Evacuations of civilians in Japan during World War II

evacuate their childrenevacuate Tokyoevacuation of childrenmaking evacuation plans in late 1943move to the countrysideshould evacuatesystematic evacuation ordered by the Japanese government
About 8.5 million Japanese civilians were displaced from their homes between 1943 and 1945 as a result of air raids on Japan by the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) during World War II. These evacuations started in December 1943 as a voluntary government program to prepare the country's main cities for bombing raids by evacuating children, women and the elderly to rural towns.wikipedia
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Air raids on Japan

air raidsAllied air raidsAllied bombing
About 8.5 million Japanese civilians were displaced from their homes between 1943 and 1945 as a result of air raids on Japan by the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) during World War II.
The government also encouraged old people, children and women in cities that were believed likely to be attacked to move to the countryside from December 1943, and a program of evacuating entire classes of schoolchildren was implemented.

Bombing of Yawata (June 1944)

YawataBombing of Yawataan attack on Yawata
Few people evacuated until the first raid by American heavy bombers on Japan, an attack on Yawata, in June 1944 after which the government urged families to evacuate their children.
In response to the raid Japanese Government ministers urged families living the country's four major cities to evacuate their children to rural areas.

List of mass evacuations

largest evacuations
List of mass evacuations
June 1944 – August 1945 – Evacuations of civilians in Japan during World War II

Grave of the Fireflies

explanationsthe anime1988 film of the same name
The award-winning book was made into the critically acclaimed anime film Grave of the Fireflies, directed by Isao Takahata and released in Japan in 1988.
Evacuations of civilians in Japan during World War II

Evacuations of civilians in Britain during World War II

evacuatedevacueesevacuation
Evacuations of civilians in Britain during World War II
Evacuations of civilians in Japan during World War II

Evacuations of children in Germany during World War II

Kinderlandverschickungdeportation of childrenevacuated
Evacuations of children in Germany during World War II
Evacuations of civilians in Japan during World War II

United States Army Air Forces

USAAFArmy Air ForcesU.S. Army Air Forces
About 8.5 million Japanese civilians were displaced from their homes between 1943 and 1945 as a result of air raids on Japan by the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) during World War II.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
About 8.5 million Japanese civilians were displaced from their homes between 1943 and 1945 as a result of air raids on Japan by the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) during World War II.

Pacific War

Pacific TheaterPacific TheatrePacific
Before the Pacific War and during the first years of this conflict the Japanese government placed little emphasis on preparing civil defense measures in the event of air raids on the country.

Civil defense

civil defencecivil protectiondefense
Before the Pacific War and during the first years of this conflict the Japanese government placed little emphasis on preparing civil defense measures in the event of air raids on the country.

Incendiary device

incendiary bombincendiary bombsincendiary
The guidance which was prepared for civilians called on them to remain in cities which were attacked to fight fires from incendiary raids as part of neighborhood associations.

Mariana Islands

MarianasMarianaMariana Archipelago
These measures anticipated the commencement of attacks on the Japanese home islands if the Mariana Islands were captured by the United States.

Government of Japan

Japanese governmentgovernmentJapanese
In late 1943 the government of Japan developed plans to evacuate non-essential personnel from Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka and the cities in northern Kyushu.

Tokyo

Tokyo, JapanTokyo MetropolisTōkyō
In late 1943 the government of Japan developed plans to evacuate non-essential personnel from Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka and the cities in northern Kyushu.

Nagoya

Nagoya, JapanNagoya CityNagoya, Aichi
In late 1943 the government of Japan developed plans to evacuate non-essential personnel from Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka and the cities in northern Kyushu.

Osaka

ŌsakaOsaka, JapanOsaka City
In late 1943 the government of Japan developed plans to evacuate non-essential personnel from Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka and the cities in northern Kyushu.

Kyushu

KyūshūKyūshū IslandKyūshū region
In late 1943 the government of Japan developed plans to evacuate non-essential personnel from Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka and the cities in northern Kyushu.

Hideki Tojo

TojoTōjōHideki Tōjō
Prime Minister Hideki Tōjō initially opposed implementing these plans due to the damage they were likely to cause to morale and family cohesion but eventually agreed to them to minimize civilian casualties so that Japan's population could be regenerated for future wars.

Heavy bomber

heavy bombersBombardmentheavy
Few people evacuated until the first raid by American heavy bombers on Japan, an attack on Yawata, in June 1944 after which the government urged families to evacuate their children.

Firebreak

fire roadfire breakfire line
A further 343,000 urban residents were forced to leave their homes when they were destroyed to create firebreaks; these people either moved to the country or lived in temporary accommodation near their workplace.

Bombing of Tokyo

firebombing of TokyoTokyoTokyo air raids
Following the firebombing of Tokyo on 9–10 March 1945, all schoolchildren in the third to sixth grades were required to leave the main cities, and 87 percent of them had been moved to the countryside by early April.

Hiroshima

Hiroshima CityHiroshima, JapanUjina
Overall, 8.5 million Japanese civilians were displaced as a result of the American raids, including 120,000 of Hiroshima's population of 365,000 who evacuated the city before the atomic bomb attack on it in August 1945.

Kenpeitai

Japanese military policekempeitaiJapanese secret police
Parents were reluctant to protest because it was believed that the military-funded factories could provide the children with more nourishing meals and because such protests would draw the attention of the secret police and suspicions of disloyalty or subversion.

Kokura

Kokura Cycling Stadium
From the summer of 1944 until February 1945, high school girls worked in or near Kokura constructing balloons to carry bombs across the Pacific where they would detonate in the U.S. The girls worked in two 12-hour shifts and, contrary to their expectations, there was little food available.

Incendiary balloon

fire balloonballoon bombballoon bombs
From the summer of 1944 until February 1945, high school girls worked in or near Kokura constructing balloons to carry bombs across the Pacific where they would detonate in the U.S. The girls worked in two 12-hour shifts and, contrary to their expectations, there was little food available.