Euroscepticism

EuroscepticHard EuroscepticismSoft EuroscepticismEuroscepticssoft euroscepticanti-EUEuro-sceptichard EuroscepticEuroskepticanti-European
Euroscepticism, also known as EU-scepticism, means criticism of the European Union (EU) and European integration.wikipedia
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Euroscepticism in the United Kingdom

EuroscepticEuroscepticismpopular euroscepticsm in the UK
Some aspects of Euroscepticism in the United Kingdom have been mirrored by U.S. authors.
Euroscepticism, i.e. the opposition to policies of supranational European Union institutions and/or opposition to Britain's membership of the European Union, has been a significant element in the politics of the United Kingdom (UK).

Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy

EFDDEurope for Freedom and DemocracyEurope of Freedom and Direct Democracy Group
The Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy group in the European Parliament, typified by such parties as the Brexit Party and UK Independence Party (UKIP), displays hard Euroscepticism.
Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy (EFDD or EFD²) was a Eurosceptic and populist political group in the European Parliament.

Brexit Party

The Brexit PartyBrexitBREX
The Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy group in the European Parliament, typified by such parties as the Brexit Party and UK Independence Party (UKIP), displays hard Euroscepticism. Those that won their national elections included: The Brexit Party in the UK (which was only launched on 12 April 2019 by former UKIP leader Nigel Farage), the National Rally of France (formerly the National Front party until June 2018), Fidesz in Hungary, Lega in Italy, and Law and Justice in Poland.
The Brexit Party is a Eurosceptic political party in the United Kingdom.

Brexit

United Kingdom withdrawal from the European Unionleave the European Unionleave
A referendum on continued EU membership was held in the UK in 2016 which resulted in a 51.9% vote in favour of leaving the EU.
Withdrawal is advocated by Eurosceptics and opposed by pro-Europeanists, both of whom span the political spectrum.

European Conservatives and Reformists

ECREuropean Conservatives and Reformists GroupERC
The European Conservatives and Reformists group, typified by centre-right parties such as Czech Civic Democratic Party, along with the European United Left–Nordic Green Left which is an alliance of the left-wing parties in the European Parliament, display soft Euroscepticism.
The European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) is a Eurosceptic, anti-federalist political group in the European Parliament.

Civic Democratic Party (Czech Republic)

Civic Democratic PartyODSCivic Democrats
The European Conservatives and Reformists group, typified by centre-right parties such as Czech Civic Democratic Party, along with the European United Left–Nordic Green Left which is an alliance of the left-wing parties in the European Parliament, display soft Euroscepticism. Petr Mach, an economist, a close associate of president Václav Klaus and a member of the Civic Democratic Party between 1997 and 2007, founded the Free Citizens Party in 2009.
The Civic Democratic Party (Občanská demokratická strana, ODS) is a liberal-conservative eurosceptic political party in the Czech Republic.

Radical right (Europe)

radical rightradical right-wingfar-right in Europe
The rise in radical right-wing parties since the 2000s is strongly linked to a rise in Euroscepticism.
Populist right wing groups have shared a number of causes, which typically include [[Anti-globalization movement#Civic and Racial Nationalist opposition against globalization|opposition to globalisation]], criticism of immigration and multiculturalism, and opposition to the European Union.

Václav Klaus

Vaclav KlauspresidentDr Vaclav Klaus
The Czech president Václav Klaus rejected the term ’Euroscepticism’ for its purported negative undertones, saying (at a meeting in April 2012) that the expressions for a Eurosceptic and their opponent should be "a Euro-realist" and someone who is "Euro-naïve", respectively.
His presidency was marked by numerous controversies over his strong views on a number of issues, from global warming denial to euroscepticism, and a wide-ranging amnesty declared in his last months of office, triggering his indictment by the Czech Senate on charges of high treason.

2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum

2016 referendum2016 EU referendumBrexit referendum
A referendum on continued EU membership was held in the UK in 2016 which resulted in a 51.9% vote in favour of leaving the EU.
When they attended the May 2012 NATO summit meeting, UK Prime Minister David Cameron, Foreign Secretary William Hague and Ed Llewellyn discussed the idea of using a European Union referendum as a concession to energise the Eurosceptic wing of the Conservative Party.

Popular Republican Union (2007)

Popular Republican UnionUPR
François Asselineau of the French Popular Republican Union has criticised the use of the term 'sceptic' to describe hard Eurosceptics, and would rather advocate the use of the term "Euro opponent".
The ideology of the party is a hard Eurosceptic, and seeks the withdrawal of France from the European Union, the euro and NATO.

Anti-Europeanism

Europhobiaanti-EuropeanAnti-EU
Euroscepticism should not be confused with anti-Europeanism, which is a dislike of European culture and European ethnic groups by non-Europeans.
In the shorthand of "Europe" (a British usage, standing for the European Union or European integration), it may refer to Euroscepticism,

Europe of Democracies and Diversities

EDDGroup for a Europe of Democracies and DiversitiesEDD group
In 2004, 37 Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) from the UK, Poland, Denmark and Sweden founded a new European Parliament group called "Independence and Democracy" from the old Europe of Democracies and Diversities (EDD) group.
Europe of Democracies and Diversities (EDD) was a Eurosceptic political group with seats in the European Parliament between 1999 and 2004.

Europe of Freedom and Democracy

EFDEFD groupEurope of Freedom and Democracy (EFD)
The ID group did reform, as the Europe of Freedom and Democracy (EFD) and is represented by 32 MEPs from nine countries.
Europe of Freedom and Democracy (EFD) was a right-wing Eurosceptic political group in the European Parliament.

Democratic legitimacy of the European Union

democratic deficitDemocratic deficit in the European Unionlacks democratic legitimacy
The main sources of Euroscepticism have been beliefs that integration undermines national sovereignty and the nation state, that the EU is elitist and lacks democratic legitimacy and transparency, that it is too bureaucratic and wasteful, that it encourages high levels of migration, or perceptions that it is a neoliberal organisation serving the business elite at the expense of the working class, responsible for austerity and driving privatization.
Pro-Europeans (i.e. those in favour of the EU) argue that the European Union should reform its institutions to make them more accountable, while Eurosceptics argue that the EU should reduce its powers and often campaign for withdrawal from the EU.

2019 European Parliament election

2019 European elections2019 elections2019
The elections of 2019 saw the centre-left and centre-right parties suffer significant losses including losing their overall majority, while green, pro-EU liberal, and some Eurosceptic right wing parties saw significant gains.
The centre-left and centre-right parties suffered significant losses, while pro-EU centrist liberal, environmentalist, Eurosceptic and right-wing populist parties made substantial gains.

Five Star Movement

M5SFive Stars Movement5 Star Movement
Second places were taken by Sinn Féin in Ireland and the Five Star Movement in Italy.
The M5S is variously considered populist, anti-establishment, environmentalist, anti-globalist, and Eurosceptic.

Team Stronach

TSSTRONACHTeam Stronach for Austria
Team Stronach, established in 2012, has campaigned to reform the European Union, as well as to replace the euro with an Austrian Euro.
The Team Stronach, full name Team Stronach for Austria (Team Stronach für Österreich), was a Eurosceptic, right-wing populist political party in Austria founded by and named after Austrian-Canadian businessman Frank Stronach.

British National Party

BNPNew National FrontBritish National
In the UK, the Eurosceptic UKIP achieved second place in the election, finishing ahead of the governing Labour Party, and the British National Party (BNP) won its first-ever two MEPs.
It promotes economic protectionism, Euroscepticism, and a transformation away from liberal democracy, while its social policies oppose feminism, LGBT rights, and societal permissiveness.

Lega Nord

Northern LeagueLeagueLN
Those that won their national elections included: The Brexit Party in the UK (which was only launched on 12 April 2019 by former UKIP leader Nigel Farage), the National Rally of France (formerly the National Front party until June 2018), Fidesz in Hungary, Lega in Italy, and Law and Justice in Poland.
At the same time, the party began emphasizing Euroscepticism and other populist themes.

Nigel Farage

FarageNigel Farage MEPNigel Farrage
Those that won their national elections included: The Brexit Party in the UK (which was only launched on 12 April 2019 by former UKIP leader Nigel Farage), the National Rally of France (formerly the National Front party until June 2018), Fidesz in Hungary, Lega in Italy, and Law and Justice in Poland.
Farage joined the Conservative Party in 1978, but voted for the Green Party in 1989 because of what he saw as their then "sensible" and Eurosceptic policies.

Law and Justice

PiSLaw and Justice PartyPrawo i Sprawiedliwość
Those that won their national elections included: The Brexit Party in the UK (which was only launched on 12 April 2019 by former UKIP leader Nigel Farage), the National Rally of France (formerly the National Front party until June 2018), Fidesz in Hungary, Lega in Italy, and Law and Justice in Poland.
The party is solidarist and mildly Eurosceptic, and shares similar political tactics with Hungary's Fidesz but with anti-Russian stances.

Alliance for the Future of Austria

BZÖBZÖ Carinthia – Alliance of PatriotsAlliance for the Future
The Bündnis Zukunft Österreich (BZÖ), established in 2005, is a socially conservative party that has always held Eurosceptic elements.
The party takes a more moderate position than the FPÖ on immigration – proposing the introduction of a 'green card' – and is in some ways 'eurosceptic'.

Tony Benn

Anthony Wedgwood BennBenniteAnthony Wedgewood Benn
Additionally, Tony Benn, a left-wing Labour Party MP who fought against European integration in 1975 by opposing membership of the European Communities in that year's referendum on the issue, emphasised his opposition to xenophobia and his support of democracy, saying: "My view about the European Union has always been not that I am hostile to foreigners, but that I am in favour of democracy [...] I think they're building an empire there, they want us to be a part of their empire and I don't want that."
Labour lost the 1970 election to Edward Heath's Conservatives and upon Heath's application to join the European Economic Community, a surge in left-wing Euroscepticism emerged.

Common Agricultural Policy

agricultureCAPCommon Agriculture Policy
In early 2019, the Party aims to reduce the powers of the European Commission, to abolish the Common Agricultural Policy, to abandon common defense projects, to simplify the exit procedure of the European Union, to reject federalism and to forbid the European Union to direct economic, fiscal or social policy,
In addition, Euroscepticism in states such as the UK and Denmark is fed in part by the CAP, which Eurosceptics consider detrimental to their economies.

Svobodní

Party of Free CitizensFree Citizens PartySSO
Petr Mach, an economist, a close associate of president Václav Klaus and a member of the Civic Democratic Party between 1997 and 2007, founded the Free Citizens Party in 2009.
Svobodní (Free), until 2019 known as the Party of Free Citizens or the Free Citizens' Party (Strana svobodných občanů), is a classical liberal and right-libertarian, Eurosceptic political party in the Czech Republic founded in 2009 by Petr Mach, an economist and professor of macroeconomics.