Evangelicalism in the United States

TheCall rally in 2008, Washington, D.C., with the United States Capitol in the background
National Association of Evangelicals works to foster cooperation among U.S. evangelical churches
Jonathan Edwards was the most influential evangelical theologian in America during the 18th century
Depiction of a camp meeting
Charles Grandison Finney, the most prominent revivalist of the Second Great Awakening
Collection box for the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, circa 1850.
John Nelson Darby, considered to be the father of modern Dispensationalism
Dwight Moody, founder of the Moody Bible Institute
Cyrus Scofield, author of the Scofield Reference Bible
Scofield Bible, 1917 edition
Congregation at Angelus Temple during 14-hour Holy Ghost service led by Aimee Semple McPherson in Los Angeles, California in 1942.
Services at the Pentecostal Church of God in Lejunior, Kentucky, 1946
Mushroom cloud from the Trinity test, the first test of a nuclear bomb
Evangelical revivalist Billy Graham in Duisburg, Germany, 1954
Socially conservative evangelical Protestantism has a major cultural influence in the Bible Belt, an area that covers almost all of the Southern United States, and includes all of the states that fought against the Union in the American Civil War.
An event at Texas megachurch Gateway Church's 114 Southlake Campus
Jerry Falwell, founder of the Moral Majority
Average surface air temperatures from 2011 to 2021 compared to the 1956–1976 average

Movement among Protestant Christians who believe in the necessity of being born again, emphasize the importance of evangelism, and affirm traditional Protestant teachings on the authority as well as the historicity of the Bible.

- Evangelicalism in the United States

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Worldwide interdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity that affirms the centrality of being "born again", in which an individual experiences personal conversion, the authority of the Bible as God's revelation to humanity , and in spreading the Christian message.

Park Street Church, Boston, Massachusetts, in 1904
Baptistery in the Pentecostal church (Pingstförsamlingen) of Västerås, in Sweden, 2018
A worship service at Hillsong Church UK, London
Hong Kong Baptist Theological Seminary, in Hong Kong, 2008
Worship service at Christ's Commission Fellowship Pasig affiliated to the Christ's Commission Fellowship in 2014, in Pasig, Philippines
Chümoukedima Ao Baptist Church building in Chümoukedima, Nagaland, affiliated with the Nagaland Baptist Church Council (India).
College of Nursing, Central Philippine University in Iloilo City, affiliated with the Convention of Philippine Baptist Churches, 2018
Wedding ceremony at First Baptist Church of Rivas, Baptist Convention of Nicaragua, 2011
Ark Encounter in Williamstown, Kentucky, United States
Show on the life of Jesus at Igreja da Cidade, affiliated to the Brazilian Baptist Convention, in São José dos Campos, Brazil, 2017
Together for the Gospel, an evangelical pastors' conference held biennially. A panel discussion with (from left to right) Albert Mohler, Ligon Duncan, C. J. Mahaney, and Mark Dever.
The Prayer Book of 1662 included the Thirty-Nine Articles emphasized by evangelical Anglicans.
Jonathan Edwards' account of the revival in Northampton was published in 1737 as A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God in the Conversion of Many Hundred Souls in Northampton
When forbidden from preaching from the pulpits of parish churches, John Wesley began open-air preaching.
William Wilberforce was a politician, philanthropist and an evangelical Anglican, who led the British movement to abolish the slave trade.
The evangelical revivalist Billy Graham in Duisburg, Germany, 1954
Worship service in a Universal Church of the Kingdom of God in Russia
Worship at El Lugar de Su Presencia, affiliated with Hillsong Family, in Bogotá, in Colombia, 2019
Temple of Solomon replica built by the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God in São Paulo
American pastor Johannes Maas preaching in Andhra Pradesh, India in 1974. Spreading the revival is an essential part of work done by evangelical missionaries.
Evangelical Free Church at Kirkkokatu street in Vanhatulli neighbourhood in Oulu, Finland
TheCall rally in 2008, Washington, D.C. United States Capitol in the background.
Socially conservative evangelical Protestantism plays a major role in the Bible Belt, an area covering almost all of the Southern United States. Evangelicals form a majority in the region.
Emergency food distribution in a disaster area in Indonesia by World Vision International, in 2009.

The United States has the largest proportion of evangelicals in the world.

Abolitionism in the United States

Active from the late colonial era until the American Civil War, the end of which brought about the abolition of American slavery through the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution .

Collection box for the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, circa 1850.
Thones Kunders's house at 5109 Germantown Avenue, where the 1688 Germantown Quaker Petition Against Slavery was written.
Samuel Sewall (1652–1730), judge who wrote The Selling of Joseph (1700) which denounced the spread of slavery in the American colonies.
Benjamin Kent, lawyer that freed a slave in America (1766)
Thomas Paine's 1775 article "African Slavery in America" was one of the first to advocate abolishing slavery and freeing slaves.
An animation showing when states and territories forbade or admitted slavery 1789–1861
Wm. Lloyd Garrison (1805–1879), publisher of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Wood engraving of proslavery riot in Alton, Illinois, on 7 November 1837, which resulted in the murder of abolitionist Elijah Parish Lovejoy (1802–1837).
Lysander Spooner (1808–1887), an individualist anarchist who wrote The Unconstitutionality of Slavery (1845).
Idealized portrait of John Brown being adored by an enslaved mother and child as he walks to his execution.
Frederick Douglass (1818–1895), a former slave whose memoirs, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave (1845) and My Bondage and My Freedom (1855), became bestsellers, which aided the cause of abolition.
Charles Turner Torrey, c. 1840, from Memoir of Rev. Charles T. Torrey, Joseph P. Lovejoy, ed. (Boston: John P. Jewett & Co.), 1847
Uncle Tom's Cabin inflamed public opinion in the North and Europe against the personified evils of slavery.
This Democratic editorial cartoon links Republican candidate John Frémont (far right) to temperance, feminism, Fourierism, free love, Catholicism, and abolition.
John Brown (1800–1859), abolitionist who advocated armed rebellion by slaves. He slaughtered pro-slavery settlers in Kansas and in 1859 was hanged by the state of Virginia for leading an unsuccessful slave insurrection at Harpers Ferry.
This photo of Gordon was widely distributed by abolitionists.
Wilson Chinn, a branded slave from Louisiana--became one of the most widely circulated photos of the abolitionist movement during the American Civil War
John Jay (1745–1829), a founder of the New York Manumission Society in 1785
This anti-slavery map shows the slave states in black, with black-and-white shading representing the threatened spread of slavery into Texas and the western territories.
Officers and men of the Irish-Catholic 69th New York Volunteer Regiment attend Catholic services in 1861.
Like many Quakers, Lucretia Mott considered slavery an evil to be opposed.
Plaque commemorating the founding of the Female Anti-Slavery Society in Philadelphia in 1833
Burning of Pennsylvania Hall, home of the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society. Print by John Caspar Wild. Note firemen spraying water on adjacent building.
Henry Clay (1777–1852), one of the three founders of the American Colonization Society.

Before the Revolutionary War, evangelical colonists were the primary advocates for the opposition to slavery and the slave trade, doing so on humanitarian grounds.

Mainline Protestant

A minister presides over Communion Sunday service in a United Methodist Church, a typical mainline Protestant denomination and one of the "Seven Sisters of American Protestantism".
Washington National Cathedral, an Episcopal cathedral in Washington, D.C.
A Congregational church of the United Church of Christ denomination in Farmington, Connecticut
Augustana Lutheran Church in Washington, D.C belonging to the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
Harvard College, a favorite choice of American upper classes. Having a college degree is common among Episcopalians and Presbyterians.
Forest Hills, Queens in New York City area is an affluent area with a population of wealthy mainline Protestants
Old Ship Church, an old Puritan meetinghouse currently used by a Unitarian Universalist congregation
Lady Chapel in Church of the Good Shepherd, a 19th-Century Anglo-Catholic Episcopal Church in Pennsylvania

The mainline Protestant churches (also called mainstream Protestant and sometimes oldline Protestant) are a group of Protestant denominations in the United States that contrast in history and practice with evangelical, fundamentalist, and charismatic Protestant denominations.

Biblical inerrancy

Belief that the Bible " is without error or fault in all its teaching"; or, at least, that "Scripture in the original manuscripts does not affirm anything that is contrary to fact".

A Venn diagram illustrating the traditional definition of knowledge as justified true belief (represented by the yellow circle). The Gettier problem gives us reason to think that not all justified true beliefs constitute knowledge.

Inerrancy has been much more of an issue in American evangelicalism than in British evangelicalism.

National Association of Evangelicals

Association of evangelical denominations, organizations, schools, churches and individuals, member of the World Evangelical Alliance.

The mission of the NAE is to honor God by connecting and representing evangelicals in the United States.

Christian right

The Christian right, or the religious right, are Christian political factions that are characterized by their strong support of socially conservative and traditionalist policies.

Jerry Falwell, whose founding of the Moral Majority was a key step in the formation of the "New Christian Right"
Demonstrators at the 2004 March for Life in Washington, D.C.
Focus on the Family's Visitor's Welcome Center in Colorado Springs, Colorado
Jerry Falwell Jr. and Donald Trump at Liberty University

In the United States, the Christian right is an informal coalition formed around a core of largely conservative evangelical Protestants and Roman Catholics.

Protestantism in the United States

Largest grouping of Christians in the United States, with its combined denominations collectively comprising about 43% of the country's population in 2019.

The Early Puritans of New England Going to Church by George Henry Boughton (1867)
Chart showing dynamics of three main religious categories in the United States between 1972 and 2010.
Evangelical Lutheran Church (Frederick, Maryland) (1752)

Protestants are divided into many different denominations, which are generally classified as either "mainline" or "evangelical", although some may not fit easily into either category.

Republican Party (United States)

One of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with its main historic rival, the Democratic Party.

Abraham Lincoln, 16th president of the United States (1861–1865) and the first Republican to hold the office
Charles R. Jennison, an anti-slavery militia leader associated with the Jayhawkers from Kansas and an early Republican politician in the region
Ulysses S. Grant, 18th president of the United States (1869–1877)
James G. Blaine, 28th & 31st Secretary of State (1881; 1889–1892)
William McKinley, 25th president of the United States (1897–1901)
Theodore Roosevelt, 26th president of the United States (1901–1909)
Herbert Hoover, 31st president of the United States (1929–1933)
Ronald Reagan, 40th president of the United States (1981–1989)
Donald Trump, 45th president of the United States (2017–2021)
Calvin Coolidge, 30th president of the United States (1923–1929)
Arnold Schwarzenegger, 38th governor of California (2003–2011)
John McCain, United States senator from Arizona (1987–2018)
Donald Rumsfeld, 21st United States Secretary of Defense (2001–2006)
Colin Powell, 65th United States Secretary of State (2001–2005)
Newt Gingrich, 50th Speaker of the House of Representatives (1995–1999)
Annual population growth in the U.S. by county - 2010s
This map shows the vote in the 2020 presidential election by county.
Political Spectrum Libertarian Left    Centrist   Right  Authoritarian
U.S. opinion on gun control issues is deeply divided along political lines, as shown in this 2021 survey.

In the 21st century, the demographic base skews toward men, people living in rural areas, people living in the South, and white Americans, particularly white evangelical Christians.

Congregationalism in the United States

Congregationalism in the United States consists of Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition that have a congregational form of church government and trace their origins mainly to Puritan settlers of colonial New England.

The steeple of North Church, a historic Congregational church in Portsmouth, New Hampshire
Pilgrims Going to Church by George Henry Boughton (1867)
Recreation of Plymouth's fort and first church meeting house at Plimoth Plantation
The Old Ship Church, a Puritan meetinghouse in Hingham, Massachusetts. The plain style reflects the Calvinist values of the Puritans.
Campus of Harvard University, ca. 1821-1823
Old South Meeting House, one of the churches where George Whitefield preached while in Boston in 1740.
Portrait of Jonathan Edwards, revivalist and theologian
Charles Chauncy was an influential liberal theologian and opponent of New Light revivalism.
The Congregational Church of Austinburg, organized in 1801, is the second oldest Congregational church in Ohio and the oldest in the Western Reserve. The current building dates to 1877.
Kawaiahaʻo Church, known as the "Westminster Abbey of Hawaii."
Revivalist and social reformer Lyman Beecher served both Congregational and Presbyterian churches during his ministry.
Park Street Church in Boston, c. 1890
Allin Congregational Church, built in 1819, lost the Dedham case.
Andover Theological Seminary, established in 1807
United Congregational Church in Newport, Rhode Island
Coral Gables Congregational Church in Florida

The Congregational tradition has shaped both mainline and evangelical Protestantism in the United States.

Baptists in the United States

Baptists in the United States make up a large number of all Baptists worldwide.

In 1636 Roger Williams founded the First Baptist Church in America in Providence, Rhode Island. It remains the first and oldest congregation in the United States. The meeting house dates from 1775
An 1831 slave rebellion was led by Nat Turner, a Baptist preacher operating out of a hush harbor.
The First Baptist Church of Providence, Rhode Island founded in 1639.
The First African Baptist Church of Savannah is one of the oldest Black Baptist congregations in the United States.
The Six Principle Baptist Church meeting house (also known as "Stony Lane Baptist") in Rhode Island is possibly the oldest surviving Baptist church building in the U.S.. It was built in 1703, but largely renovated later in Greek Revival style.
Brown University was founded as a Baptist institution, but later secularized.

Baptists make up a significant portion of evangelicals in the United States (although many Baptist groups are classified as mainline) and approximately one third of all Protestants in the United States.