A report on Evaporite

A cobble encrusted with halite evaporated from the Dead Sea, Israel (with Israeli ₪1 coin [diameter 18mm] for scale)
Anhydrite
Hopper crystal cast of halite in a Jurassic rock, Carmel Formation, southwestern Utah
Calcite
Hanksite, Na22K(SO4)9(CO3)2Cl, one of the few minerals that is both a carbonate and a sulfate

Water-soluble sedimentary mineral deposit that results from concentration and crystallization by evaporation from an aqueous solution.

- Evaporite
A cobble encrusted with halite evaporated from the Dead Sea, Israel (with Israeli ₪1 coin [diameter 18mm] for scale)

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Halite from the Wieliczka salt mine, Małopolskie, Poland

Halite

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Type of salt, the mineral form of sodium chloride (NaCl).

Type of salt, the mineral form of sodium chloride (NaCl).

Halite from the Wieliczka salt mine, Małopolskie, Poland
Halite cubes from the Stassfurt Potash Deposit, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany (size: 6.7 × 1.9 × 1.7 cm)
Unusual halite crystals from Faiyum, Egypt
Hopper crystal cast of halite in a Jurassic rock, Carmel Formation, Utah
Sharp halite crystals that have this green color from inclusions of malachite
Large natural crystal of halite, showing cubic crystal form
Pink color halite on a matrix covered with minute nahcolite
Halite from Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan Mine in Rocanville, Saskatchewan, Canada
Halite Bore sample, Laos

It commonly occurs with other evaporite deposit minerals such as several of the sulfates, halides, and borates.

Crystals of serandite, natrolite, analcime, and aegirine from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec, Canada

Mineral

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In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.

In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.

Crystals of serandite, natrolite, analcime, and aegirine from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec, Canada
Schist is a metamorphic rock characterized by an abundance of platy minerals. In this example, the rock has prominent sillimanite porphyroblasts as large as 3 cm.
Hübnerite, the manganese-rich end-member of the wolframite series, with minor quartz in the background
When minerals react, the products will sometimes assume the shape of the reagent; the product mineral is termed a pseudomorph of (or after) the reagent. Illustrated here is a pseudomorph of kaolinite after orthoclase. Here, the pseudomorph preserved the Carlsbad twinning common in orthoclase.
Topaz has a characteristic orthorhombic elongated crystal shape.
Contact twins, as seen in spinel
Diamond is the hardest natural material, and has a Mohs hardness of 10.
Pyrite has a metallic lustre.
Perfect basal cleavage as seen in biotite (black), and good cleavage seen in the matrix (pink orthoclase).
Galena, PbS, is a mineral with a high specific gravity.
Carnotite (yellow) is a radioactive uranium-bearing mineral.
Aegirine, an iron-sodium clinopyroxene, is part of the inosilicate subclass.
Natrolite is a mineral series in the zeolite group; this sample has a very prominent acicular crystal habit.
Muscovite, a mineral species in the mica group, within the phyllosilicate subclass
Asbestiform tremolite, part of the amphibole group in the inosilicate subclass
An example of elbaite, a species of tourmaline, with distinctive colour banding.
Epidote often has a distinctive pistachio-green colour.
Black andradite, an end-member of the orthosilicate garnet group.
Native gold. Rare specimen of stout crystals growing off of a central stalk, size 3.7 x 1.1 x 0.4 cm, from Venezuela.
Red cinnabar (HgS), a mercury ore, on dolomite.
Sphalerite crystal partially encased in calcite from the Devonian Milwaukee Formation of Wisconsin
Pink cubic halite (NaCl; halide class) crystals on a nahcolite matrix (NaHCO3; a carbonate, and mineral form of sodium bicarbonate, used as baking soda).
Gypsum desert rose

Halite and sylvite commonly form as evaporites, and can be dominant minerals in chemical sedimentary rocks.

Сarnallite crystals

Carnallite

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Сarnallite crystals
Carnallite from Russia

Carnallite (also carnalite) is an evaporite mineral, a hydrated potassium magnesium chloride with formula KMgCl3·6(H2O).

Middle Triassic marginal marine sequence of siltstones (reddish layers at the cliff base) and limestones (brown rocks above), Virgin Formation, southwestern Utah, U.S.

Sedimentary rock

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Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic particles at Earth's surface, followed by cementation.

Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic particles at Earth's surface, followed by cementation.

Middle Triassic marginal marine sequence of siltstones (reddish layers at the cliff base) and limestones (brown rocks above), Virgin Formation, southwestern Utah, U.S.
Uluru (Ayers Rock) is a large sandstone formation in Northern Territory, Australia.
Claystone deposited in Glacial Lake Missoula, Montana, United States. Note the very fine and flat bedding, common for deposits coming from lake beds further away from the source of sediment.
Sedimentary rock with sandstone in Malta
Lower Antelope Canyon was carved out of the surrounding sandstone by both mechanical weathering and chemical weathering. Wind, sand, and water from flash flooding are the primary weathering agents.
Outcrop of Ordovician oil shale (kukersite), northern Estonia
Fossils of Nerinea marine gastropods of Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) age, in limestone in Lebanon
Cross-bedding and scour in a fine sandstone; the Logan Formation (Mississippian) of Jackson County, Ohio
Pressure solution at work in a clastic rock. While material dissolves at places where grains are in contact, that material may recrystallize from the solution and act as cement in open pore spaces. As a result, there is a net flow of material from areas under high stress to those under low stress, producing a sedimentary rock that is harder and more compact. Loose sand can become sandstone in this way.
A piece of a banded iron formation, a type of rock that consists of alternating layers with iron(III) oxide (red) and iron(II) oxide (grey). BIFs were mostly formed during the Precambrian, when the atmosphere was not yet rich in oxygen. Moodies Group, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa
Diagram showing well-sorted (left) and poorly sorted (right) grains
Diagram showing the rounding and sphericity of grains
Global collage of sand samples. There is one square centimeter of sand on every sample photo. Sand samples row by row from left to right: 1. Glass sand from Kauai, Hawaii 2. Dune sand from the Gobi Desert 3. Quartz sand with green glauconite from Estonia 4. Volcanic sand with reddish weathered basalt from Maui, Hawaii 5. Biogenic coral sand from Molokai, Hawaii 6. Coral pink sand dunes from Utah 7. Volcanic glass sand from California 8. Garnet sand from Emerald Creek, Idaho 9. Olivine sand from Papakolea, Hawaii.
Fossil-rich layers in a sedimentary rock, Año Nuevo State Reserve, California
Burrows in a turbidite, made by crustaceans, San Vincente Formation (early Eocene) of the Ainsa Basin, southern foreland of the Pyrenees
Cross-bedding in a fluviatile sandstone, Middle Old Red Sandstone (Devonian) on Bressay, Shetland Islands
Flute casts, a type of sole marking on the base of a vertical layer of Triassic sandstone in Spain
Ripple marks formed by a current in a sandstone that was later tilted (Haßberge, Bavaria)
Halite crystal mold in dolomite, Paadla Formation (Silurian), Saaremaa, Estonia
Chert concretions in chalk, Middle Lefkara Formation (upper Paleocene to middle Eocene), Cyprus
Common types of depositional environments
The swirls of tan, green, blue, and white are sediment in the shallow waters of the Gulf of Mexico off the Yucatan Peninsula. The blue-green cloud in this image roughly matches the extent of the shallow continental shelf west of the peninsula. This is a perfect example of a shallow marine depositional environment.
Shifting sedimentary facies in the case of transgression (above) and regression of the sea (below)
Plate tectonics diagram showing convergence of an oceanic plate and a continental plate. Note the back-arc basin, forearc basin, and oceanic basin.
Cyclic alternation of competent and less competent beds in the Blue Lias at Lyme Regis, southern England
The Permian through Jurassic stratigraphy of the Colorado Plateau area of southeastern Utah that makes up much of the famous prominent rock formations in protected areas such as Capitol Reef National Park and Canyonlands National Park. From top to bottom: Rounded tan domes of the Navajo Sandstone, layered red Kayenta Formation, cliff-forming, vertically jointed, red Wingate Sandstone, slope-forming, purplish Chinle Formation, layered, lighter-red Moenkopi Formation, and white, layered Cutler Formation sandstone. Picture from Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Utah.
Distribution of detritus
Sedimentary rocks on Mars, investigated by NASA's Curiosity Mars rover
Steeply dipping sedimentary rock strata along the Chalous Road in northern Iran
Stratified remains of Puʻu Mahana cinder cone.
A regressive facies shown on a stratigraphic column

Common chemical sedimentary rocks include oolitic limestone and rocks composed of evaporite minerals, such as halite (rock salt), sylvite, baryte and gypsum.

Anhydrite, Chihuahua, Mexico

Anhydrite

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Mineral with the chemical formula CaSO4.

Mineral with the chemical formula CaSO4.

Anhydrite, Chihuahua, Mexico
Crystal structure of anhydrite
Relief carving of an anhydrite kiln, made from a piece of anhydrite, by Ophelia Gordon Bell

Anhydrite is most frequently found in evaporite deposits with gypsum; it was, for instance, first discovered in 1794 in a salt mine near Hall in Tirol.

Gypsum

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Soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4*2H2O.

Soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4*2H2O.

Gypsum crystals are soft enough to bend under pressure of the hand. Sample on display at Musée cantonal de géologie de Lausanne.
Gypsum works, Valencian Museum of Ethnology
Map of gypsum deposits in northern Ohio, black squares indicate the location of deposits, from "Geography of Ohio", 1923
Gypsum crystals in the Cave of the Crystals in Mexico (person at lower right for scale)
Gypsum crystals formed as the water evaporated in Lake Lucero, White Sands National Park
Gypsum veins in the silts/marls of the Tea Green and Grey Marls, Blue Anchor, Somerset, United Kingdom
Gypsum veins in Caprock Canyons State Park and Trailway, Texas
Dunes made of small crystals of gypsum, White Sands National Park
Golden gypsum crystals from Winnipeg
Gypsum sand from White Sands National Park, New Mexico
Green gypsum crystals from Pernatty Lagoon, Mt Gunson, South Australia - its green color is due to presence of copper ions.
Unusual selenite gypsum from the Red River, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
Classic "ram's horn" gypsum from Santa Eulalia, Chihuahua, Mexico, 7.5×4.3×3.8 cm
Desert rose, 47 cm long
Gypsum from Pernatty Lagoon, Mt Gunson, Stuart Shelf area, Andamooka Ranges - Lake Torrens area, South Australia, Australia
Gypsum with crystalline native copper inside
Gypsum from Swan Hill, Victoria, Australia. The coloring is due to the copper oxide
Waterclear twined crystal of the form known as "Roman sword". Fuentes de Ebro, Zaragoza (Spain)
Bright, cherry-red gypsum crystals 2.5 cm in height colored by rich inclusions of the rare mineral botryogen
Gypsum from Naica, Mun. de Saucillo, Chihuahua, Mexico
Golden color gem, "fishtail"-twinned crystals of gypsum sitting atop a "ball" of gypsum which is composed of several single bladed crystals

It forms as an evaporite mineral and as a hydration product of anhydrite.

Museum specimen of polyhalite and anhydrite

Polyhalite

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Museum specimen of polyhalite and anhydrite
Crystal structure of polyhalite

Polyhalite is an evaporite mineral, a hydrated sulfate of potassium, calcium and magnesium with formula: K2Ca2Mg(SO4)4*2H2O.

Kainite

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Crystal structure of kainite

Kainite ( or ) (KMg(SO4)Cl·3H2O) is an evaporite mineral in the class of "Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, with H2O" according to the Nickel–Strunz classification.

The flame test of potassium.

Potassium

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Chemical element with the symbol K and atomic number19.

Chemical element with the symbol K and atomic number19.

The flame test of potassium.
Structure of solid potassium superoxide.
Potassium in feldspar
Sir Humphry Davy
Pieces of potassium metal
Sylvite from New Mexico
Monte Kali, a potash mining and beneficiation waste heap in Hesse, Germany, consisting mostly of sodium chloride.
Potassium sulfate/magnesium sulfate fertilizer

Sylvite (KCl), carnallite, kainite and langbeinite are the minerals found in large evaporite deposits worldwide.

Triassic dolomitic rocks from Slovakia

Dolomite (rock)

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Sedimentary carbonate rock that contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2.

Sedimentary carbonate rock that contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2.

Triassic dolomitic rocks from Slovakia
Erosion of dolomite over weaker shale created the Niagara Escarpment
Trilobite fossil preserved as an internal cast in Silurian dolomite from southwestern Ohio, USA
Erosion of dolomitic rocks in Mourèze, Hérault, France

It occurs widely, often in association with limestone and evaporites, though it is less abundant than limestone and rare in Cenozoic rock beds (beds less than about 66 million years in age).