Eutrophication

eutrophiceutrophicatedeutrophiedEutroficationHypertrophicalgae bloomsAnti-eutrophicationatmospheric depositioneuthrophicationeutophic
Eutrophication (from Greek eutrophos, "well-nourished"), or hypertrophication, is when a body of water becomes overly enriched with minerals and nutrients which induce excessive growth of algae.wikipedia
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Algal bloom

algal bloomsbloomsalgae bloom
One example is an "algal bloom" or great increase of phytoplankton in a water body as a response to increased levels of nutrients. Enhanced growth of aquatic vegetation or phytoplankton and algal blooms disrupts normal functioning of the ecosystem, causing a variety of problems such as a lack of oxygen needed for fish and shellfish to survive.
The process of the oversupply of nutrients leading to algae growth and oxygen depletion is called eutrophication.

Estuary

estuariesestuarinetidal estuary
Due to clearing of land and building of towns and cities, land runoff is accelerated and more nutrients such as phosphates and nitrate are supplied to lakes and rivers, and then to coastal estuaries and bays.
Many estuaries suffer degradation from a variety of factors including: sedimentation from soil erosion from deforestation, overgrazing, and other poor farming practices; overfishing; drainage and filling of wetlands; eutrophication due to excessive nutrients from sewage and animal wastes; pollutants including heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, radionuclides and hydrocarbons from sewage inputs; and diking or damming for flood control or water diversion.

Hypoxia (environmental)

hypoxiaanaerobicanoxic
After such organisms die, bacterial degradation of their biomass results in oxygen consumption, thereby creating the state of hypoxia.
Oxygen depletion can result from a number of natural factors, but is most often a concern as a consequence of pollution and eutrophication in which plant nutrients enter a river, lake, or ocean, and phytoplankton blooms are encouraged.

Phosphates in detergent

phosphatescontained phosphatesremove phosphates from the detergents
The sources of these excess phosphates are phosphates in detergent, industrial/domestic run-offs, and fertilizers.
This leads to eutrophication and harmful algal bloom.

Nitrogen

NN 2 dinitrogen
Elevated levels of atmospheric compounds of nitrogen can increase nitrogen availability.
Synthetically produced ammonia and nitrates are key industrial fertilisers, and fertiliser nitrates are key pollutants in the eutrophication of water systems.

Paleolimnology

paleolimnologicalpaleolimnologistPalaeolimnology
Paleolimnologists now recognise that climate change, geology, and other external influences are critical in regulating the natural productivity of lakes.
Palaeolimnological studies are concerned with reconstructing the paleoenvironments of inland waters (lakes and streams; freshwater, brackish, or saline) – and especially changes associated with such events as climatic change, human impacts (e.g., eutrophication, or acidification), and internal ontogenic processes.

Fish kill

fish killsfish die-offdie-offs
The depleted oxygen levels in turn may lead to fish kills and a range of other effects reducing biodiversity.
Furthermore, a significant detrimental outcome caused by eutrophication in the Mississippi River is the increased uptake of dissolved oxygen by bacteria, in response to higher concentrations of organic matter.

Phosphorus cycle

phosphorusphosphorus cyclingcycling
Humankind has increased the rate of phosphorus cycling on Earth by four times, mainly due to agricultural fertilizer production and application.
Over-enrichment of phosphate in both fresh and inshore marine waters can lead to massive algae blooms which, when they die and decay leads to eutrophication of freshwaters only.

Oxygen

OO 2 molecular oxygen
Enhanced growth of aquatic vegetation or phytoplankton and algal blooms disrupts normal functioning of the ecosystem, causing a variety of problems such as a lack of oxygen needed for fish and shellfish to survive.
Water polluted with plant nutrients such as nitrates or phosphates may stimulate growth of algae by a process called eutrophication and the decay of these organisms and other biomaterials may reduce the content in eutrophic water bodies.

Surface runoff

runoffagricultural runoffrun-off
Due to clearing of land and building of towns and cities, land runoff is accelerated and more nutrients such as phosphates and nitrate are supplied to lakes and rivers, and then to coastal estuaries and bays.
Surface runoff occurring within forests can supply lakes with high loads of mineral nitrogen and phosphorus leading to eutrophication.

Sewage

raw sewagedomestic sewagedrainage system
Eutrophication is often induced by the discharge of nitrate or phosphate-containing detergents, fertilizers, or sewage into an aquatic system.
Sewage contains nutrients that may cause eutrophication of receiving water bodies; and can lead to ecotoxicity.

Fertilizer

fertiliserfertilizersnitrogen fertilizer
Eutrophication is often induced by the discharge of nitrate or phosphate-containing detergents, fertilizers, or sewage into an aquatic system.
Cyanobacteria blooms ('algal blooms') can also produce harmful toxins that can accumulate in the food chain, and can be harmful to humans.

Phosphate

phosphatesphosphate groupinorganic phosphate
Due to clearing of land and building of towns and cities, land runoff is accelerated and more nutrients such as phosphates and nitrate are supplied to lakes and rivers, and then to coastal estuaries and bays. Eutrophication is often induced by the discharge of nitrate or phosphate-containing detergents, fertilizers, or sewage into an aquatic system.
For example, blooms in the populations of some organisms at the expense of others, and the collapse of populations deprived of resources such as oxygen (see eutrophication) can occur.

Dead zone (ecology)

dead zonedead zonesbiologically dead
Zones where this occurs are known as dead zones.
Aquatic and marine dead zones can be caused by an increase in nutrients (particularly nitrogen and phosphorus) in the water, known as eutrophication.

Nitrate

nitratesNO 3 − NO 3
Due to clearing of land and building of towns and cities, land runoff is accelerated and more nutrients such as phosphates and nitrate are supplied to lakes and rivers, and then to coastal estuaries and bays. Eutrophication is often induced by the discharge of nitrate or phosphate-containing detergents, fertilizers, or sewage into an aquatic system.
The resulting eutrophication and algae blooms result in anoxia and dead zones.

Anaerobic digestion

anaerobic digesteranaerobicbiogas plants
The dead algae and the organic load carried by the water inflows in to the lake settle at its bottom and undergoes anaerobic digestion releasing greenhouse gases like methane and CO 2.
If this effluent were put directly into watercourses, it would negatively affect them by causing eutrophication.

Trophic state index

eutrophicoligotrophicmesotrophic
Health problems can occur where eutrophic conditions interfere with drinking water treatment.
The process of eutrophication can occur naturally and by human impact on the environment.

Algae

algaalgalfilamentous algae
Eutrophication (from Greek eutrophos, "well-nourished"), or hypertrophication, is when a body of water becomes overly enriched with minerals and nutrients which induce excessive growth of algae.

Water pollution

pollutionpollutedwater
Eutrophication was recognized as a water pollution problem in European and North American lakes and reservoirs in the mid-20th century.
Alteration of water's physical chemistry includes acidity (change in pH), electrical conductivity, temperature, and eutrophication.

Agriculture

farmingagriculturalAgriculturist
Runoff from agriculture and development, pollution from septic systems and sewers, sewage sludge spreading, and other human-related activities increase the flow of both inorganic nutrients and organic substances into ecosystems.
Eutrophication, excessive nutrients in aquatic ecosystems resulting in algal bloom and anoxia, leads to fish kills, loss of biodiversity, and renders water unfit for drinking and other industrial uses.

Fish farming

fish farmpisciculturefish farms
Examples of anthropogenic sources of nitrogen-rich pollution to coastal waters include seacage fish farming and discharges of ammonia from the production of coke from coal.
Fertilizing, clarifying, and pH control of the water can increase yields substantially, as long as eutrophication is prevented and oxygen levels stay high.

Nutrient pollution

nutrientsPollutionexcess nutrients
See nutrient pollution for an extended explanation of nutrient remediation using shellfish.

Nonpoint source pollution

nonpoint sourcenonpoint sourcesnon-point sources
There are two common sources of nutrients and organic matter: point and nonpoint sources.
The increase of organic matter supply due to the excessive growth of the phytoplankton is called eutrophication.

Phosphorus

PP 4 phosphoric
Phosphorus is often regarded as the main culprit in cases of eutrophication in lakes subjected to "point source" pollution from sewage pipes. However, because phosphorus is generally much less soluble than nitrogen, it is leached from the soil at a much slower rate than nitrogen.
An excess of phosphorus can also be problematic, especially in aquatic systems where eutrophication sometimes leads to algal blooms.

Leaching (agriculture)

leachingleachedleach
However, because phosphorus is generally much less soluble than nitrogen, it is leached from the soil at a much slower rate than nitrogen.
Eutrophication, a decline in oxygen content of water, of aquatic systems can cause the death of fish and other marine species.