
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Area from Lisbon to Vladivostok with all European and CIS countries
Physical map of Asia
Changes in national boundaries after the collapse of the Eastern Bloc

Eurasia is the largest continental area on Earth, comprising all of Europe and Asia.

North America

Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere.

Map of populous North America showing physical, political and population characteristics as per 2018
Map of North America, from 1621
The totality of North America seen by the Apollo 16 crew, with Canada being covered by clouds
Landforms and land cover of North America
Sonoran Desert in Arizona
Moraine Lake in Banff National Park
Nuuk, the capital city of Greenland
Principal hydrological divides of Canada, the United States and Mexico
Geologic map of North America published by USGS
North America map of Köppen climate classification
Map of North America in 1702 showing forts, towns and (in solid colors) areas occupied by European settlements
Non-native nations' control and claims over North America c. 1750–2008
Native languages of the US, Canada, Greenland, and Northern Mexico
Percentage of people who identify with a religion in North America, according to 2010–2012 data
Mexican President Peña Nieto, U.S. President Trump, and Canadian Prime Minister Trudeau sign the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement during the G20 summit in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on 30 November 2018
Worlds regions by total wealth (in trillions USD), 2018
2006 map of the North American Class I railroad network
Baseball is traditionally known as America's national pastime, but is also played in Canada, and many Latin American countries as well.

North America is the third-largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, and Europe.

Turkish Straits

The Turkish Straits (Türk Boğazları) are two internationally significant waterways in northwestern Turkey.

The Bosphorus (red), the Dardanelles (yellow), and the Sea of Marmara in between, are known collectively as the Turkish Straits
Satellite image of the Bosphorus, taken from the International Space Station in April 2004. The body of water at the top is the Black Sea, the one at the bottom is the Marmara Sea, and the Bosphorus is the winding vertical waterway that connects the two. The western banks of the Bosphorus constitute the geographic starting point of the European continent, while the banks to the east are the geographic beginnings of the continent of Asia. The city of Istanbul is visible along both banks.
The 1915 Çanakkale Bridge on the Dardanelles strait, connecting Europe and Asia, is the longest suspension bridge in the world.
View of the Dardanelles, taken from the Landsat 7 satellite in September 2006. The body of water at the upper left is the Aegean Sea, while the one on the upper right is the Sea of Marmara. The long, narrow upper peninsula is Gallipoli (Gelibolu), and constitutes the banks of the continent of Europe, while the lower peninsula is Troad (Biga) and constitutes the banks of the continent of Asia. The Dardanelles is the tapered waterway running diagonally between the two peninsulas, from the northeast to the southwest. The city of Çanakkale is visible along the shores of the lower peninsula, centered at the only point where a sharp outcropping juts into the otherwise-linear Dardanelles.

Located in the western part of the landmass of Eurasia, the Straits are conventionally considered the boundary between the continents of Europe and Asia, as well as the dividing line between European Turkey and Asian Turkey.