European Court of Justice

Court of JusticeECJEuropean Courtinfringement procedureCourtsEU Court of JusticeCourt of Justice of the European UnionjudiciaryThe European Court of Justicea reference for a preliminary ruling
The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.wikipedia
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Luxembourg City

LuxembourgCity of LuxembourgLuxembourg, Luxembourg
The Court was established in 1952 and is based in Luxembourg.
Luxembourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union (alongside Brussels and Strasbourg), as it is the seat of several institutions, agencies and bodies of the European Union, including the European Court of Justice, the European Court of Auditors, the Secretariat of the European Parliament, the European Investment Bank, the European Investment Fund, and the European Stability Mechanism.

General Court (European Union)

General CourtCourt of First InstanceEuropean Court of First Instance
The Court of First Instance was renamed as the "General Court", and the term "Court of Justice of the European Union" will officially designate the two courts, as along with its specialised tribunals, taken together. The Court has competence, among other things, to rule on applications for annulment or actions for failure to act brought by a Member State or an institution, actions against Member States for failure to fulfil obligations, references for a preliminary ruling and appeals against decisions of the General Court.
It hears actions taken against the institutions of the European Union by individuals and member states, although certain matters are reserved for the European Court of Justice.

Supreme court

court of last resorthighest courtsupreme
The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.
In respect of Community Law the Supreme Court is subject to the decisions of the European Court of Justice.

European Coal and Steel Community

ECSCCoal and Steel CommunityEuropean Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)
The court was established in 1952, by the Treaty of Paris (1951) as part of the European Coal and Steel Community.
These would ultimately form the blueprint for today's European Commission, European Parliament, the Council of the European Union and the European Court of Justice.

European Union

EUEuropeanEurope
The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law. The Maastricht Treaty was ratified in 1993, and created the European Union.
Similarly, the European Court of Justice uses French as the working language, while the European Central Bank conducts its business primarily in English.

Court of Justice of the European Union

CJEUCourt of JusticeCourt of Justice of the European Communities
As a part of the Court of Justice of the European Union it is tasked with interpreting EU law and ensuring its equal application across all EU member states.
Seated in the Kirchberg quarter of Luxembourg City, Luxembourg, this EU institution consists of two separate courts: the Court of Justice and the General Court.

Robert Lecourt

Links between the direct effect doctrine and the suppression of inter-state retaliation between the EU member states can be found in many of the landmark early decisions of the European Court of Justice, and in the writings of the influential French judge, Robert Lecourt, perhaps the most important member of the Court between 1962 and 1976.
Robert Lecourt (19 September 1908 – 9 August 2004) was a French politician and lawyer, judge and the fourth President of the European Court of Justice.

European Economic Community

European CommunityEECCommon Market
It became an institution of two additional Communities in 1957 when the European Economic Community (EEC), and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) were created, sharing the same courts with the European Coal and Steel Community.
On 1 July 1967 when the Merger Treaty came into operation, combining the institutions of the ECSC and Euratom into that of the EEC, they already shared a Parliamentary Assembly and Courts.

Vassilios Skouris

V Skouris
Vassilios Skouris (Βασίλειος Σκουρής; born 6 March 1948) is a Greek judge who was President of the European Court of Justice from 2004 to 2015.

Alexander Mackenzie Stuart, Baron Mackenzie-Stuart

Alexander Mackenzie StuartAlexander John Mackenzie StuartLord Mackenzie Stuart
He was the first judge from a United Kingdom jurisdiction to sit on the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg, later becoming its president.

Gil Carlos Rodríguez Iglesias

Gil Carlos Rodriguez Iglesias
Gil Carlos Rodríguez Iglesias (26 May 1946 – 17 January 2019), was a Spanish judge at the European Court of Justice between 31 January 1986 and 7 October 2004.

Josse Mertens de Wilmars

Baron Joseph (Josse) Marie Honoré Charles Mertens de Wilmars (22 June 1912 – 1 August 2002) was a Belgian jurist who became a member of the European Court of Justice and then its sixth President.

European Atomic Energy Community

EuratomEAECEuropean Atomic Energy Commission
It became an institution of two additional Communities in 1957 when the European Economic Community (EEC), and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) were created, sharing the same courts with the European Coal and Steel Community.
Euratom would foster co-operation in the nuclear field, at the time a very popular area, and would, along with the EEC, share the Common Assembly and Court of Justice of the ECSC, but not its executives.

Massimo Pilotti

Pilotti was the first President of the European Court of Justice at Luxembourg.

André Donner

Andreas Matthias Donner
Andreas Matthias Donner (15 June 1918 in Rotterdam – 24 August 1992 in Amersfoort) was a Dutch judge and the second President of the European Court of Justice, a position which he served between 1958 and 1964.

Charles-Léon Hammes

Charles Léon Hammes
Charles Léon Hammes (21 May 1898 – 9 December 1967) was a Luxembourgish lawyer, judge and the third president of the European Court of Justice.

Ole Due

Ole Due (10 February 1931 – 21 January 2005 in Hillerød), was a Danish judge and the President of the European Court of Justice.

Preliminary ruling

preliminary referencespreliminary referencepreliminary judgement
The Court has competence, among other things, to rule on applications for annulment or actions for failure to act brought by a Member State or an institution, actions against Member States for failure to fulfil obligations, references for a preliminary ruling and appeals against decisions of the General Court.
A preliminary ruling is a decision of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) on the interpretation of European Union law, given in response to a request from a court or tribunal of a European Union Member State.

Treaty of Lisbon

Lisbon TreatyLisbonReform Treaty
Following the entrance into force of the Treaty of Lisbon on 1 December 2009, the ECJ's official name was changed from the "Court of Justice of the European Communities" to the "Court of Justice" although in English it is still most common to refer to the Court as the European Court of Justice.
That included giving Poland a slightly stronger wording for the revived Ioannina Compromise, plus a nomination for an additional Advocate General at the European Court of Justice.

Koen Lenaerts

K Lenaerts
The court has been led by president Koen Lenaerts since 2015.
From 1989 until 6 October 2003 he was Judge of the European Court of First Instance (now known as the General Court), and since 7 October 2003 he has been a Judge at the European Court of Justice, where he became Vice President in 2012.

European Union law

EU lawEuropean lawlaw of the European Union
The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.
The same year, the Court of Justice proclaimed that the Community constituted a "new legal order of international law".

Hans Kutscher

Hans Kutscher (14 December 1911 – 24 August 1993) was a member of the first and second Senate of the German Constitutional Court and later a member and then President of the European Court of Justice.

Maastricht Treaty

Treaty of MaastrichtMaastrichtTreaty on European Union
The Maastricht Treaty was ratified in 1993, and created the European Union.
The first pillar was where the EU's supra-national institutions—the Commission, the European Parliament and the European Court of Justice—had the most power and influence.

Primacy of European Union law

supremacy of EU lawprimacySupremacy (European Union law)
Over time ECJ developed two essential rules on which the legal order rests: direct effect and primacy.
This principle was developed by the European Court of Justice, and, as interpreted by that court, it means that any norms of European law always take precedence over any norms of national law, including the constitutions of member states.