European colonization of the Americas

European colonizationwhite settlersEuropean settlementEuropean settlerscolonization of the AmericasEuropean contactcolonizationconquest of the AmericasEuropeanEuropean colonists
The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Western Europe.wikipedia
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Christopher Columbus

ColumbusCristoforo ColomboColón
Systematic European colonization began in 1492, when a Spanish expedition headed by the Italian explorer Christopher Columbus sailed west to find a new trade route to the Far East but inadvertently landed in what came to be known to Europeans as the "New World".
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 1451 – 20 May 1506) was an Italian explorer and colonizer who completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean that opened the New World for conquest and permanent European colonization of the Americas.

Voyages of Christopher Columbus

first voyagesecond voyagediscovery of America
Systematic European colonization began in 1492, when a Spanish expedition headed by the Italian explorer Christopher Columbus sailed west to find a new trade route to the Far East but inadvertently landed in what came to be known to Europeans as the "New World".
Spain, Portugal, and other European kingdoms sent expeditions and established colonies throughout the New World, converted the native inhabitants to Christianity, and built large trade networks across the Atlantic, which introduced new plants, animals, and food crops to both continents.

Caribbean

the CaribbeanWest IndiesWest Indian
The Spaniards began building their empire of the Americas in the Caribbean, using islands such as Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Hispaniola as bases. As a result, by the mid-16th century, the Spanish Crown had gained control of much of western South America, and southern North America, in addition to its earlier Caribbean territories.
At the time of European contact, the dominant ethnic groups in the Caribbean included the Taíno of the Greater Antilles and northern Lesser Antilles, the Island Caribs of the southern Lesser Antilles, and smaller distinct groups such as the Guanajatabey of western Cuba and the Ciguayo of eastern Hispaniola.

Genocide of indigenous peoples

genocideNative American genocidegenocide of Native Americans
Some authors have argued this demographic collapse to be the first large-scale act of genocide in the modern era.
For example, in the case of the colonization of the Americas, where the indigenous people of the Americas declined by up to 90% in the first centuries of European colonization, it can be debatable whether genocide occurs when disease is considered the main cause of this decline since the introduction of disease was mostly unintentional.

New World

NewThe New WorldAmericas
Systematic European colonization began in 1492, when a Spanish expedition headed by the Italian explorer Christopher Columbus sailed west to find a new trade route to the Far East but inadvertently landed in what came to be known to Europeans as the "New World".
One can speak of the "New World" in a historical context, e.g., when discussing the voyages of Christopher Columbus, the Spanish conquest of Yucatán and other events of the colonial period.

Alabama

ALState of AlabamaAlabamian
Later, the areas that are today California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Texas, Missouri, Louisiana, and Alabama were taken over by other conquistadors, such as Hernando de Soto, Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, and Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca.
Trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period (1000 BC–AD 700) and continued until European contact.

Columbian exchange

The Grand Exchangeintroducedoccurred with the discovery of the New World
The post-1492 era is known as the period of the Columbian Exchange, a dramatically widespread exchange of animals, plants, culture, human populations (including slaves), ideas, and communicable disease between the North and South American and Afro-Eurasian hemispheres following Columbus's voyages to the Americas.
It also relates to European colonization and trade following Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage.

Atlantic slave trade

transatlantic slave tradeslave tradetrans-Atlantic slave trade
The post-1492 era is known as the period of the Columbian Exchange, a dramatically widespread exchange of animals, plants, culture, human populations (including slaves), ideas, and communicable disease between the North and South American and Afro-Eurasian hemispheres following Columbus's voyages to the Americas.
There is evidence that enslaved people from some parts of Africa were exported to states in Africa, Europe, and Asia prior to the European colonization of the Americas.

North America

NorthNorth AmericanNA
As a result, by the mid-16th century, the Spanish Crown had gained control of much of western South America, and southern North America, in addition to its earlier Caribbean territories.
Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants.

Slavery in the Spanish New World colonies

slavesAfrican slavesslavery
It was 1517 before another expedition, from Cuba, visited Central America, landing on the coast of Yucatán in search of slaves.
Spanish slavery in the Americas diverged drastically from other European colonies in that it took on an early abolitionist stance towards Native American slavery.

Valladolid debate

Valladolid Controversyconsider the morality of the forceimportant debate
Later, the Valladolid debate between the Dominican priest Bartolomé de Las Casas and another Dominican philosopher Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda was held, with the former arguing that Native Americans were beings doted with souls, as all other human beings, while the latter argued to the contrary and justified their enslavement.
Held in the Colegio de San Gregorio, in the Spanish city of Valladolid, it was a moral and theological debate about the conquest of the Americas, its justification for the conversion to Catholicism, and more specifically about the relations between the European settlers and the natives of the New World.

Colonization

colonisationcolonizecolonial
During this time, the Portuguese gradually switched from an initial plan of establishing trading posts to extensive colonization of what is now Brazil.
In the 19th century, laws and ideas such as Mexico's general Colonization Law and the United States' Manifest destiny encouraged further colonization of the Americas, already started in the 15th century.

Spain

SpanishESPKingdom of Spain
Systematic European colonization began in 1492, when a Spanish expedition headed by the Italian explorer Christopher Columbus sailed west to find a new trade route to the Far East but inadvertently landed in what came to be known to Europeans as the "New World". The Spaniards began building their empire of the Americas in the Caribbean, using islands such as Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Hispaniola as bases.
The colonisation of the Americas started with conquistadores like Hernán Cortés and Francisco Pizarro.

Human sacrifice

ritual murdersacrificedsacrifice
Many of these captives were forced to undergo human sacrifice in Amerindian civilizations such as the Aztecs.
In the New World, however, human sacrifice continued to be widespread to varying degrees until the European colonization of the Americas.

Americas

Americathe AmericasAmerican
Slavery was a common practice in the Americas prior to the arrival of Europeans, as different American Indian groups captured and held other tribes' members as slaves.
Diseases introduced from Europe and West Africa devastated the indigenous peoples, and the European powers colonized the Americas.

Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas

Population history of American indigenous peoplesNative American populationpopulations
Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of the Americas vary tremendously.
Contact with the Europeans led to the European colonization of the Americas, in which millions of immigrants from Europe eventually settled in the Americas.

Indigenous peoples of the Americas

Native AmericanNative Americansindigenous
The North and South American mainland fell to the conquistadors precipitating an estimated 8,000,000 deaths of indigenous populations primarily through the spread of Afro-Eurasian diseases.
The Pre-Columbian era refers to all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European and African influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original arrival in the Upper Paleolithic to European colonization during the early modern period.

New Spain

Viceroyalty of New SpainSpanishNueva España
The Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan, became Mexico City, the chief city of what the Spanish were now calling "New Spain".

Couronian colonization of the Americas

New CourlandCourlandersTobago
* New Courland (Tobago) (1654–1689); Courland is now part of Latvia
The Couronian colonisation of the Americas was performed by the Duchy of Courland, which was the second smallest state to colonise the Americas (after the Knights of Malta), with a colony on the island of Tobago from 1654 to 1659, and intermittently from 1660 to 1689.

Fur trade

fur tradingfur traderfur trapper
In Canada the fur trade with the natives was important.
The North American fur trade began as early as the 1500s with Europeans and First Nations and was a central part of the early history of contact between Europeans and the native peoples of what is now the United States and Canada.

Indigenous peoples

indigenousindigenous peopleaboriginal
Epidemics of smallpox (1518, 1521, 1525, 1558, 1589), typhus (1546), influenza (1558), diphtheria (1614) and measles (1618) swept the Americas subsequent to European contact, killing between 10 million and 100 million people, up to 95% of the indigenous population of the Americas.
The impact of European colonization of the Americas on the indigenous communities has been in general quite severe, with many authorities estimating ranges of significant population decline primarily due to disease but also violence.

New Sweden

SwedishWicacoNya Sverige
Early European possessions in North America included Spanish Florida, Spanish New Mexico, the English colonies of Virginia (with its North Atlantic offshoot, Bermuda) and New England, the French colonies of Acadia and Canada, the Swedish colony of New Sweden, and the Dutch New Netherland.

Encomienda

encomenderoencomenderosencomiendas
Progressively the encomienda system, which granted tribute (access to indigenous labor and taxation) to European settlers, was set in place.
Noble David Cook, writing about the Black Legend and the conquest of the Americas wrote, "There were too few Spaniards to have killed the millions who were reported to have died in the first century after Old and New World contact" and instead suggests the near total decimation of the indigenous population of Hispaniola as mostly having been caused by diseases like smallpox.

Spanish Florida

FloridaLa FloridaSecond Spanish Period
Early European possessions in North America included Spanish Florida, Spanish New Mexico, the English colonies of Virginia (with its North Atlantic offshoot, Bermuda) and New England, the French colonies of Acadia and Canada, the Swedish colony of New Sweden, and the Dutch New Netherland.

Dominican Republic

DominicanDOMDominicans
The colony of Santo Domingo became the site of the first permanent European settlement in the Americas, the oldest continuously inhabited city, and the first seat of the Spanish colonial rule in the New World.