A report on Evo Morales

Morales in 2018
The Wiphala, flag of the Aymara.
MAS-IPSP partisans celebrate the 16th anniversary of the IPSP party's founding in Sacaba, Cochabamba.
Evo Morales (right) with French labor union leader José Bové in 2002
Morales with his vice presidential running mate, Álvaro García Linera, in 2005
Morales with regional allies, at the Fórum Social Mundial for Latin America: President of Paraguay Lugo, President of Brasil Lula, President of Ecuador Correa and President of Venezuela Chávez.
Morales with Brazilian President Lula
Morales and Vice President Álvaro García Linera in 2006 shining the shoes of shoeshine boys.
Morales in 2008
Morales meeting with Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in 2009
Morales at an international conference in 2012
Morales addressing Bolivia's Parliament
Morales with Iranian President Hassan Rouhani during the Third GECF summit.
The new Casa Grande del Pueblo presidential offices built by Morales in 2018
Evo Morales meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2019
The election of MAS candidate Luis Arce as Bolivia's president in 2020 facilitated Morales' return from exile
First Lady Morales with the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ecuador Ricardo Patiño.
Evo Morales in 2017

Bolivian politician, trade union organizer, and former cocalero activist who served as the 65th President of Bolivia from 2006 to 2019.

- Evo Morales
Morales in 2018

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Bolivia

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Country located in western-central South America.

Country located in western-central South America.

Puerta del Sol, Archaeological Zone of Tiwanaku, Bolivia
Fuerte Chané de Samaipata
Tiwanaku at its largest territorial extent, AD 950 (present-day boundaries shown).
Inca Expansion (1438–1533)
Casa de La Moneda, Potosí
Casa de La Libertad, Sucre
Banco Central de Bolivia, Sucre
The first coat of arms of Bolivia, formerly named the Republic of Bolívar in honor of Simón Bolívar
Bolivia's territorial losses (1867–1938)
In 1971 Hugo Banzer Suárez, supported by the CIA, forcibly ousted President Torres in a coup.
Former President, Evo Morales
2020 Bolivian general election, results by department
Inauguration of Luis Arce and David Choquehuanca on 8 November 2020
Mururata as seen from the tropical valleys of the Yungas
Laguna Colorada in the Puna de Lipez in Potosí
Topographical map of Bolivia
Satellite image of Bolivia
Bolivian Altiplano.
Sol de Mañana (Morning Sun in Spanish), a geothermal field in Eduardo Avaroa Andean Fauna National Reserve, Potosi Department, southwestern Bolivia. The area, characterized by intense volcanic activity, with sulfur spring fields and mud lakes, has indeed no geysers but rather holes that emit pressurized steam up to 50 meters high.
Bolivia map of Köppen climate classification.
Amazon river basin seen in Pando Department, Northern Bolivia
Mean annual precipitation in Bolivia
Chacaltaya Ski Resort, La Paz Department
New Executive Building of the Bolivian Government
Building of the Plurinational Legislative Assembly in central La Paz
The Supreme Court Building in the capital of Bolivia, Sucre
Government buildings in Bolivia's executive and legislative capital La Paz
Government buildings in Bolivia's judicial capital Sucre
Presidents of Bolivia, Cuba and El Salvador greet Nicolás Maduro at Maduro's second inauguration in Caracas on 10 January 2019
Serranía de Los Volcanes in Cuevas, Florida Province
View of the Capital of La Paz, or Chuqiyapumarka, from the Zona Sur
Province of Nor Yungas, near Coroico
El Palmar Nature Preserve, in northern Chuquisaca
The three FCAB units GL26C-2 2005, 2010 and GT22CU-3 2402 climb the Ascotan pass. The train is hauling lead ore from the San Cristobal mine in Bolivia to Antofagasta, Chile
Historical GDP per capita development
A proportional representation of Bolivia exports, 2019
YPFB Headquarters in El Prado, Nuestra Señora de La Paz
Boliviana de Aviación (BoA) is a state-owned company and the country's largest airline. Two BoA Boeing 737-300s parked at Jorge Wilstermann International Airport.
People in La Paz city center
Danza de los macheteros, typical dance from San Ignacio de Moxos, Bolivia
Aymara man, near Lake Titicaca, Bolivia
Church of San Lorenzo de Carangas, Potosí, mid-16th century–1744.
Bolivian children playing tarka
The Diablada, dance primeval, typical and main of Carnival of Oruro a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity since 2001 in Bolivia (File: Fraternidad Artística y Cultural "La Diablada")
Leopardus pardalis
Saimiri boliviensis
Ñandú
Lama glama
Inia boliviensis
Swietenia macrophylla
Chenopodium quinoa
Echinopsis boyuibensis
Ceiba speciosa
Handroanthus impetiginosus
Cóndor
Tucán
Phoenicopterus andinus

Under the 2006–2019 presidency of Evo Morales the country saw significant economic growth and political stability.

Official portrait, 2004

Carlos Mesa

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Bolivian historian, journalist, and politician who served as the 63rd president of Bolivia from 2003 to 2005.

Bolivian historian, journalist, and politician who served as the 63rd president of Bolivia from 2003 to 2005.

Official portrait, 2004
Mesa with his family in 1965.
Mesa, aged 18, as a student at the Complutense University of Madrid.
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Mesa served as vice president under Gonzálo Sánchez de Lozada but broke with him after the government repressions of October 2003.
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Mesa attends the funeral of Pope John Paul II, 8 April 2005.
Mesa's complex relationship with Evo Morales has been one of both cooperation and open hostility.
Presidents of Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru inaugurate a bridge connecting Brazil and Peru, 11 August 2004.
Mesa at a panel of the Global Rule of Law Exchange in São Paulo, 2016.
Cover of The Book of the Sea, coordinated by Mesa.
Annulled 2019 departmental election results.
2020 departmental election results.

Mesa assumed office with broadly popular civic support but leading a government without a party base and devoid of organic parliamentary support left him with little room to maneuver as his public policy proposals were severely restricted by the legislature—controlled by traditional parties and increasingly organized regional and social movements spearheaded by the cocalero activist and future president Evo Morales.

Movement for Socialism (Bolivia)

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MAS-IPSP partisans celebrate the 16th anniversary of the party's founding in Sacaba, Cochabamba.

The Movement for Socialism–Political Instrument for the Sovereignty of the Peoples (Movimiento al Socialismo–Instrumento Político por la Soberanía de los Pueblos, abbreviated MAS-IPSP, or simply MAS), alternately referred to as the Movement Towards Socialism or the Movement to Socialism (Movimiento al Socialismo ), is a Bolivian left-wing populist political party led by Evo Morales, founded in 1998.

2019 Bolivian general election

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General elections were held in Bolivia on 20 October 2019.

General elections were held in Bolivia on 20 October 2019.

Disputes over the transparency and legitimacy of the elections prompted weeks of widespread protests in Bolivia after incumbent President Evo Morales was declared the winner with 47.08% of the vote; because this was greater than ten-point margin over his nearest competitor, Carlos Mesa, this was enough for Morales to be announced as a winner without a run-off second-round vote.

Official portrait, 2020

Luis Arce

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Bolivian banker, economist, and politician serving as the 67th president of Bolivia since 2020.

Bolivian banker, economist, and politician serving as the 67th president of Bolivia since 2020.

Official portrait, 2020
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Official portrait, 8 November 2020.
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Arce and Fernández sign an agreement for the sale of natural gas, 7 April 2022.
Arce meets with Boric during his inauguration, Santiago, 11 March 2022,
Arce and López Obrador during his first foreign visit, Mexico City, 24 March 2021.
ALBA heads of state at a summit in Havana, 27 May 2022.
Arce holds a coca leaf, 29 June 2022.
Arce holds up newly promulgated anti-femicide legislation, 4 June 2022.

His lifelong career in banking and accounting at the Central Bank of Bolivia prompted President Evo Morales to appoint him as minister of finance in 2006.

President of Bolivia

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Head of state and head of government of Bolivia and the Captain General of the Armed Forces of Bolivia.

Head of state and head of government of Bolivia and the Captain General of the Armed Forces of Bolivia.

The Casa Grande del Pueblo is current residence of the President of Bolivia.
The Colorados of Bolivia in their traditional uniform.
Evo Morales is considered Bolivia's first indigenous president.
Lidia Gueiler Tejada was Bolivia's first female president.

The 2009 Political Constitution, approved by referendum on 25 January 2009 and promulgated by President Evo Morales on 7 February resulted in the official name of the country, leaving behind its previous denominative of Republic of Bolivia to become the Plurinational State of Bolivia.

2003 demonstrations against president Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada. "The gas is ours by right, to recover it is our duty."

Bolivian gas conflict

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Social confrontation in Bolivia reaching its peak in 2003, centering on the exploitation of the country's vast natural gas reserves.

Social confrontation in Bolivia reaching its peak in 2003, centering on the exploitation of the country's vast natural gas reserves.

2003 demonstrations against president Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada. "The gas is ours by right, to recover it is our duty."
2003 Poster for a photo exhibition of the gas war

The expression can be extended to refer to the general conflict in Bolivia over the exploitation of gas resources, thus including the 2005 protests and the election of Evo Morales as president.

Chávez in 2011

Hugo Chávez

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Venezuelan politician who was president of Venezuela from 1999 until his death in 2013, except for a brief period in 2002.

Venezuelan politician who was president of Venezuela from 1999 until his death in 2013, except for a brief period in 2002.

Chávez in 2011
Chávez as an adolescent
Chávez as a student in the military academy
Chávez while serving in the Venezuelan Army
The San Carlos military stockade, where Chávez was held following the 1992 coup attempt
Chávez speaking at an event in Buenos Aires in October 1995
A 1997 image of MBR-200 members meeting (Nicolás Maduro is seen on the far left while Chávez is seen speaking in the center)
A painted mural in support of the Fifth Republic Movement (MVR) found in Barcelona, Anzoátegui, Venezuela
Chávez when he was sworn in on 2 February 1999
Chávez's second term in office saw the implementation of social missions, such as this one to eliminate illiteracy in Venezuela
Chávez visiting the USS Yorktown, a U.S. Navy ship docked at Curaçao in the Netherlands Antilles, in 2002
A 2004 rally against Chávez in Caracas, demanding his removal from the presidency
Chavez in Brazil 2008
Hundreds of thousands of Venezuelans during the 2007 Venezuelan protests demonstrating against Chávez's proposed constitutional referendum
The logo for the PSUV, Chávez's socialist political party founded in 2007 succeeding the Fifth Republic Movement
Chávez (far right) with fellow Latin American leftist presidents in 2009 (from left to right: Paraguay's Fernando Lugo, Bolivia's Evo Morales, Brazil's Lula da Silva and Ecuador's Rafael Correa)
Chávez in June 2012
19th century general and politician Simón Bolívar provided a basis for Chávez's political ideas
Historical crude oil prices, including the period of the Chávez administration (1998–2013).
The blue line represents annual rates <p style="color:#f00;"> The red line represents trends of annual rates given throughout the period shown GDP is in billions of Local Currency Unit that has been adjusted for inflation
Sources: International Monetary Fund, World Bank
Shoppers waiting in line at a government-run MERCAL store
Blue line represents implied value of VEF compared to USD <p style="color:#f00;"> The red line represents what the Venezuelan government officially rates the VEF
Sources: Banco Central de Venezuela, Dolar Paralelo, Federal Reserve Bank, International Monetary Fund
Murder rate (1 murder per 100,000 citizens) from 1998 to 2018 Sources: OVV, PROVEA, UN 
* UN line between 2007 and 2012 is simulated missing data
Number of kidnappings in Venezuela 1989–2011
Source: CICPC 
* Express kidnappings may not be included in data
Chávez voting in December 2007
Venezuela's perception of corruption scores between 2004 and 2013
( * ) Score was averaged according to Transparency International's method.
Source: Transparency International
Raúl Reyes
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Chávez meets with Secretary of State Clinton at the Summit of the Americas on 19 April 2009
Venezuelans protesting against the closing of RCTV
Chávez with fellow South American presidents of Argentina and Brazil
Bolivarian memorabilia for sale in Venezuela, 2006
Chávez walking with a cane accompanied by Rafael Correa in Caracas in July 2011, shortly after his first cancer surgery
With Dilma Rousseff in Caracas, 1 December 2011
Mausoleum of Hugo Chávez in Caracas

Internationally, Chávez aligned himself with the Marxist–Leninist governments of Fidel and then Raúl Castro in Cuba, as well as the socialist governments of Evo Morales in Bolivia, Rafael Correa in Ecuador and Daniel Ortega in Nicaragua.

Jeanine Áñez, pictured here in 2016, was the next in the line of succession and became interim president

2019 Bolivian political crisis

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Jeanine Áñez, pictured here in 2016, was the next in the line of succession and became interim president
A demonstration in support of Morales in El Alto on 11 November 2019

The 2019 Bolivian political crisis occurred on 10 November 2019, after 21 days of civil protests following the disputed 2019 Bolivian general election in which incumbent President Evo Morales was initially declared the winner.

La Paz

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Seat of government as well as the legislative and executive capital of the Plurinational State of Bolivia.

Seat of government as well as the legislative and executive capital of the Plurinational State of Bolivia.

Calle Jaén in the historic center of La Paz.
Government Palace of Bolivia in downtown La Paz
Legislative Palace of Bolivia
The city in winter, with Illimani in the background.
Valle de la Luna ("moon valley")
A hazy and warm day in the dry season Sopocachi.
Buildings in San Jorge, on the 1st District (Cotahuma).
San Jorge, a bustling and modern neighborhood, has the highest HDI of the country.
La Paz skyline from the "Via Balcón".
The Southern District is one of the most affluent neighborhoods in La Paz.
Palace of Justice in central La Paz.
Municipal Theatre of La Paz.
Central Bank building
Estadio Hernando Siles
Tiwanaku Square in front of the football stadium
Small effigy of a Tiwanacan Puma, National Museum of Archeology
Metropolitan Cathedral
San Francisco Church
Avenida Kantutani.
El Alto International Airport
Mariscal Santa Cruz Avenue, La Paz
Bus Station
Daniel Nuñez del Prado 1865
Plaza Murillo with Government and Legislative Palaces in the background
Titicaca Lake near La Paz with the Andes in the background
Calle Jaén.
Downtown La Paz view.
La Paz, Bolivia
La Paz, Bolivia
La Paz, Bolivia
The Hernando Siles Stadium
The Basilica of San Francisco, built in 1743
The La Paz Bus Station

The region in which La Paz is located in was known as Chuquiago Marka (marka means village; Chuqi Yapu means 'gold farm', probably due to the exploitation of gold nuggets in the small rivers of the place; spelling differences due to Aymara writing compared to Spanish transliteration) in the Aymara language, leading former President of Bolivia Evo Morales to suggest renaming the city to "Chuquiago Marka" in a speech in 2017.