Evolutionary biology

evolutionary biologistevolutionary biologistsevolutionaryevolutionreversionevolutionary studies Evolutionary biologistsevolutionarily derivedevolutionary biologists,evolutionary geneticist
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes (natural selection, common descent, speciation) that produced the diversity of life on Earth.wikipedia
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Common descent

common ancestorcommon ancestryapical ancestor
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes (natural selection, common descent, speciation) that produced the diversity of life on Earth.
Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.

Julian Huxley

Sir Julian HuxleyJulian Sorell HuxleyJulian S. Huxley
In the 1930s, the discipline of evolutionary biology emerged through what Julian Huxley called the modern synthesis of understanding, from previously unrelated fields of biological research, such as genetics and ecology, systematics and paleontology.
Sir Julian Sorell Huxley (22 June 1887 – 14 February 1975) was a British evolutionary biologist, eugenicist, and internationalist.

Evolution

evolvedtheory of evolutionevolutionary
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes (natural selection, common descent, speciation) that produced the diversity of life on Earth.
Evolutionary biologists have continued to study various aspects of evolution by forming and testing hypotheses as well as constructing theories based on evidence from the field or laboratory and on data generated by the methods of mathematical and theoretical biology.

Ecology

ecologicalecologistecologically
In the 1930s, the discipline of evolutionary biology emerged through what Julian Huxley called the modern synthesis of understanding, from previously unrelated fields of biological research, such as genetics and ecology, systematics and paleontology. An evolutionary approach is key to much current research in organismal biology and ecology, such as in life history theory.

Molecular evolution

chemical evolutionprotein evolutionevolution
The investigational range of current research widened to encompass the genetic architecture of adaptation, molecular evolution, and the different forces that contribute to evolution, such as sexual selection, genetic drift, and biogeography.
The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.

Evolutionary developmental biology

evo-devoevolutionary developmental biologistevolutionary development
Moreover, the newer field of evolutionary developmental biology ("evo-devo") investigates how embryogenesis, the development of the embryo is controlled, thus yielding a wider synthesis that integrates developmental biology with the fields of study covered by the earlier evolutionary synthesis. These alternative ways of dividing up the subject can be combined with evolutionary biology to create subfields like evolutionary ecology and evolutionary developmental biology.
The field is characterised by some key concepts which took evolutionary biologists by surprise.

Biogeography

biogeographicbiogeographicalbiogeographically
The investigational range of current research widened to encompass the genetic architecture of adaptation, molecular evolution, and the different forces that contribute to evolution, such as sexual selection, genetic drift, and biogeography.
Biogeography is an integrative field of inquiry that unites concepts and information from ecology, evolutionary biology, geology, and physical geography.

Sexual selection

sexually selectedmale-male competitionintrasexual selection
The investigational range of current research widened to encompass the genetic architecture of adaptation, molecular evolution, and the different forces that contribute to evolution, such as sexual selection, genetic drift, and biogeography.
Ronald Fisher, the English statistician and evolutionary biologist developed a number of ideas about sexual selection in his 1930 book The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection including the sexy son hypothesis and Fisher's principle.

Population biology

populationpopulationsPopulation biologist
One way is by the level of biological organisation, from molecular to cell, organism to population.
Population biology is an interdisciplinary field combining the areas of ecology and evolutionary biology.

Evolutionary ecology

evolutionary ecologistEco-evolutionecoevolution
These alternative ways of dividing up the subject can be combined with evolutionary biology to create subfields like evolutionary ecology and evolutionary developmental biology.
Evolutionary ecology lies at the intersection of ecology and evolutionary biology.

Evolutionary economics

evolutionaryeconomic evolutionevolutionary manner
More recently, the merge between the biological science and applied sciences gave birth to new fields that are extensions of evolutionary biology, such as evolutionary robotics, engineering, algorithms, economics, and architecture.
Evolutionary economics is part of mainstream economics as well as a heterodox school of economic thought that is inspired by evolutionary biology.

Molecular biology

molecular biologistmolecularmolecular microbiology
One way is by the level of biological organisation, from molecular to cell, organism to population.
Increasingly many other areas of biology intersecting with molecular Biology, focus on molecules, either directly studying interactions in their own right such as in cell biology and developmental biology, or indirectly, where molecular techniques are used to infer historical attributes of populations or species, as in fields in evolutionary biology such as population genetics and phylogenetics.

Biology

biologicalBiological Sciencesbiologist
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes (natural selection, common descent, speciation) that produced the diversity of life on Earth.
Evolutionary research is concerned with the origin and descent of species, and their change over time.

Theodosius Dobzhansky

DobzhanskyDobzhansky, TheodosiusT. Dobzhansky
Theodosius Dobzhansky and E. B. Ford established an empirical research programme.
Theodosius Grygorovych Dobzhansky (Теодо́сій Григо́рович Добжа́нський; Феодо́сий Григо́рьевич Добржа́нский; January 25, 1900 – December 18, 1975) was a prominent Ukrainian-American geneticist and evolutionary biologist, and a central figure in the field of evolutionary biology for his work in shaping the modern synthesis.

Zoology

zoologistzoologicalzoologists
An earlier way is by perceived taxonomic group, with fields such as zoology, botany, and microbiology, reflecting what were once seen as the major divisions of life.
In the early 20th century, the rediscovery of Mendel's work led to the rapid development of genetics, and by the 1930s the combination of population genetics and natural selection in the modern synthesis created evolutionary biology.

G. Ledyard Stebbins

StebbinsGeorge Ledyard StebbinsLedyard Stebbins
Ernst Mayr in systematics, George Gaylord Simpson in paleontology and G. Ledyard Stebbins in botany helped to form the modern synthesis.
George Ledyard Stebbins Jr. (January 6, 1906 – January 19, 2000) was an American botanist and geneticist who is widely regarded as one of the leading evolutionary biologists of the 20th century.

Richard Lewontin

Richard C. LewontinLewontinLewontin, Richard
James Crow, Richard Lewontin, Dan Hartl, Marcus Feldman, and Brian Charlesworth trained a generation of evolutionary biologists.
Richard Charles "Dick" Lewontin (born March 29, 1929) is an American evolutionary biologist, mathematician, geneticist, and social commentator.

Natural selection

selectionselectiveselected
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes (natural selection, common descent, speciation) that produced the diversity of life on Earth.
Thus, in the last decades, the concept of natural selection has spread from evolutionary biology to other disciplines, including evolutionary computation, quantum Darwinism, evolutionary economics, evolutionary epistemology, evolutionary psychology, and cosmological natural selection.

Marcus Feldman

Marcus W. FeldmanFeldmanFeldman, Marcus
James Crow, Richard Lewontin, Dan Hartl, Marcus Feldman, and Brian Charlesworth trained a generation of evolutionary biologists.
He is an Australian-born mathematician turned American theoretical biologist, best known for his mathematical evolutionary theory and computational studies in evolutionary biology, and for originating with L. L. Cavalli-Sforza the theory of cultural evolution.

Brian Charlesworth

Brian
James Crow, Richard Lewontin, Dan Hartl, Marcus Feldman, and Brian Charlesworth trained a generation of evolutionary biologists.
Brian Charlesworth (born 29 April 1945) is a British evolutionary biologist at the University of Edinburgh, and editor of Biology Letters.

Ernst Mayr

MayrErnst W. MayrErnst Walter Mayr
Ernst Mayr in systematics, George Gaylord Simpson in paleontology and G. Ledyard Stebbins in botany helped to form the modern synthesis.
Mayr is sometimes credited with inventing modern philosophy of biology, particularly the part related to evolutionary biology, which he distinguished from physics due to its introduction of (natural) history into science.

Population genetics

population geneticistevolutionary geneticspopulation genetic
One challenge in studying genetic architecture is that the classical population genetics that catalysed the modern evolutionary synthesis must be updated to take into account modern molecular knowledge.
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.

Biological organisation

biological organizationhierarchy of lifeOrganization
One way is by the level of biological organisation, from molecular to cell, organism to population.

Life history theory

life historylife historieslife-history
An evolutionary approach is key to much current research in organismal biology and ecology, such as in life history theory.
The theory depends on principles of evolutionary biology and ecology and is widely used in other areas of science.

Experimental evolution

cold toleranceevolution experimentsexperiments
A third way is by approach, such as field biology, theoretical biology, experimental evolution, and paleontology.