Evangelista Torricelli

TorricelliTorricelli, EvangelistaTorricellianJose SanjurjoMercury barometer, credited to TorricelliThe barometerTorricellian method
Evangelista Torricelli (, ; 15 October 160825 October 1647) was an Italian physicist and mathematician, best known for his invention of the barometer, but is also known for his advances in optics and work on the method of indivisibles.wikipedia
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Barometer

barometricaneroid barometerbarometers
Evangelista Torricelli (, ; 15 October 160825 October 1647) was an Italian physicist and mathematician, best known for his invention of the barometer, but is also known for his advances in optics and work on the method of indivisibles.
Although Evangelista Torricelli is universally credited with inventing the barometer in 1643, historical documentation also suggests Gasparo Berti, an Italian mathematician and astronomer, unintentionally built a water barometer sometime between 1640 and 1643.

Italians

ItalianItalian descentItaly
Evangelista Torricelli (, ; 15 October 160825 October 1647) was an Italian physicist and mathematician, best known for his invention of the barometer, but is also known for his advances in optics and work on the method of indivisibles.
Other prominent physicists and scientists include: Amedeo Avogadro (most noted for his contributions to molecular theory, in particular Avogadro's law and the Avogadro constant), Giulio Natta (the inventor of the first catalyst for the production of isotactic propylene and among the fathers of macromolecular chemistry, for which he won the Nobel prize for chemistry along with Karl Ziegler), Evangelista Torricelli (inventor of the barometer), Alessandro Volta (inventor of the electric battery), Guglielmo Marconi (inventor of radio), Antonio Meucci (known for developing a voice-communication apparatus, often credited as the inventor of the first telephone before even Alexander Graham Bell), Galileo Ferraris (one of the pioneers of AC power system, invented the first induction motor), Ettore Majorana (who discovered the Majorana fermions), and Carlo Rubbia (1984 Nobel Prize in Physics for work leading to the discovery of the W and Z particles at CERN).

Sapienza University of Rome

University of RomeRomeLa Sapienza
The uncle then sent Torricelli to Rome to study science under the Benedictine monk Benedetto Castelli, professor of mathematics at the Collegio della Sapienza (now known as the Sapienza University of Rome).

Antonio Nardi

It was in Rome that Torricelli also became friends with two other students of Castelli, Raffaello Magiotti and Antonio Nardi.
Antonio Nardi (1598-1648?) was a Tuscan man of letters known for his geometrical work with Galileo Galilei and his disciples, Michelangelo Ricci and Evangelista Torricelli.

Cavalieri's principle

method of indivisiblesindivisiblesa similar method
Evangelista Torricelli (, ; 15 October 160825 October 1647) was an Italian physicist and mathematician, best known for his invention of the barometer, but is also known for his advances in optics and work on the method of indivisibles.
The transition from Cavalieri's indivisibles to Evangelista Torricelli's and John Wallis's infinitesimals was a major advance in the history of the calculus.

Cycloid

cycloidalCycloidal pendulum
In this role he solved some of the great mathematical problems of the day, such as finding a cycloid's area and center of gravity.
According to his student Evangelista Torricelli, in 1599 Galileo attempted the quadrature of the cycloid (constructing a square with area equal to the area under the cycloid) with an unusually empirical approach that involved tracing both the generating circle and the resulting cycloid on sheet metal, cutting them out and weighing them.

Benedetto Castelli

CastelliCastelli, Benedetto
The uncle then sent Torricelli to Rome to study science under the Benedictine monk Benedetto Castelli, professor of mathematics at the Collegio della Sapienza (now known as the Sapienza University of Rome).
His students included Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, Raffaello Magiotti, Antonio Nardi, and Evangelista Torricelli, the inventor of the barometer and an early proponent of the air pump.

Michelangelo Ricci

Ricci, Michelangelo
On 11 June 1644, he famously wrote in a letter to Michelangelo Ricci:
He was a friend of Evangelista Torricelli, kept close links with contemporary scientific culture, and played an important role in the development of the Galilean school.

Vincenzo Viviani

VivianiViviani, Vincenzo
"Belonging to that first period are his pamphlets on Solidi spherali, Contatti and the major part of thepropositions and sundry problems which were gathered together by Viviani after Torricelli's death. This early work owes much to the study of the classics."
He was a pupil of Torricelli and a disciple of Galileo.

Vacuum

free spaceevacuatedhigh vacuum
The column of mercury fell to about 76 cm, leaving a Torricellian vacuum above. The torr, a unit of pressure used in vacuum measurements, is named after him.
Evangelista Torricelli produced the first laboratory vacuum in 1643, and other experimental techniques were developed as a result of his theories of atmospheric pressure.

Torricelli's law

Torricelli also discovered Torricelli's law, regarding the speed of a fluid flowing out of an opening, which was later shown to be a particular case of Bernoulli's principle.
The law was discovered (though not in this form) by the Italian scientist Evangelista Torricelli, in 1643.

Bonaventura Cavalieri

CavalieriCavalieri, Bonaventura
While living in Rome, Torricelli became also the student of the mathematician Bonaventura Cavalieri, with whom he became great friends.
Evangelista Torricelli

Torr

mmHgmm Hgmillimeters of mercury
The torr, a unit of pressure used in vacuum measurements, is named after him.
The unit was named after Evangelista Torricelli, an Italian physicist and mathematician who discovered the principle of the barometer in 1644.

Gilles de Roberval

RobervalGilles Personne de Robervalde Roberval, Gilles
However his work on the cycloid involved him in a controversy with Gilles de Roberval, who accused him of plagiarizing his earlier solution of the problem of its quadrature.
To these curves, which were also applied to effect some quadratures, Evangelista Torricelli gave the name "Robervallian lines."

René Descartes

DescartesCartesianDescartes, René
"12 years before Torricelli's observations, Descartes, the French philosopher, had made the same observation, although he does not appear to have turned it to any account."
There, Chanut and Descartes made observations with a Torricellian barometer, a tube with mercury.

Blaise Pascal

PascalPascal, Blaise Pascal, Blaise
Blaise Pascal
Pascal's earliest work was in the natural and applied sciences where he made important contributions to the study of fluids, and clarified the concepts of pressure and vacuum by generalising the work of Evangelista Torricelli.

Fermat point

FermatFermat-Torricelli pointsTorricelli–Fermat point
Torricelli–Fermat point
It is so named because this problem is first raised by Fermat in a private letter to Evangelista Torricelli, who solved it.

Torricelli's equation

Torricelli's equation
In physics, Torricelli's equation, or Torricelli's formula, is an equation created by Evangelista Torricelli to find the final velocity of an object moving with a constant acceleration along an axis (for example, the x axis) without having a known time interval.

Gabriel's Horn

Torricelli is also famous for the discovery of the Torricelli's trumpet (also - perhaps more often - known as Gabriel's Horn) whose surface area is infinite, but whose volume is finite.
The properties of this figure were first studied by Italian physicist and mathematician Evangelista Torricelli in the 17th century.

Florence

FlorentineFirenzeFlorence, Italy
As a result, he designed and built a number of telescopes and simple microscopes; several large lenses, engraved with his name, are still preserved in Florence.
Evangelista Torricelli, Italian physicist

Stefano degli Angeli

degli Angeli, Stefano
Stefano degli Angeli
From 1654 to 1667 he devoted himself to the study of geometry, continuing the research of Cavalieri and Evangelista Torricelli based on the method of Indivisibles.

Archimede-class submarine

ArchimedeArchimede'' classArchimede''-class
An Archimede class submarine (1934), transferred to Spain in 1937 and renamed General Mola, stricken in 1959

Parabola of safety

Parabola of safety
The fact that this envelope is a parabola had been first established by Evangelista Torricelli and was later reproven by Johann Bernoulli using the infinitesimal calculus methods of Leibniz.

Gasparo Berti

Berti, Gasparo
Gasparo Berti
This experiment led to Evangelista Torricelli's research into the weight of air and his invention of the barometer.

Brin-class submarine

TorricelliBrinBrin'' class
A Benedetto Brin class submarine (1937), sank in the Red Sea due to the British Navy in 1940